eBook Physics Explained: The Britannica Guide to Matter, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615303812
  • ISBN-13: 9781615303816
  • DDC: 530.4
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 295 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released April 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

The study of matter is the study of all material things, as well as their ability to transform from one state to another. All matter assumes one of several basic states—solid, liquid, gas, and plasma being the most common. Under varying conditions, each state can be altered to form new substances or adopt new characteristics. This insightful book covers the various structures and elements of different types of matter, while examining the physical and chemical properties that allow for permutation and change.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: Matter and Its Phases.
2: General Considerations.
3: System Variables.
4: The Phase Rule.
5: Phase Diagrams.
6: Properties of Gases.
7: Kinetic-Molecular Picture.
8: Numerical Magnitudes.
9: Intermolecular Separation and Average Speed.
10: Mean Free Path and Collision Rate.
11: Molecular Sizes.
12: Summary of Numerical Magnitudes.
13: Free-Molecule Gas.
14: Continuity of Gaseous and Liquid States.
15: Behaviour and Properties.
16: Equilibrium Properties.
17: Transport Properties.
18: Kinetic Theory of Gases.
19: Ideal Gas.
20: Pressure.
21: Effusion.
22: Thermal Transpiration.
23: Viscosity.
24: Thermal Conductivity.
25: Diffusion and Thermal Diffusion.
26: Boltzmann Equation.
27: Deviations from the Ideal Model.
28: Equation of State.
29: Transport Properties.
30: Properties of Liquids.
31: Transitions between States of Matter.
32: Behaviour of Pure Liquids.
33: Phase Diagram of a Pure Substance.
34: Representative Values of Phase-Diagram Parameters.
35: Behaviour of Substances Near Critical and Triple Points.
36: Surface Tension.
37: Molecular Structure of Liquids.
38: Speed of Sound and Electric Properties.
39: Liquid Solutions and Solubility.
40: Classes of Solutions.
41: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes.
42: Weak Electrolytes.
43: Endothermic and Exothermic Solutions.
44: Properties of Solutions.
45: Composition Ratios.
46: Equilibrium Properties.
47: Colligative Properties.
48: Transport Properties in Solutions.
49: Thermodynamics and Intermolecular Forces in Solutions.
50: Energy Considerations.
51: Effects of Molecular Structure.
52: Molecular Structure and Charge Distribution.
53: Effects of Chemical Interactions.
54: Theories of Solutions.
55: Activity Coefficients and Excess Functions.
56: Regular Solutions.
57: Athermal Solutions.
58: Associated and Solvated Solutions.
59: Solutions of Electrolytes.
60: Solubilities of Solids and Gases.
61: Crystalline Solids and Liquid Crystals.
62: Basic Units of Solids.
63: Long- and Short-Range Order.
64: Categories of Crystals.
65: Structure.
66: The Unit Cell.
67: Structures of Metals.
68: Structures of Nonmetallic Elements.
69: Structures of Binary Crystals.
70: Alloys.
71: Crystal Defects.
72: Determination of Crystal Structures.
73: Types of Bonds.
74: Ionic Bonds.
75: Covalent Bonds.
76: Metallic Bonds.
77: Molecular Binding.
78: Hydrogen Bonding.
79: Crystal Growth.
80: Vapour Growth.
81: Growth from Solution.
82: Growth from the Melt.
83: Dendritic Growth.
84: Liquid Crystals.
85: Structure and Symmetry.
86: Optical Properties.
87: Amorphous Solids and Quasicrystals.
88: Amorphous Solids.
89: Distinction between Crystalline and Amorphous Solids.
90: Preparation of Amorphous Solids.
91: Atomic-Scale Structure.
92: Properties of Oxide Glasses.
93: Properties and Applications of Amorphous Solids.
94: Quasicrystals.
95: Structure and Symmetry.
96: Properties.
97: Plasma.
98: The Development of Plasma Physics.
99: Plasma Oscillations and Parameters.
100: Basic Plasma Physics.
101: Plasma Formation.
102: Methods of Describing Plasma Phenomena.
103: Determination of Plasma Variables.
104: Waves in Plasmas.
105: Applications of Plasmas.
106: Natural Plasmas.
107: Extraterrestrial Forms.
108: Solar-Terrestrial Forms.
109: Clusters.
110: Comparison with Bulk Matter.
111: Comparison with Molecules.
112: Methods of Study.
113: Preparation of Clusters.
114: Ionization and Sorting of Clusters.
115: Computer Simulation of Cluster Behaviour.
116: Structure.
117: Clusters with Icosahedral Structures.
118: Clusters of Simple Metal Atoms.
119: Network Structures.
120: Physical Properties.
121: Liquid and Solid Phases.
122: Electric, Magnetic, and Optical Properties.
123: Chemical Properties.
124: Conclusion.
Glossary.
Bibliography.
Index.