eBook Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123786312
  • ISBN-13: 9780123786319
  • DDC: 572.03
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 3232 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released May 2015
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014
  • Price:  Sign in for price



The 4-volume Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, Second Edition, represents the current state of a dynamic and crucial field of study.  The Encyclopedia pulls together over 500 articles that help define and explore contemporary biochemistry, with content experts carefully chosen by the Editorial Board to assure both breadth and depth in its coverage. Editors-In-Chief William J. Lennarz and M. Daniel Lane have crafted a work that proceeds from the acknowledgement that understanding every living process—from physiology, to immunology, and genetics—is impossible without a grasp on the basic chemistry that provides its underpinning.  Each article in the work provides an up-to-date snapshot of a given topic, written by experts, as well as suggestions for further readings for students and researcher wishing to go into greater depth.

Table of Contents

Front Cover._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
Copyright Page._x000D_
Editorial Board._x000D_
How to Use the Encyclopedia._x000D_
Contents by Subject Area._x000D_
1: AAA-ATPases._x000D_
2: ABC Transporters._x000D_
3: Actin Assembly/Disassembly._x000D_
4: Actin-Capping and -Severing Proteins._x000D_
5: Actin Organization._x000D_
6: Actin-Related Proteins._x000D_
7: Adenylyl Cyclases._x000D_
8: Adipocyte Fat Mobilization: The Regulatory Roles of Perilipin 1, Adipose Triglyceride Lipase, and Hormone-Sensitive Lipase._x000D_
9: Adipogenesis._x000D_
10: Adrenergic Receptors._x000D_
11: Affinity Tags for Protein Purification._x000D_
12: Algal Hydrogen Production._x000D_
13: Allosteric Regulation._x000D_
14: Alternative Splicing._x000D_
15: Alternative Splicing: Regulation of Drosophila Melanogaster Sex Determination._x000D_
16: Amine Oxidases._x000D_
17: Amino Acid Metabolism._x000D_
18: Aminopeptidases._x000D_
19: Amyloid._x000D_
20: Anaplerosis._x000D_
21: Angiotensin Receptors._x000D_
22: Anorexigenic and Orexigenic Gut Peptides._x000D_
23: Aquaporin Water Channels._x000D_
24: Arachidonic Acid Regulated Calcium Channel._x000D_
25: Arf Family._x000D_
26: Aspartic Proteases._x000D_
27: ATP in Plant Mitochondria: Substrates, Inhibitors, and Uncouplers._x000D_
28: ATP Synthesis: Mitochondrial Cyanide-Resistant Terminal Oxidases._x000D_
29: Autophagy in Fungi and Mammals._x000D_
30: B12-Containing Enzymes._x000D_
31: B-Cell Antigen Receptor._x000D_
32: Bcl2 Family: Cell Death Enhancers and Inhibitors._x000D_
33: Bile Salts._x000D_
34: Biochemistry: Niacin/NAD(P)._x000D_
35: Biochemistry of Development: Striated Muscle._x000D_
36: Biochemistry of Hematopoiesis._x000D_
37: Biochemistry of Liver Regeneration._x000D_
38: Biochemistry of Neurogenesis._x000D_
39: Biochemistry of Thiamine and Thiamine Phosphate Compounds._x000D_
40: Bioenergetics and the Mitochondrial Genome._x000D_
41: Bioenergetics: General Definition of Principles._x000D_
42: Biotin._x000D_
43: Biotinylation of Proteins._x000D_
44: Bmp Signaling and Vascular Disease._x000D_
45: Bradykinin Receptors._x000D_
46: Branched-Chain Amino Acids._x000D_
47: Brassinosteroids._x000D_
48: Cadherin-Mediated Cell–Cell Adhesion._x000D_
49: Cadherin Signaling._x000D_
50: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Adrenomedullin Receptors._x000D_
51: Calcitonin Receptor._x000D_
52: Calcium-Binding Proteins: Cytosolic (Annexins, Gelsolins, and C2-Domain Proteins)._x000D_
53: Calcium, Biological Fitness of._x000D_
54: Calcium-Buffering Proteins: Calbindin._x000D_
55: Calcium-Buffering Proteins: ER Luminal Proteins._x000D_
56: Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II._x000D_
57: Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases._x000D_
58: Calcium in the Regulation of Gene Expression._x000D_
59: Calcium-Modulated Proteins (EF-Hand)._x000D_
60: Calcium Oscillations._x000D_
61: Calcium-Sensing Receptor (CaSR)._x000D_
62: Calcium Signaling by Cyclic ADP-Ribose and NAADP._x000D_
63: Calcium Signaling: Calmodulin-Dependent Phosphatase._x000D_
64: Calcium Signaling: NO Synthase._x000D_
65: Calcium Transport in Mitochondria._x000D_
66: Calpain._x000D_
67: Carbohydrate Chains: Enzymatic and Chemical Synthesis._x000D_
68: Carbohydrate Metabolism in the Central Nervous System._x000D_
69: Carbohydrate-Responsive Element Binding Protein._x000D_
70: Cardiac Excitation–Contraction Coupling._x000D_
71: Carnitine and β-Oxidation._x000D_
72: Caspases and Cell Death._x000D_
73: Catalysis by RNA, Structural Themes: Group I Introns._x000D_
74: Cell Cycle: Control of Entry and Progression through S Phase._x000D_
75: Cell-Cycle Controls in G1 and G0._x000D_
76: Cell Cycle: DNA Damage Checkpoints._x000D_
77: Cell Cycle: Mitotic Checkpoint._x000D_
78: Cell Death by Apoptosis and Necrosis._x000D_
79: Cell–Matrix Interactions._x000D_
80: Cell Migration._x000D_
81: Cell Migration Within Three-Dimensional Matrices._x000D_
82: Centromeres._x000D_
83: c-fes Proto-Oncogene._x000D_
84: Chaperonins._x000D_
85: Chemiluminescence and Bioluminescence._x000D_
86: Chemiosmotic Theory._x000D_
87: Chemistry of Alzheimer Disease._x000D_
88: Chemokine Receptors._x000D_
89: Chemolithotrophy._x000D_
90: Chemotactic Peptide/Complement Receptors._x000D_
91: Chlorophylls and Carotenoids._x000D_
92: Chloroplasts._x000D_
93: Chloroplast Signaling and Redox Control._x000D_
94: Cholesterol Synthesis and Regulation._x000D_
95: Chromatin: Methyl-CpG-Binding Proteins._x000D_
96: Chromatin: Nucleosome Positioning – The GAL Promoter._x000D_
97: Chromatin: Physical Organization._x000D_
98: Chromosome Organization and Structure, Overview._x000D_
99: Coenzyme A._x000D_
100: Collagenases._x000D_
101: Collagens._x000D_
102: Color Vision._x000D_
103: Conservative Site-Specific Recombination._x000D_
104: Cyclic AMP Receptors of Dictyostelium._x000D_
105: Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterases._x000D_
106: Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Protein Kinases._x000D_
107: Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases._x000D_
108: Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Cation Channels._x000D_
109: Cysteine Proteases._x000D_
110: Cytochrome bc1 Complex (Respiratory Chain Complex III)._x000D_
111: Cytochrome c._x000D_
112: Cytochrome Oxidases, Bacterial._x000D_
113: Cytochrome P-450._x000D_
114: Cytokines._x000D_
115: Cytokinesis._x000D_
116: Cytokinin._x000D_
117: Cytoskeletal Motors: General Principles._x000D_
118: Desmosomes and Hemidesmosomes._x000D_
119: Detergent Properties._x000D_
120: Diabetes._x000D_
121: Diacylglycerol Kinases and Phosphatidic Acid Phosphatases._x000D_
122: Disulfide Bond Formation._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
1: DNA Base Excision Repair Pathways._x000D_
2: DNA Damage: Alkylation._x000D_
3: DNA Glycosylases: Mechanisms._x000D_
4: DNA Helicases: Hexameric Enzyme Action._x000D_
5: DNA Ligases: Mechanism and Functions._x000D_
6: DNA Ligases: Structures._x000D_
7: DNA Methyltransferases: Eubacterial GATC._x000D_
8: DNA Mismatch Repair and Homologous Recombination._x000D_
9: DNA Mismatch Repair and the DNA Damage Response._x000D_
10: DNA Mismatch Repair in Bacteria._x000D_
11: DNA Mismatch Repair in Disease and Aging._x000D_
12: DNA Mismatch Repair in Mammals._x000D_
13: DNA Modification, Restriction Endonucleases: Type I Enzymes._x000D_
14: DNA Oxidation._x000D_
15: DNA Polymerase β, Eukaryotic._x000D_
16: DNA Polymerase I, Bacterial._x000D_
17: DNA Polymerase III, Bacterial._x000D_
18: DNA Polymerases: Kinetics and Mechanism._x000D_
19: DNA Polymerases: Reverse Transcriptase Integrase, and Retrovirus Replication._x000D_
20: DNA Replication: Eukaryotic Origins and the Origin Recognition Complex._x000D_
21: DNA Replication Fork, Bacterial._x000D_
22: DNA Replication Fork, Eukaryotic._x000D_
23: DNA Replication: Initiation in Bacteria._x000D_
24: DNA Replication, Mitochondrial._x000D_
25: DNA Restriction and Modification: Type II Enzymes._x000D_
26: DNA Restriction and Modification: Type III Enzymes._x000D_
27: DNA Secondary Structure._x000D_
28: DNA Sequence Recognition by Proteins._x000D_
29: DNA Supercoiling._x000D_
30: DNA Topoisomerases: Type I._x000D_
31: DNA Topoisomerases: Type II._x000D_
32: Dopamine Receptors._x000D_
33: Dynactin._x000D_
34: Dynamic Behavior of Photosystem II Light Harvesting._x000D_
35: Dynein._x000D_
36: Eicosanoid Receptors._x000D_
37: Elastin._x000D_
38: Endocannabinoids._x000D_
39: Endocytosis._x000D_
40: Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Protein Degradation._x000D_
41: Energy Transduction in Anaerobic Bacteria._x000D_
42: Enzyme Inhibitors._x000D_
43: Enzyme Kinetics._x000D_
44: Enzyme Reaction Mechanisms: Stereochemistry._x000D_
45: ER/SR Calcium Pump: Function._x000D_
46: ER/SR Calcium Pump: Structure._x000D_
47: Eukaryotic Chemotaxis._x000D_
48: Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase α._x000D_
49: Eukaryotic DNA Polymerase δ._x000D_
50: Eukaryotic Protein Biosynthesis: The Elongation Cycle._x000D_
51: Evolving Concepts of Leptin._x000D_
52: Exosomes and Microvesicles._x000D_
53: FAK Family._x000D_
54: F-ATPases._x000D_
55: Fatty Acid Metabolism and Cancer._x000D_
56: Fatty Acid Oxidation._x000D_
57: Fatty Acid Structure and Synthesis._x000D_
58: Fatty Acyl-CoA Synthetases._x000D_
59: Ferredoxin._x000D_
60: Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase._x000D_
61: Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors and Cancer-Associated Perturbations._x000D_
62: Flavins._x000D_
63: Flippases._x000D_
64: Focal Adhesions and Related Integrin Contacts._x000D_
65: Folate and Vitamin B12 Function._x000D_
66: Free Oligosaccharides: Formation and Degradation (Free Oligosaccharides Related to N-Linked Glycans)._x000D_
67: Friedreich's Ataxia._x000D_
68: FX, FA, and FB Iron–Sulfur Clusters in Type I Photosynthetic Reaction Centers._x000D_
69: G12/G13 Family._x000D_
70: GABAA Receptor._x000D_
71: GABAB Receptor._x000D_
72: Gastrointestinal Digestion and Absorption._x000D_
73: Gene Expression in Bacterial Systems: The trp Operon and Attenuation._x000D_
74: Gene Expression in Eukaryotes: RNA Polymerase II Structure._x000D_
75: Genome-Wide Analysis of Gene Expression._x000D_
76: Giant Mitochondria (Megamitochondria)._x000D_
77: Gi Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins._x000D_
78: Gluconeogenesis._x000D_
79: Glucose/Sugar Transport in Bacteria._x000D_
80: Glucose/Sugar Transport in Mammals._x000D_
81: Glutamate Receptors, Metabotropic._x000D_
82: Glutathione Peroxidases._x000D_
83: Glycation._x000D_
84: Glycerolipid Structure, Function, and Synthesis in Eukaryotes._x000D_
85: Glycine Receptors._x000D_
86: Glycogen Metabolism._x000D_
87: Glycogen Storage Diseases._x000D_
88: Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3._x000D_
89: Glycolipid-Dependent Adhesion Processes._x000D_
90: Glycolysis Overview._x000D_
91: Glycoprotein Folding and Processing Reactions._x000D_
92: Glycoprotein-Mediated Cell Interactions, Nonmucin-Type O-Linked._x000D_
93: Glycoproteins, N-Linked._x000D_
94: Glycoproteins, Plant._x000D_
95: Glycosylation, Congenital Disorders of._x000D_
96: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors._x000D_
97: Golgi Complex._x000D_
98: G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases and Arrestins._x000D_
99: G Protein Signaling Regulators._x000D_
100: Gq Family._x000D_
101: Green Bacteria: Chlorophyll Biosynthesis, Light-Harvesting, Reaction Centers, and Electron Transport._x000D_
102: Green Bacteria: Secondary Electron Donor (Cytochromes)._x000D_
103: Green Bacteria: The Light-Harvesting Chlorosome._x000D_
104: Gs Family of Heterotrimeric G Proteins._x000D_
105: Heat/Stress Responses._x000D_
106: Hematopoietin Receptors._x000D_
107: Heme Proteins._x000D_
108: Heme Synthesis._x000D_
109: Hexokinase/Glucokinase._x000D_
110: HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Structures._x000D_
111: HIV Protease._x000D_
112: Homologous Recombination in Meiosis._x000D_
113: Hydrogenases, Structure and Function._x000D_
114: Immunoglobulin (Fc) Receptors._x000D_
115: Indicators of Intracellular Calcium._x000D_
116: Inositol Phosphate Kinases and Phosphatases._x000D_
117: Inositol Trisphosphate and Calcium Signaling._x000D_
118: Insect Biochemistry/Hormones._x000D_
119: Insulin- and Glucagon-Secreting Cells of the Pancreas._x000D_
120: Insulin Mechanisms/Metabolic Actions._x000D_
121: Integrin Signaling._x000D_
122: Intercellular Ca2+ Waves: Mechanisms of Initiation and Propagation._x000D_
123: Interferon Receptors._x000D_
124: Intermediate Filament Linker Proteins: Plectin and BPAG1._x000D_
125: Intermediate Filaments._x000D_
126: Intracellular Calcium Channels: NAADP+-Modulated._x000D_
127: Intracellular Calcium Waves._x000D_
128: Ion Channel Protein Superfamily._x000D_
129: IP3 Receptors._x000D_
130: Iron–Sulfur Proteins._x000D_
131: Keratins and the Skin._x000D_
132: Kinesins as Microtubule Disassembly Enzymes._x000D_
133: Kinesin Superfamily Proteins._x000D_
134: Kinetic Isotope Effects._x000D_
135: lac Operon._x000D_
136: Lectins._x000D_
137: LexA Regulatory System._x000D_
138: Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: Calcium (Glutamate)._x000D_
139: Ligand-Operated Membrane Channels: GABA._x000D_
140: Light-Harvesting Complex I and II: Pigments and Proteins._x000D_
141: Lipases._x000D_
142: Lipid Bilayer Structure._x000D_
143: Lipid Modification of Proteins: Targeting to Membranes._x000D_
144: Lipid Rafts._x000D_
145: Lipid Signaling and Ion Channels._x000D_
146: Live Cell Imaging of Nuclear Dynamics._x000D_
147: Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds._x000D_
148: Luft's Disease._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
1: Major Sperm Protein and Sperm Locomotion._x000D_
2: Mammalian DNA Methyltransferase Structural Themes._x000D_
3: Mass Spectrometry of Native Complexes._x000D_
4: Meiosis._x000D_
5: Melanocortin System._x000D_
6: Membrane-Associated Energy Transduction in Bacteria and Archaea._x000D_
7: Membrane Fusion._x000D_
8: Membrane Transporters: Na+/Ca2+ Exchangers._x000D_
9: Membrane Transport, General Concepts._x000D_
10: Messenger RNA Degradation in Bacteria._x000D_
11: Messenger RNA Processing in Eukaryotes._x000D_
12: Metabolic Control during Ischemia of the Heart._x000D_
13: Metabolic Roles of Adiponectin._x000D_
14: Metabolic Roles of the Orexigenic and Anorexigenic Neuropeptides._x000D_
15: Metabolite Channeling: Creatine Kinase Microcompartments._x000D_
16: Metalloproteases._x000D_
17: Metalloproteinases, Matrix._x000D_
18: MicroRNAs in Eukaryotes._x000D_
19: Microtubule-Associated Proteins._x000D_
20: Mitochondria in Myocardial Ischemia._x000D_
21: Mitochondrial Auto-Antibodies._x000D_
22: Mitochondrial Calcium Transport: Historical Aspects._x000D_
23: Mitochondrial Channels._x000D_
24: Mitochondrial DNA._x000D_
25: Mitochondrial Dynamics._x000D_
26: Mitochondrial Genes and Their Expression: Yeast._x000D_
27: Mitochondrial Membranes, Structural Organization._x000D_
28: Mitochondrial Metabolite Carrier Protein Family._x000D_
29: Mitochondrial Outer Membrane and the VDAC Channel._x000D_
30: Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore._x000D_
31: Mitochondria: Source and Target of Free Radicals._x000D_
32: Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Family._x000D_
33: Mitosis._x000D_
34: Monoamine Oxidase._x000D_
35: mRNA Polyadenylation in Eukaryotes._x000D_
36: mTOR and Its Downstream Targets._x000D_
37: Mucin Family of Glycoproteins._x000D_
38: Mucins in Embryo Implantation._x000D_
39: Multidrug Resistance Membrane Proteins._x000D_
40: Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors._x000D_
41: Myosin Motors._x000D_
42: Natriuretic Peptides, Their Receptors and Therapeutic Applications._x000D_
43: Neoglycoproteins._x000D_
44: Neuronal Intermediate Filaments._x000D_
45: Neurotransmitter Transporters._x000D_
46: Neurotrophin Receptor Signaling._x000D_
47: Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase._x000D_
48: Nitric Oxide Signaling._x000D_
49: N-Linked Glycan-Processing Glucosidases and Mannosidases._x000D_
50: Nonhexameric SF1 DNA Helicases/Translocases._x000D_
51: Nonhomologous End Joining in Bacteria._x000D_
52: Nonhomologous End Joining in Eukaryotes._x000D_
53: Nonhomologous Recombination: Bacterial Transposons._x000D_
54: Nonhomologous Recombination: Retrotransposons._x000D_
55: Nuclear Calcium in Synapse-to-Nucleus Communication: Common Regulator of Persistent Adaptations in the Nervous System._x000D_
56: Nuclear Compartmentalization._x000D_
57: Nuclear Factor Kappa B._x000D_
58: Nuclear Genes Involved in Mitochondrial Function and Biogenesis._x000D_
59: Nuclear Lamina._x000D_
60: Nuclear Organization, Chromatin Structure, and Gene Silencing._x000D_
61: Nuclear Pores and Nuclear Import/Export._x000D_
62: Nucleolus, Overview._x000D_
63: Nucleotide Excision Repair, Bacterial: The UvrABCD System._x000D_
64: Nucleotide Excision Repair: Biology._x000D_
65: Nucleotide Excision Repair in Eukaryotes._x000D_
66: Olfactory Receptors._x000D_
67: O-Linked GlcNAc Biosynthesis and Function._x000D_
68: Opioid Receptors._x000D_
69: ORAI Store-Operated Calcium Channel._x000D_
70: Organization of the Bacterial Nucleoid._x000D_
71: Oxygenases._x000D_
72: P2Y Receptors._x000D_
73: p53 Family._x000D_
74: Parathyroid Hormone/Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein Receptor._x000D_
75: Pentose Phosphate (Hexose Mono Phosphate) Pathway._x000D_
76: Peptide Amidation._x000D_
77: Periplasmic Electron-Transport Systems in Bacteria._x000D_
78: Peroxidase Biochemistry and Redox Signaling._x000D_
79: Peroxisomal Metabolism._x000D_
80: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors._x000D_
81: Peroxisomes._x000D_
82: Phage Display for Protein Binding._x000D_
83: Phagocytosis._x000D_
84: Pheromone Receptors (Yeast)._x000D_
85: Phosphatidylinositol-3-Phosphate._x000D_
86: Phosphatidylinositol Bisphosphate and Trisphosphate._x000D_
87: Phosphofructokinase-2/Fructose Bisphosphatase-2._x000D_
88: Phosphoinositide 4- and 5-Kinases and Phosphatases._x000D_
89: Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinases._x000D_
90: Phospholipase C._x000D_
91: Phospholipase D._x000D_
92: Phospholipid Synthesis in Yeast._x000D_
93: Photoinhibition and Photoprotection in Plants, Algae, and Cyanobacteria._x000D_
94: Photoreceptors._x000D_
95: Photosynthesis._x000D_
96: Photosynthetic Carbon Dioxide Fixation._x000D_
97: Photosystem I._x000D_
98: Photosystem II: Assembly and Turnover of the D1 Protein._x000D_
99: Photosystem II: Redox and Protein Components._x000D_
100: Photosystem II: Water Oxidation, Overview._x000D_
101: Plasma-Membrane Calcium Pump: Structure and Function._x000D_
102: Plastocyanin._x000D_
103: Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor._x000D_
104: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor Family._x000D_
105: Porphyrin Metabolism._x000D_
106: Potassium Channels in the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria in Various Organisms: From Unicellular Eukaryotes to Higher Plants and Mammals._x000D_
107: Pre-tRNA and Pre-rRNA Processing in Bacteria._x000D_
108: Primary Biliary Cirrhosis._x000D_
109: Prions of Yeast and Fungi: Proteins Acting as Genes._x000D_
110: Prions Overview._x000D_
111: Processivity Clamps in DNA Replication._x000D_
112: Prostaglandins and Leukotrienes._x000D_
113: Proteases in Blood Clotting._x000D_
114: Proteasomes, Overview._x000D_
115: 26S Proteasome: Structure and Function._x000D_
116: Proteinase-Activated Receptors._x000D_
117: Protein Carboxyl Esterification._x000D_
118: Protein Data Resources._x000D_
119: Protein Degradation._x000D_
120: Protein Folding and Assembly._x000D_
121: Protein Import into Mitochondria._x000D_
122: Protein Kinase C Family._x000D_
123: Protein N-Myristoylation._x000D_
124: Protein Palmitoylation._x000D_
125: Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases._x000D_
126: Proteoglycans._x000D_
127: Proton Pumping in the Respiratory Chain._x000D_
128: Pteridines._x000D_
129: P-Type Pumps: Copper Pump._x000D_
130: P-Type Pumps: H+/K+ Pump._x000D_
131: P-Type Pumps: Na+,K+-ATPase._x000D_
132: P-Type Pumps: Plasma-Membrane H+ Pumps._x000D_
133: Purple Bacteria: Electron Acceptors and Donors._x000D_
134: Purple Bacteria: Photosynthetic Reaction Centers._x000D_
135: Pyridoxal Phosphate._x000D_
136: Pyrimidine Biosynthesis and Degradation (Catabolism)._x000D_
137: Pyruvate Kinase._x000D_
138: Quinones._x000D_
Half Title Page._x000D_
Title Page._x000D_
1: Rab Family._x000D_
2: Ran GTPase._x000D_
3: Ras Family._x000D_
4: Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species: Interactions with Mitochondria and Pathophysiology._x000D_
5: Recombination-Dependent DNA Replication._x000D_
6: Recombination: DNA Helicases and Nucleases._x000D_
7: Recombination: DNA-Strand Transferases._x000D_
8: RecQ Helicase Systems._x000D_
9: Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis._x000D_
10: Regulation of Body Weight by Malonyl-CoA in the CNS._x000D_
11: Regulation of Chromatin Dynamics._x000D_
12: Regulation of Gene Transcription by Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1._x000D_
13: Renewable Hydrogen from Biomass._x000D_
14: Repair of G–T Mismatches by Escherichia coli Vsr and Eukaryotic DNA Glycosylases._x000D_
15: Respiration in Phototrophic Microorganisms._x000D_
16: Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthase._x000D_
17: Respiratory Chain Complex I._x000D_
18: Respiratory Chain Complex II and Succinate: Quinone Oxidoreductases._x000D_
19: Respiratory Chain Complex IV._x000D_
20: Retinoblastoma Protein (pRB)._x000D_
21: Retinoic Acid Receptors._x000D_
22: Rho GTPases and Actin Cytoskeleton Dynamics._x000D_
23: Ribosome Assembly._x000D_
24: Ribosome Regulation by EF-G and EF-Tu._x000D_
25: Ribosome Structure._x000D_
26: Riboswitches._x000D_
27: Ribozymes and Evolution._x000D_
28: Ribozyme Structural Elements: Group II Introns and the Spliceosome._x000D_
29: RNA Editing._x000D_
30: RNA Polymerase I and RNA Polymerase III in Eukaryotes._x000D_
31: RNA Polymerase II and Its General Transcription Factors._x000D_
32: RNA Polymerase II Elongation Control in Eukaryotes._x000D_
33: RNA Polymerase Reaction in Bacteria._x000D_
34: RNA Polymerase Structure, Bacterial._x000D_
35: RNA Splicing._x000D_
36: Roles of Micro-RNAs in Metabolism._x000D_
37: Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Ion Channels._x000D_
38: Secretases._x000D_
39: Secretory Pathway._x000D_
40: Selenoprotein Synthesis._x000D_
41: Septins and Cytokinesis._x000D_
42: Serine/Threonine Phosphatases._x000D_
43: Serotonin Receptor Signaling._x000D_
44: Siglecs._x000D_
45: Sigma Factors._x000D_
46: Sliding Clamps in DNA Replication: Escherichia coli β-Clamp and PCNA Structure._x000D_
47: Small GTPases._x000D_
48: Small RNAs in Bacteria._x000D_
49: Sodium–Calcium Exchanger: Structural Aspects._x000D_
50: Somatostatin Receptors._x000D_
51: Spastic Paraplegia._x000D_
52: Spectrophotometric Assays._x000D_
53: Sphingolipid Biosynthesis._x000D_
54: Sphingolipid Catabolism._x000D_
55: Src Family of Protein Tyrosine Kinases._x000D_
56: Starvation._x000D_
57: Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptors._x000D_
58: Store-Operated Calcium Channels._x000D_
59: Structure and Regulation of Pyruvate Dehydrogenases._x000D_
60: Structure–Function of the Cytochrome b6f Complex of Oxygenic Photosynthesis._x000D_
61: Structure of P-Type Adenosine Triphosphatases._x000D_
62: Structure of Respiratory Complex I._x000D_
63: Substrate Binding, Catalysis, and Product Release._x000D_
64: Sugar Nucleotide Transporters._x000D_
65: Superoxide Dismutase._x000D_
66: T7 RNA Polymerase._x000D_
67: Tachykinin/Substance P/Neurokinin-1 Receptors._x000D_
68: Taste Receptors._x000D_
69: T-Cell Antigen Receptor._x000D_
70: T-Cell Receptor Signaling to NF-κB._x000D_
71: Telomeres: Maintenance and Replication._x000D_
72: Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone/Luteinizing Hormone/Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Receptors._x000D_
73: Tight Junctions._x000D_
74: Toll-Like Receptors._x000D_
75: Transcription-Coupled DNA Repair Overview._x000D_
76: Transcription Termination._x000D_
77: Transient Receptor Potential Channels._x000D_
78: Translation Elongation in Bacteria._x000D_
79: Translation Initiation in Bacteria: Factors and Mechanisms._x000D_
80: Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes: Factors and Mechanisms._x000D_
81: Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle._x000D_
82: tRNA Synthetases._x000D_
83: Troponin._x000D_
84: Tubulin and Its Isoforms._x000D_
85: Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors._x000D_
86: Two-Hybrid Protein–Protein Interactions._x000D_
87: Tyrosine Sulfation._x000D_
88: Ubiquitin-Like Proteins._x000D_
89: Ubiquitin System._x000D_
90: UmuC D Lesion Bypass DNA Polymerase V._x000D_
91: Uncoupling Proteins._x000D_
92: Unfolded Protein Responses._x000D_
93: Urea Cycle: Disease Aspects._x000D_
94: Vacuoles._x000D_
95: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors._x000D_
96: Vasopressin/Oxytocin Receptor Family._x000D_
97: V-ATPases._x000D_
98: Vitamin A (Retinoids)._x000D_
99: Vitamin C._x000D_
100: Vitamin D._x000D_
101: Vitamin D Receptor._x000D_
102: Vitamin E._x000D_
103: Vitamin K: Biochemistry, Metabolism, and Nutritional Aspects._x000D_
104: Voltage-Dependent K+ Channels._x000D_
105: Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels._x000D_
106: Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology._x000D_
107: von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) Protein._x000D_
108: XPV Polymerase and the Bypass of Ultraviolet DNA Damage._x000D_
109: Zinc Fingers._x000D_