eBook Encyclopedia of African American Popular Culture, 1st Edition

  • Jessie Carney Smith
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0313357978
  • ISBN-13: 9780313357978
  • DDC: 973.049607
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1733 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released January 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

From the Apollo Theater to the Harlem Renaissance, from barber shop and beauty shop culture to African American holidays, family reunions, and festivals, and from the days of black baseball to the era of a black president, the culture of African Americans is truly unique and diverse. This diversity is the result of intricate customs forged in tightly woven communities not only in the United States, but in many cases also stemming from the traditions of another continent. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF AFRICAN AMERICAN POPULAR CULTURE presents information in a traditional A-Z organization, capturing the essence of the customs of African Americans and presenting this rich cultural heritage through the lens of popular culture. Each entry includes historical and current information to provide a meaningful background for the topic and the perspective to appreciate its significance in a modern context. This encyclopedia is a valuable research tool that provides easy access to a wealth of information on the African American experience.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Editorial Board.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Alphabetical List of Entries.
Guide to Related Topics.
Preface.
Introduction.
Timeline.
1: Aaron, Hank (1934–), Baseball Player, Corporate Executive.
2: Abdul-Jabbar, Kareem (1947–), Basketball Player, Writer.
3: Actors and Performers.
4: Adams, Yolanda (1961–), Neo-gospel Singer, Songwriter, Radio Host.
5: Adoptions.
6: Aerosol Art.
7: Affirmative Action.
8: Africa and the African Diaspora.
9: African Americans in the U.S., 1619–2010.
10: African Cultural Influences.
11: Afrocentric Movement.
12: Afro-Hispanic Blending.
13: Ailey, Alvin (1931–89), Dancer, Choreographer, Educator.
14: Ali, Laila (1977–), Boxer, Television Host.
15: Ali, Muhammad (1942–), Boxer, Humanitarian.
16: Anderson, Marian (1897–1993), Singer.
17: Angelou, Maya (1928–), Poet, Writer.
18: Apollo Theater.
19: Appropriations of Black Folklore.
20: Architecture.
21: Armstrong, Louis “Satchmo” (1901–71), American Music Innovator, Jazz Trumpeter, Vocalist.
22: Ashe, Arthur (1943–93), Tennis Player, Author, Social Activist.
23: Ashley, Maurice (1966–), Chess Player, Educator.
24: Association for the Study of African American Life and History.
25: Astronauts.
26: Aunt Jemima.
27: Badu, Erykah (1971–), Singer, Songwriter.
28: Baker, Ella (1903–86), Civil Rights Activist, Community Organizer.
29: Baldwin, James (1924–87), Novelist, Essayist, Playwright.
30: Bambara, Toni Cade (1939–95), Writer, Filmmaker, Educator.
31: Bands and Bandleaders, 1920s-1950s.
32: Banks, Tyra (1973–), Model, Television Host, Actress.
33: BAPS (Black American Princesses).
34: Baptisms.
35: Baraka, Amiri (Everett LeRoi Jones, 1934–), Poet, Playwright, Social and Political Activist, Educator.
36: Barbecue.
37: Barbershops.
38: Barden, Don (1943–), Entrepreneur, Casino Executive.
39: Barkley, Charles (1963–), Basketball Player, Sports Commentator.
40: Baseball.
41: Basketball.
42: Beale Street.
43: Bearden, Romare (1911–88), Painter, Printmaker, Collagist, Author, Composer.
44: Beauty Pageants.
45: Beauty Shops.
46: BeBop Music.
47: Belafonte, Harry (1927–), Singer, Actor, Social Activist.
48: Berry, Chuck (1926–), Singer, Composer, Guitarist.
49: Berry, Halle (1966–), Actress, Producer, Model.
50: Berry, Mary Frances (1938–), Educator, Historian, Lawyer, Civil and Human Rights Activist.
51: Bethune, Mary McLeod (1875–1955), Educator, Activist, Presidential Advisor, Organization Leader.
52: Beyoncé (1981–), Singer, Songwriter, Actress, Entrepreneur.
53: Big Apple (Dance).
54: Biracialism.
55: Black Arts Movement.
56: Black Bottom, The (Dance).
57: Black English.
58: Black Enterprise (1970).
59: Black Entertainment Television (BET).
60: Black Hebrews.
61: Black History Month.
62: Black Nationalism.
63: Black Panther Party (1966).
64: Black Power Movement.
65: Black Studies.
66: Black Theology.
67: Blake, James Riley (1979–), Tennis Player.
68: Blige, Mary J. (1971–), Singer, Record Producer, Actress.
69: Bling and Grillz.
70: Blues and Blues Festivals.
71: Bond, Julian (1940–), Civil Rights Activist, Politician, Educator, Organization Official.
72: Bonds, Barry (1964–), Baseball Player.
73: Bontemps, Arna (1902–73), Poet, Writer, Educator, Library Administrator.
74: Bookstores and Bibliophiles.
75: Boxing.
76: Bradley, Ed (1941–2006), Broadcast Journalist.
77: Brazile, Donna (1959–), Political Strategist, Political Commentator, Columnist.
78: Break Dancing.
79: Brimmer, Andrew (1926–), Economist, Academic, Entrepreneur.
80: Brooke, Edward (1919–), Civil Rights Activist, Lawyer, Senator, Attorney General.
81: Brooks, Gwendolyn (1917–2000), Poet, Writer.
82: Brown, Elaine (1943–), Political Activist.
83: Brown, James (1933–2006), Singer, Composer.
84: Brown, Jim (1936–), Professional Football Player.
85: Brown, Judge Joe (1947–), Lawyer, Judge, Television Personality.
86: Brown, Tony (1933–), Broadcaster, Producer.
87: Brown v. Board of Education.
88: Bryant, Kobe (1978–), Basketball Player.
89: Buffalo Soldiers.
90: Bunche, Ralph (1904–71), Diplomat, Educator, Political Scientist.
91: Buppies (Black Urban Professionals).
92: Business and Commerce.
93: Caesar, Shirley (1938–), Gospel Singer.
94: Calloway, Cab (1907–94), Bandleader, Singer, Dancer, Songwriter, Author.
95: Calypso Music.
96: Campanella, Roy (1921–93), Baseball Player.
97: Campbell, Naomi (1970–), Model, Entrepreneur.
98: Canada.
99: Car Racing.
100: Carey, Mariah (1970–), Singer, Songwriter, Record Producer, Actress.
101: Caribbean Cultural Influences.
102: Carmichael, Stokely (Kwame Ture) (1941–98), Civil Rights Activist.
103: Carroll, Diahann (1935–), Singer, Actress.
104: Carson, Benjamin S. (1951–), Pediatric Neurosurgeon.
105: Carter, Stephen L. (1954–), Law Professor, Writer.
106: Cartoons and Cartoonists.
107: Carver, George Washington (1864–1943), Scientist, Researcher.
108: Catlett, Elizabeth (1915–), Sculptor, Printmaker, Painter, Multimedia Artist.
109: Censorship and Offensive Language and Lyrics.
110: Chamberlain, Wilt (1936–99), Professional Basketball Player.
111: Chaney, John (1932–), College Basketball Coach.
112: Chappelle, Dave (1973–), Comedian, Actor, Writer, Producer.
113: Charles, Ray (1930–2004), Singer, Musician.
114: Charter Schools.
115: Cheerleading.
116: Chesnutt, Charles W. (1858–1932), Writer.
117: Chicago Defender.
118: Children and Youth.
119: Chisholm, Shirley (1924–2005), Political Activist, Politician, Writer.
120: Chitlin Circuit.
121: Churches.
122: Circuses.
123: Civil Rights Cases.
124: Civil Rights Movement.
125: Class Structure, Upper, Middle, Underclass.
126: Clothing and Fashion Industry.
127: Collectibles, Black.
128: Color Purple, The (film).
129: Coltrane, John (1926–67), Jazz Saxophonist, Composer.
130: Combs, Sean (Diddy) (1969–), Record Producer, Recording Artist, Fashion Designer, Actor.
131: Comedy and Comedians.
132: Communities, African American.
133: Composers.
134: Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
135: Congressional Black Caucus.
136: Consciousness and Identity, African American.
137: Consumerism, Shopping, and Brands.
138: Cookbooks.
139: Cooper, Anna Julia (1858–1964), Educator, Writer, Women's Rights Advocate, Social Activist.
140: Cornrows.
141: Cosby, Bill (1937–), Comedian, Actor.
142: Cosby Show, The.
143: Cosmetics.
144: Cotillions and Botillions.
145: Country Music, Black.
146: Cowboys and Rodeos.
147: Crime.
148: Crisis (magazine) (1910–).
149: Cullen, Countee (1903–46), Poet, Writer.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Dance and Dance Companies.
2: Dandridge, Dorothy (1922–65), Actress, Singer, Dancer.
3: Davis, Angela (1944–), Social Justice and Political Activist, Educator, Lecturer.
4: Davis, Miles (1926–91), Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader.
5: Davis, Ossie (1917–2005) and Dee, Ruby (1924–), Actors, Directors, Writers, Social Activists.
6: Davis, Shani (1982–), Speed Skater.
7: Deejaying.
8: Delany, Samuel R. (1942–), Writer, Literary Critic, Educator.
9: Delta Blues.
10: Dickerson, Chris (1939–), Bodybuilder, Opera Singer.
11: Double Dutch.
12: Douglass, Frederick (1818–95), Abolitionist, Writer, Statesman, Journalist.
13: Dove, Rita (1952–), Poet, Novelist, Playwright, Composer.
14: Dozens.
15: Dreadlocks.
16: Drugs and Popular Culture.
17: Du Bois, W. E. B. (1868–1963), Educator, Civil Rights Pioneer, and Activist.
18: Dunbar, Paul Laurence (1872–1906), Poet.
19: Dungy, Tony (1955–), Football Coach.
20: Dupri, Jermaine (1972–), Record Producer, Rapper, Songwriter.
21: Ebony (magazine).
22: Economic Development.
23: Edelman, Marian Wright (1939–), Lawyer, Activist, Children's Rights Advocate.
24: Edmonds, Kenneth “Baby Face” (1958–), Singer, Songwriter, Record Producer.
25: Education: Public and Private.
26: Elder, Lee (1934–), Golfer.
27: Ellington, Duke (1899–1974), Composer, Bandleader, Pianist.
28: Elliott, Missy (1971–), Rap Singer, Songwriter, Producer.
29: Ellison, Ralph (1914–94), Writer.
30: Employment, Unemployment, and Income.
31: Entertainment Industry.
32: Essence (1970).
33: Europe.
34: Evers, Medgar (1925–63), Civil Rights Activist.
35: Ewing, Patrick (1962–), Basketball Player.
36: Expos, Black.
37: Family Life.
38: Family Reunions.
39: Farrakhan, Louis (1933–), Religious Leader, Social Activist.
40: Federal Theatre Project: Negro Theatre Unit.
41: Federal Writers' Project (1935–39).
42: Feminism.
43: Fiction.
44: 50 Cent (1976–), Rapper, Actor, Entrepreneur.
45: Film and Filmmakers.
46: Film Festivals.
47: Fish Fry.
48: Fitzgerald, Ella (1917–96), Singer.
49: Folk Foods.
50: Folklore.
51: Food and Cooking.
52: Football.
53: Foreman, George (1949–), Boxing Champion.
54: Foster, Rube (1879–1930), Sports Administrator, Baseball Player.
55: Fox, Vivica (1964–), Actress, Producer.
56: Foxx, Jamie (1967–), Comedian, Actor, Singer.
57: Frankie and Albert/Johnny.
58: Franklin, Aretha (1942–), Singer, Songwriter.
59: Franklin, John Hope (1915–2009), Historian.
60: Franklin, Kirk (1970–), Singer, Songwriter, Record Producer.
61: Frazier, Joe (1944–), Boxing Champion.
62: Freedom Riders.
63: Freeman, Morgan (1937–), Actor.
64: Funerals.
65: Gambling and Gaming.
66: Games, Video Games, and Toys.
67: Gangs.
68: Gangsta Rap.
69: Garvey, Marcus (1887–1940), Pan-Africanist, Social Activist.
70: Gates, Henry Louis Jr. (1950–), Educator, Literary and Cultural Critic.
71: Gay, Tyson (1982–), Track and Field Sprinter.
72: Gay and Lesbian Culture.
73: Gaye, Marvin (1939–84), Singer-Songwriter, Musician.
74: Genealogy and DNA Testing.
75: Gibson, Althea (1927–2003), Tennis Player.
76: Gillespie, Dizzy (1917–93), Jazz Trumpeter, Bandleader, Composer.
77: Giovanni, Nikki (1943–), Poet, Activist, Educator.
78: Globalization.
79: Goldberg, Whoopi (1955–), Comedian, Actress, Social Activist, Talk Show Host.
80: Golf.
81: Gospel Choirs and Singing Groups.
82: Governors and Mayors.
83: Graphic Novels and Books.
84: Graves, Earl G. (1935–), Entrepreneur, Publisher.
85: Great Migration.
86: Greek Letter Organizations.
87: Greene, “Mean Joe” (1946–), Football Player.
88: Gregory, Dick (1932–), Comedian, Social and Political Activist.
89: Gumbel, Bryant (1948–), Sportscaster, Television Journalist.
90: Hair and Hairstyles.
91: Haley, Alex (1921–92), Writer.
92: Hamer, Fannie Lou (1917–77), Civil Rights Activist.
93: Handy, W. C. (1873–1958), Musician and Composer.
94: Hansberry, Lorraine (1930–65), Playwright.
95: Harlem Globetrotters.
96: Harlem Renaissance.
97: Harris, E. Lynn (1955–2009), Writer, Editor.
98: Harvey, Steve (1957–), Actor, Comedian, Radio Personality.
99: Hayes, Isaac (1942–2008), Singer, Composer, Musician, Actor.
100: Head Start.
101: Hendrix, Jimi (1942–70), Rock Guitarist.
102: Herc, Kool DJ (1955–).
103: Higginbotham, A. Leon (1928–98), Judge, Writer, Civil Rights Activist.
104: Himes, Chester (1909–84), Writer.
105: Hip-Hop.
106: Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).
107: HIV/AIDS.
108: HIV/AIDS Initiatives and the Black Church.
109: Holiday, Billie (1915–59), Jazz Singer, Actor.
110: Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations.
111: Holyfield, Evander (1962–), Boxer.
112: Hooker, John Lee (1917–2001), Singer, Musician.
113: Hopkins, Lightnin’ (1912–82), Singer, Songwriter, Musician.
114: Horse Racing and Jockeys.
115: Housing as Lifestyle.
116: Houston, Charles Hamilton (1895–1950), Lawyer, Law School Dean.
117: Houston, Whitney (1963–), Singer, Actress.
118: Hudson, Jennifer (1981–), Singer, Actress.
119: Hughes, Cathy (1947–), Entrepreneur, Radio and Television Personality.
120: Hughes, Langston (1902–67), Poet, Writer.
121: Hughley, D. L. (1964–), Comedian, Actor, Talk Show Host.
122: Humor.
123: Hurston, Zora Neale (1891–1960), Writer, Folklorist.
124: Hush/Bush Harbors.
125: Ice Cube (1969–), Rapper, Actor, Producer.
126: Ifill, Gwen (1955–), Journalist, Television Newscaster.
127: Inventors and Inventions.
128: Iverson, Allen (1975–) Professional Basketball Player.
129: Jackson Five, Pop Singing Group.
130: Jackson, Janet (1966–), Singer, Actress.
131: Jackson, Jesse (1941–), Minister, Activist.
132: Jackson, Mahalia (1911–72), Gospel Singer.
133: Jackson, Michael (1958–2009), Singer, Songwriter, Producer.
134: Jackson, Reggie (1946–), Baseball Player.
135: Jackson, Samuel L. (1948–), Actor.
136: Jakes, T. D. (1958–), Minister.
137: James, LeBron (1984–), Basketball Player.
138: Jazz and Jazz Festivals.
139: Jemison, Mae (1956–), Astronaut, Physician.
140: Jet.
141: Jim Crow.
142: Johnson, Jack (1878–1946), Boxer.
143: Johnson, James Weldon (1871–1938), Writer, Educator, Activist, Songwriter.
144: Johnson, John H. (1918–2005), Publisher, Entrepreneur.
145: Johnson, Magic (1959–), Basketball Player.
146: Jokes.
147: Jones, James Earl (1931–), Actor.
148: Jones, Quincy (1933–), Musician, Producer, Composer, Songwriter.
149: Joplin, Scott (1868–1917), Composer.
150: Jordan, Barbara (1936–96), Politician, Lawyer, Educator.
151: Jordan, Michael (1963–), Basketball Player.
152: Journalism and Journalists.
153: Joyner, Tom (1949–), Radio Host, Entrepreneur, Philanthropist.
154: Joyner-Kersee, Jacqueline “Jackie” (1962–), Track and Field Long Jumper, Sprinter.
155: Judges.
156: Jump Rope Rhymes/Games.
157: Juneteenth.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Keys, Alicia (1981–), Singer, Songwriter, Actress, Humanitarian.
2: King, B. B. (1925–), Blues Guitarist.
3: King, Coretta Scott (1927–2006), Activist.
4: King, Martin Luther Jr. (1929–68), Civil Rights Leader, Minister.
5: King, Martin Luther Jr., National Holiday.
6: Kwanzaa.
7: L L Cool J (1968–), Musician, Actor.
8: Labor Movement.
9: Language.
10: Latifah, Queen (1970–), Actress, Rapper.
11: Law and Law Schools.
12: Law Enforcement.
13: Leadbelly (Ledbetter, Huddie William, 1888–1949), Blues Singer, Composer.
14: Lee, Spike (1957–), Filmmaker.
15: Legal Defense Fund (NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund) (LDF).
16: Lewis, Carl (1961–), Track and Field Athlete.
17: Lewis, John R. (1940–), Civil Rights Activist, Congressman.
18: Libraries and Research Centers.
19: Literature, Classic African American.
20: Literature, Contemporary African American.
21: Lorde, Audre (1934–92), Poet, Writer, Activist.
22: Louis, Joe (1914–81), Boxer.
23: Love, Nat “Deadwood Dick” (1854–1921), Cowboy.
24: Lynching.
25: Mabley, Moms (c. 1897–1975), Comedian, Entertainer.
26: Madison, Joe (1949–), Radio Host, Activist.
27: Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) (1925–65), Activist, Nation of Islam Organizer and Leader.
28: March on Washington.
29: Mardi Gras.
30: Mardi Gras Costumes and Masks.
31: Marley, Bob (1945–81), Singer, Musician, Songwriter, Activist.
32: Marley, Ziggy (1968–), Singer, Musician, Songwriter, Producer.
33: Marsalis, Wynton (1961–), Trumpeter, Conductor, Composer.
34: Marshall, Thurgood (1908–93), U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Civil Rights Attorney.
35: Marxism.
36: Mashed Potato (Dance).
37: Mays, Willie (1931–), Baseball Player.
38: McDaniel, Hattie (1895–1952), Actress, Singer.
39: McGruder, Robert G. Jr. (1942–2002), Journalist, Editor.
40: McKay, Claude (1889–1948), Poet, Novelist, Journalist.
41: McKnight, Brian (1969–), Singer.
42: McMillan, Terry (1951–), Writer.
43: McNair, Steve (1973–2009), Professional Football Player.
44: Medical Schools.
45: Medicine, Folk.
46: Medicine, Health, and Healing.
47: Megachurches and Ministers.
48: Men, African American, Images of.
49: Metcalfe, Ralph H. (1910–78), Track and Field Sprinter, Politician.
50: Micheaux, Oscar (1884–1951), Film Director and Producer, Writer.
51: Midwives and Midwifery.
52: Military.
53: Million Man March.
54: Million Woman March.
55: Minstrelsy.
56: Miscegenation.
57: Mo'Nique (1967–), Comedian, Actress.
58: Modeling.
59: Monk, Thelonious (1917–82).
60: Montgomery Bus Boycott.
61: Morrison, Toni (1931–), Writer, Educator, Editor.
62: Morton, Jelly Roll (Morton, Ferdinand) (1890–1941), Composer.
63: Mosley, Walter (1952–), Writer.
64: Motown Records.
65: Muhammad, Elijah (1897–1975), Religious Leader.
66: Multiculturalism.
67: Murphy, Eddie (1961–), Comedian, Actor.
68: Musicians and Singers.
69: NAACP (1909).
70: Nation of Islam.
71: National Association of Black Journalists (1975).
72: National Bar Association (1925).
73: National Black Arts Festival (1987).
74: National Black Theater Festival (1989).
75: National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) (1935).
76: National Dental Association.
77: National Medical Association.
78: National Urban League (1911).
79: Naylor, Gloria (1950–), Writer.
80: Négritude.
81: Negro Baseball Leagues.
82: New Orleans.
83: Newspapers and Periodicals.
84: Newton, Huey P. (1942–89), Activist, Black Power Leader.
85: Nightclubs, Entertainment Spots, Dives, and Juke Joints.
86: Norton, Eleanor Holmes (1937–), Politician, Lawyer, Civil and Human Rights Activist.
87: Notorious B. I. G. (1972–97), Rapper.
88: Nurses and Nursing.
89: Obama, Barack (1961–), 44th President of the United States.
90: Obama, Michelle (1964–), First Lady, Lawyer, Community Organizer.
91: Oliver, King (1885–1938), Cornetist, Bandleader.
92: Olympics.
93: O'Neal, Shaquille (1972–), Basketball Player.
94: Operation PUSH (People United to Serve Humanity).
95: Organizations and Associations.
96: Owens, Jesse (1913–80), Track and Field Sprinter.
97: Paige, Satchel (c. 1906–82), Baseball Player.
98: Pan-Africanism.
99: Parker, Charlie (1920–55), Jazz Saxophonist.
100: Parks, Rosa (1913–2005), Civil Rights Activist.
101: Passing.
102: Payton, Walter (1954–99), Football Player.
103: Pendergrass, Teddy (1950–2010), Singer-Songwriter.
104: Perry, Tyler (1969–), Playwright, Screenwriter, Actor, Film Director.
105: Philanthropy.
106: Photography.
107: Pickett, Bill (1870–1932), Cowboy.
108: Pimp Walk.
109: Pinchback, P. B. S. (1837–1921), Politician, Lawyer, Entrepreneur, Educator.
110: Pippen, Scottie (1965–), Professional Basketball Player.
111: Pittsburgh Courier (1910).
112: Playwrights.
113: Plessy v. Ferguson (1896).
114: Poetry Jams.
115: Poets and Poetry.
116: Poitier, Sidney (1927–), Actor, Director, Activist.
117: Politics and Government.
118: Politics and the Black Church.
119: Pop Music.
120: Population.
121: Powell, Adam Clayton Jr. (1908–72), Congressman, Activist, Pastor.
122: Powell, Colin (1937–), United States Army General, Secretary of State.
123: Prince (1958–), Singer, Musician, Actor.
124: Prison Reform.
125: Prophets and Spiritualists.
126: Prostitution.
127: Protest Marches.
128: Pryor, Richard (1940–2005), Comedian, Actor, Writer, Producer.
129: Public Enemy.
130: Publishers and Publishing.
131: Quilts and Quilting Traditions.
132: R & B (Rhythm and Blues).
133: Race and Ethnicity.
134: Race Records.
135: Race Riots.
136: Racial Profiling.
137: Radio Shows and Hosts.
138: Ragtime.
139: Rainbow Coalition.
140: Rainey, Ma (1886–1939), Blues Singer.
141: Randolph, A. Philip (1889–1979) Union Organizer, Labor Leader, Civil Rights Activist.
142: Rap Music and Rappers.
143: Rap, Crossover Forms.
144: Raspberry, William J. (1935–), Journalist, Educator.
145: Rastafarianism (1930s).
146: Reggae, Reggaeton.
147: Reid, Antonio “L. A.” (1956–), Songwriter, Producer, Record Company Executive, Singer.
148: Religious Customs and Traditions.
149: Reparations.
150: Rice, Condoleezza (1954–), Diplomat, Educator, Writer.
151: Rice, Jerry (1962–), Professional Football Player.
152: Richie, Lionel (1949–), Singer, Musician, Songwriter.
153: Robeson, Paul (1898–1976), Actor, Singer, Activist.
154: Robinson, Frank (1935–), Professional Baseball Player, Manager.
155: Robinson, Jackie (1919–72), Baseball Player.
156: Robinson, Max (1939–88), Television Broadcaster, Journalist.
157: Robinson, Randall (1941–), Activist, Lobbyist, Writer.
158: Robinson, Smokey (1940–), Singer, Songwriter, Recording Executive.
159: Robinson, Sugar Ray (1921–89), Boxer.
160: Rock and Roll.
161: Rock, Chris (1965–), Comedian, Actor, Talk Show Host, Producer.
162: Rodman, Dennis (1961–), Professional Basketball Player.
163: Roker, AI (1954–), Television Broadcaster and Weatherman.
164: Roots, Television Miniseries.
165: Rosewood.
166: Ross, Diana (1944–), Singer, Actress.
167: Rudolph, Wilma (1940–94), Runner.
168: Russell, Bill (1934–), Basketball Player.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Scat Singing.
2: Science and Scientists.
3: Scott, Jill (1972–), Singer, Songwriter, Poet, Actress.
4: Scott, Wendell Oliver (1921–90), Racecar Driver.
5: Scottsboro, Alabama.
6: Shaft (film).
7: Shakur, Tupac (1971–96), Rapper, Actor.
8: Shange, Ntozake (1948–), Playwright, Writer, Poet, Performer.
9: Sharpton, AI (1954–), Minister, Civil Rights Activist.
10: Shepherd, Sherri (1970–), Comedian, Talk Show Host, Actress.
11: Shucking.
12: Signifying.
13: Signifying Monkey, The.
14: Simmons, Russell (1957–), Entrepreneur, Philanthropist, Activist.
15: Simpson, O. J. (1947–), Professional Football Player, Actor.
16: Single Parenting.
17: Sit-in Movement.
18: Sixteenth Street Baptist Church.
19: Slang and Unconventional English.
20: Slave Narratives.
21: Slim, Iceberg (1919–92), Writer, Pimp.
22: Smiley, Tavis (1964–), Political and Social Commentator, Radio and Television Journalist.
23: Smith, Bessie (1894–1937), Blues Singer.
24: Smith, Emmitt (1969–), Professional Football Player.
25: Smith, Jada Pinkett (1971–), Actress, Singer.
26: Smith, Lovie (1958–), Football Coach.
27: Smith, Mamie (1883–1946), Blues Singer.
28: Smith, Tubby (1958–), College Basketball Coach.
29: Smith, Will (1968–), Actor, Singer.
30: Snoop Dogg (1971–), Rapper, Record Producer, Actor.
31: Social Activists.
32: Soul.
33: Soul and Funk (Music).
34: Soul Food.
35: Soul Train.
36: South, The.
37: Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
38: Sparks, Jordin (1989–), Singer, Model, Actress.
39: Spirituals.
40: Sports.
41: Sports Announcers and Commentators.
42: Sports Classics.
43: Steele, Shelby (1946–), Writer, Researcher.
44: Stepping.
45: Stewart, James “Bubba” (1985–), Motocross/Supercross Racer.
46: Still, William Grant (1895–1978), Composer.
47: Stringer, C. Vivian (1948–), Basketball Coach.
48: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) (1960).
49: Sullivan, Leon H. (1922–2001), Minister, Activist.
50: Superstitions.
51: Sykes, Wanda (1964–), Comedian, Actor, Writer.
52: Tap Dance.
53: Taylor, Koko (1928–2009), Singer.
54: Taylor, Susan L. (1946–), Editor, Writer, Journalist, Activist.
55: Technology.
56: Television.
57: Television Evangelism.
58: Tennis.
59: Terrell, Mary Church (1863–1954), Educator, Orator, Writer, Civil and Women's Rights Activist.
60: Theater and Drama.
61: Thomas, Clarence (1948–), U.S. Supreme Court justice.
62: Thompson, John R. (1941–), College Basketball Coach.
63: Thornton, Big Mama (1926–84), Singer, Musician.
64: Till, Emmett Louis (1941–55), Civil Rights Movement Inspiration.
65: Townsend, Robert (1957–), Actor, Filmmaker, Director, Writer.
66: Track and Field.
67: TransAfrica.
68: Travel and Tourism.
69: Truth, Sojourner (1797–1883), Traveling Preacher, Abolitionist, Women's Rights Activist.
70: Tubman, Harriet (c. 1820–1913), Underground Railroad Conductor, Feminist, Union Spy, Nurse.
71: Tucker, Chris (1972–), Actor, Comedian.
72: Turner, Tina (1939–), Singer, Songwriter, Actress.
73: Tuskegee Airmen.
74: Tyson, Cicely (1933–), Actress, Model, Singer, Humanitarian.
75: Tyson, Mike (1966–), Boxer.
76: U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
77: Uncle Tom.
78: Uncle Tom's Cabin.
79: Underground Railroad.
80: United Negro College Fund.
81: Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) (1914).
82: Urban Culture.
83: Van Peebles, Mario (1957–), Director, Actor, Producer, Writer.
84: Van Peebles, Melvin (1932–), Filmmaker, Playwright, Writer.
85: Vandross, Luther (1951–2005), Singer.
86: Vick, Michael (1980–), Football Player.
87: Voodoo, Tricks, and Tricksters, etc..
88: Voting Patterns.
89: Walker, Aaron “T-Bone” (1910–75), Musician, Guitarist.
90: Walker, Alice (1944–), Poet, Writer, Activist, Editor.
91: Walker, Madam C. J. (1867–1919), Hair Care Magnate, Philanthropist.
92: Ward, Clara (1924–73), Gospel and Nightclub Singer.
93: Warwick, Dionne (1940–), Singer, Activist.
94: Washington, Booker T. (1856–1915), Educator.
95: Washington, Denzel (1954–), Actor, Director, Producer.
96: Waters, Muddy (1915–83), Electric Guitarist, Blues Singer.
97: Wayans Brothers, Entertainers, Filmmakers.
98: Wedding Customs and Traditions.
99: Welfare Rights Movement.
100: Wells-Barnett, Ida B. (1862–1931), Journalist, Civil Rights Activist.
101: West, Cornel R. (1953–), Philosopher, Educator, Activist, Writer.
102: West, Kanye (1977–), Singer/Rapper, Composer, Producer.
103: Wheatley, Phillis (c. 1753–84), Poet.
104: Whitaker, Forest (1961–), Actor, Director, Producer.
105: White, Walter (1893–1955), Organization Executive, Civil Rights Leader, Writer.
106: Whitfield, Lynn (1954–), Actress.
107: Wilkens, Lenny (1937–), Basketball Coach, Professional Basketball Player.
108: Wilkins, Roy O. (1901–81), Newspaper Reporter, Civil Rights Leader, Organization Leader.
109: Williams, Deniece (1950–), Singer, Songwriter, Actress.
110: Williams, Juan (1954–) Television and Radio News Correspondent, Journalist.
111: Williams, Vanessa (1963–), Actress, Singer.
112: Williams, Venus (1980–) and Williams, Serena (1981–), Tennis Players.
113: Williamson, Sonny Boy I (Williamson, John Lee, 1914–48) and Williamson, Sonny Boy II (Miller, Aleck Ford “Rice,” 1899–1965), Blues Harmonica Players, Singers, Composers.
114: Wilson, August (1945–2005), Playwright.
115: Winans, BeBe (1964–), Gospel Singer, Songwriter, Actor, Music Producer.
116: Winans, CeCe (1964–), Gospel Singer, Author, Songwriter, Philanthropist.
117: Winfrey, Oprah (1954–), Talk-show Host, Actor, Entrepreneur, Producer.
118: Womanism.
119: Women and Sports.
120: Women and the Civil Rights Movement.
121: Women, African American, Images of.
122: Wonder, Stevie (1950–), Singer, Songwriter, Keyboardist.
123: Woods, Tiger (1975–), Golfer.
124: Woofing/Wolfing.
125: Wright, Jeremiah A. Jr. (1941–), Educator, Pastor, Writer, Religious and Civic leader.
126: Wright, Richard (1908–1960), Writer, Journalist.
127: Yard Art.
128: Young, Andrew (1932–), Clergyman, Civil Rights Leader, Politician, Diplomat.
129: Young, Whitney (1921–71), Civil Rights Leader, Social Worker.
130: Zoot Suits.
131: Zydeco Music.
Selected List of African American Films.
Selected List of African American Radio Shows.
Selected List of African American Television Shows.
Selected African American Pop Culture Collections at Research Centers, Libraries, and Universities.
Selected Bibliography.
Index.
About the Editor and Contributors.