eBook Physics Explained: The Britannica Guide to the Atom, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615303847
  • ISBN-13: 9781615303847
  • DDC: 539.7
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 342 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released April 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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Common to all matter and its smallest and most fundamental unit, the atom determines the properties of a substance and how it responds to other materials and stimuli. Dividing the atom further reveals several smaller particles whose activity forms the heart of nuclear physics. Readers will discover the structure of the atom as well as the ways in which its electrons, protons, and neutrons facilitate both radioactivity and nuclear reactions, both of which have been crucial to technological advancements since the 20th century.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: The Atom: Development of Atomic Theory.
2: What Is an Atom?.
3: The Atomic Philosophy of the Early Greeks.
4: The Emergence of Experimental Science.
5: Experimental Foundation of Atomic Chemistry.
6: Atomic Weights and the Periodic Table.
7: Kinetic Theory of Gases.
8: Studies of the Properties of Atoms.
9: Size of Atoms.
10: Electric Properties of Atoms.
11: Light and Spectral Lines.
12: Discovery of Electrons.
13: Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment.
14: Identification of Positive Ions.
15: Discovery of Radioactivity.
16: Models of Atomic Structure.
17: Rutherford's Nuclear Model.
18: Moseley's X-Ray Studies.
19: Bohr's Shell Model.
20: The Laws of Quantum Mechanics.
21: Schrödinger's Wave Equation.
22: Antiparticles and the Electron's Spin.
23: Advances in Nuclear and Subatomic Physics.
24: Structure of the Nucleus.
25: Quantum Field Theory and the Standard Model.
26: The Atom: Components and Properties.
27: Atomic Number.
28: Atomic Mass and Isotopes.
29: The Electron.
30: Charge, Mass, and Spin.
31: Orbits and Energy Levels.
32: Electron Shells.
33: Atomic Bonds.
34: Conductors and Insulators.
35: Magnetic Properties.
36: The Nucleus.
37: Nuclear Forces.
38: Nuclear Shell Model.
39: Radioactive Decay.
40: Nuclear Energy.
41: Isotopes.
42: The Discovery of Isotopes.
43: Nuclear Stability.
44: Radioactive Isotopes.
45: Elemental and Isotopic Abundances.
46: Variations in Isotopic Abundances.
47: Radioactive Decay.
48: Mass Fractionation.
49: Physical Properties Associated with Isotopes.
50: Effect of Isotopes on Atomic and Molecular Spectra.
51: Molecular Vibrations.
52: Importance in the Study of Polyatomic Molecules.
53: Chemical Effects of Isotopic Substitution.
54: Effect of Isotopic Substitution on Reaction Rates.
55: Isotope Separation and Enrichment.
56: Mass Spectrometry.
57: Distillation.
58: Chemical Exchange Reactions.
59: Gaseous Diffusion.
60: Gas Centrifugation.
61: Photochemical Enrichment Methods.
62: Radioactivity.
63: The Nature of Radioactive Emissions.
64: Types of Radioactivity.
65: Alpha Decay.
66: Beta-Minus Decay.
67: Gamma Decay.
68: Isomeric Transitions.
69: Beta-Plus Decay.
70: Electron Capture.
71: Spontaneous Fission.
72: Proton Radioactivity.
73: Special Beta-Decay Processes.
74: Heavy-Ion Radioactivity.
75: Occurrence of Radioactivity.
76: Energetics and Kinetics of Radioactivity.
77: Energy Release in Radioactive Transitions.
78: Calculation and Measurement of Energy.
79: Absolute Nuclear Binding Energy.
80: Nuclear Models.
81: The Liquid-Drop Model.
82: The Shell Model.
83: The Collective Model.
84: Rates of Radioactive Transitions.
85: Exponential-Decay Law.
86: Measurement of Half-Life.
87: Semiempirical Constants.
88: Applications of Radioactivity.
89: Medicinal.
90: Industrial.
91: Scientific.
92: Radiation and Life.
93: Historical Background.
94: Units for Measuring Ionizing Radiation.
95: Sources and Levels of Radiation in the Environment.
96: Cosmic-Radiation Exposure.
97: Estimates of Average Annual Dose Equivalent to the Whole Body from Various Sources of Irradiation Received by Members of the U.S. Population.
98: Average Dose Due to Natural Radioactivity Deposited Internally.
99: External Dose Due to Natural Radioactivity in Soil or Rock.
100: Natural Sources.
101: Artificial Sources.
102: Worldwide Dose Commitment from Radioactive Fallout from Nuclear Tests Prior to 1970.
103: Typical Doses to Exposed Tissue Received in Routine X-Ray Diagnosis.
104: Mechanism of Biologic Action.
105: Radionuclides and Radioactive Fallout.
106: Accumulation in Critical Organs.
107: Values for the Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of Certain Radionuclides.
108: The Hazards of Long-Lived Radioisotopes.
109: Major Types of Radiation Injury.
110: Effects on the Cell.
111: Effects on Organs of the Body (Somatic Effects).
112: Symptoms of Acute Radiation Sickness (Hematopoietic Form).
113: Effects on the Growth and Development of the Embryo.
114: Effects on the Incidence of Cancer.
115: Estimated Lifetime Cancer Risks Attributed to Low-Level Irradiation.
116: Protection Against External Radiation.
117: Some Chemicals that Exert Radioprotective Effects in Laboratory Animals.
118: Control of Radiation Risks.
119: Nuclear Fission.
120: History of Fission Research and Technology.
121: Fundamentals of the Fission Process.
122: Structure and Stability of Nuclear Matter.
123: Induced Fission.
124: Spontaneous Fission.
125: The Phenomenology of Fission.
126: Fission Fragment Mass Distributions.
127: Fission Decay Chains and Charge Distribution.
128: Prompt Neutrons in Fission.
129: Delayed Neutrons in Fission.
130: Energy Release in Fission.
131: Fission Theory.
132: Nuclear Models and Nuclear Fission.
133: Fission Chain Reactions and Their Control.
134: Uses of Fission Reactors and Fission Products.
135: Nuclear Fusion.
136: The Fusion Reaction.
137: Two Types of Fusion Reactions.
138: Energy Released in Fusion Reactions.
139: Rate and Yield of Fusion Reactions.
140: The Plasma State.
141: Fusion Reactions in Stars.
142: Fusion Reactions for Controlled Power Generation.
143: Methods of Achieving Fusion Energy.
144: Magnetic Confinement.
145: Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF).
146: Muon-Catalyzed Fusion.
147: Cold Fusion and Bubble Fusion.
148: Conditions for Practical Fusion Yield.
149: History of Fusion Energy Research.
150: Conclusion.
151: Biographies.
152: Classical World: Philosophers.
153: Democritus.
154: Leucippus.
155: 18th and 19th Centuries: Beginnings of Atomic Theory.
156: Amedeo Avogadro.
157: Johann Jakob Balmer.
158: Jöns Jacob Berzelius.
159: Robert Brown.
160: Robert Wilhelm Bunsen.
161: Stanislao Cannizzaro.
162: John Dalton.
163: Joseph Loschmidt.
164: Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev.
165: Lothar Meyer.
166: Jean Perrin.
167: Joseph-Louis Proust.
168: Johannes Robert Rydberg.
169: 20th Century: Radiation and After.
170: Henri Becquerel.
171: Marie Curie.
172: Pierre Curie.
173: Otto Hahn.
174: Lise Meitner.
175: Henry Gwyn Jeffreys Moseley.
176: Wilhelm Röntgen.
177: Ernest Rutherford.
178: Frederick Soddy.
179: Fritz Strassmann.
180: Sir J.J. Thomson.