eBook Biochemistry, Cells, and Life: The Components of Life: From Nucleic Acids to Carbohydrates, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615303898
  • ISBN-13: 9781615303892
  • DDC: 572
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 264 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released April 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

The building blocks of all life—human and otherwise—are basic chemical molecules common to all organisms that simultaneously unite all species and set them apart. Together, nucleic acids, amino acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates determine our genetic makeup, power our movements, and generally enable some of the most vital and complex chemical reactions of the body. This volume examines the structure and function of each of these fascinating elements and the interrelationships between them, which nurture all existence.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: Heritable Components: Nucleic Acids.
2: Nucleotides: Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids.
3: Johann Friedrich Miescher.
4: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA).
5: Biological Structures.
6: Biochemical Properties.
7: Chemical Modification.
8: Supercoiling.
9: Ribonucleic Acid (RNA).
10: Messenger RNA.
11: Ribosomal RNA.
12: Transfer RNA.
13: Robert William Holley.
14: Ribozymes.
15: Antisense RNAs.
16: Viral Genomes.
17: Other RNAs.
18: RNA Processing.
19: Nucleic Acid Metabolism: DNA.
20: Basic Mechanisms of Replication.
21: Enzymes of Replication.
22: Recombination.
23: Repair.
24: Nucleic Acid Metabolism: RNA.
25: Transcription.
26: Translation.
27: Marshall Warren Nirenberg.
28: Har Gobind Khorana.
29: Molecular Components: Amino Acids.
30: Building Blocks of Proteins.
31: Chirality.
32: Acid-Base Properties.
33: Standard Amino Acids.
34: Group I: Nonpolar Amino Acids.
35: Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins.
36: Group II: Polar, Uncharged Amino Acids.
37: Group III: Acidic Amino Acids.
38: Group IV: Basic Amino Acids.
39: Amino Acid Reactions.
40: Peptide Bond.
41: Emil Fischer.
42: Cysteine Oxidation.
43: Other Functions of Amino Acids.
44: Nonstandard Amino Acids.
45: Analysis of Amino Acid Mixtures.
46: Some Common Uses of Amino Acids.
47: Amino Acids and the Origin of Life on Earth.
48: Murchison Meteorite.
49: Dynamic Components: Proteins.
50: Levels of Structural Organization in Proteins.
51: Primary Structure.
52: Secondary Structure.
53: Tertiary Structure.
54: Quaternary Structure.
55: The Isolation and Determination of Proteins.
56: Physicochemical Properties of Proteins.
57: The Molecular Weight of Proteins.
58: The Shape of Protein Molecules.
59: Hydration of Proteins.
60: Electrochemistry of Proteins.
61: Conformation of Globular Proteins.
62: X-ray Diffraction and Structure Determination.
63: Max Ferdinand Perutz.
64: Sir John Cowdery Kendrew.
65: Other Approaches to the Determination of Protein Structure.
66: Protein Denaturation.
67: Conformation of Proteins in Interfaces.
68: Types and Functions of Proteins.
69: Classification of Proteins.
70: Special Structure and Function of Proteins.
71: Structural Proteins.
72: Muscle Proteins.
73: Fibrinogen and Fibrin.
74: Soluble Proteins.
75: Albrecht Kossel.
76: Plant Proteins.
77: Proteins and Prosthetic Groups.
78: Protein Hormones.
79: Peptides with Hormonelike Activity.
80: Antibodies.
81: Enzymes.
82: Hydrophobic Components: Lipids.
83: Fatty Acids.
84: Structure of Fatty Acids.
85: Physical Properties.
86: Chemical Properties.
87: Biological Sources.
88: Fatty Acid Derivatives.
89: Triglycerides.
90: Waxes.
91: Biological Membrane Lipids.
92: Cholesterol and Its Derivatives.
93: Structure and Properties.
94: Biosynthesis.
95: Biosynthetic Derivatives.
96: Regulation of Cholesterol Metabolism.
97: Transport and Storage.
98: Lipoproteins.
99: Classification and Formation.
100: Functions, Origins, and Recycling of Apolipoproteins.
101: Michael S. Brown.
102: Joseph L. Goldstein.
103: Biological Functions of Lipids.
104: Cellular Energy Source.
105: ATP.
106: Lipids in Biological Membranes.
107: Energy Components: Carbohydrates.
108: Classification and Nomenclature.
109: Biological Significance.
110: Sugar Beet.
111: Role in the Biosphere.
112: Role in Human Nutrition.
113: Role in Energy Storage.
114: Role in Plant and Animal Structure.
115: Structural Arrangements and Properties.
116: Stereoisomerism.
117: Configuration.
118: Hemiacetal and Hemiketal Forms.
119: Sir Walter Norman Haworth.
120: Classes of Carbohydrates.
121: Monosaccharides.
122: Disaccharides and Oligosaccharides.
123: Polysaccharides.
124: Preparation and Analysis of Carbohydrates.
125: Analytical Techniques.
126: Spectroscopic Techniques.
127: Identification of Subunits.
128: Conclusion.
Glossary.
Bibliography.
Index.