eBook Philosophers of War: The Evolution of History’s Greatest Military Thinkers, 1st Edition

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  • ISBN-10: 0313070334
  • ISBN-13: 9780313070334
  • DDC: 355.001
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1022 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released January 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014
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About

Overview

Each culture has had its Machiavelli, its Sun Tzu; its own Mohammed-like or Napoleonic figure. This encyclopedia ranges across the world to provide entries on every significant military and strategic thinker in human history as well as a number of military cultures, covering Chinese, Western, Indian, Islamic, and other cultures. Each entry supplies a brief biography, a synopsis of the writer’s theories, their success or failure, and their impact on other thinkers and military practitioners. The unique coverage allows readers to cross cultural barriers and gain access to sources in languages as diverse as Arabic and German, and to note key similarities and contrasts. The relative importance and contribution of each individual to intellectual progress is noted, as is the greater significance of specific schools of thought and debates.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
List of Entries by Section.
Alphabetical List of Entries.
Foreword.
Set Introduction.
Introduction to Volume 1.
1: General Theory.
2: Al-Kufi, Abu-Bakr: (Thirteenth Century CE, Writing about Early Eighth Century CE).
3: Al-Rawandi, ‘Ali Abu-Bakr Najm al-Din Muhammad Ibn: (Late 12th Century CE).
4: Al-Shaybani, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan: (749–805).
5: Al-Shayzari, ‘Abd al-Rahman.
6: Al-Tarsusi, Mardi bin Ali: (12th century).
7: Babur, Zahiruddin: (February 14, 1484 CE to December 26, 1530 CE).
8: Baghdadi Manjaniqi, Yaʿqūb Ibn Ṣābir: (554–626/1159–1229).
9: Bana: (ca. Seventh Century CE).
10: Basta, Giorgio, Count of Huszt: (1544–1607).
11: Bonaparte, Napoleon: (1769–1821).
12: Bueil, Jean V de: (1406–1477).
13: Carl, Archduke of Austria and Duke of Teschen: (1771–1847).
14: Ch’i Chi-kuang, Senior Commissioner in Chief: (1528–1588).
15: Crissé, Turpin de, Lieutenant General Lancelot, Comte de: (1716–1795).
16: Ewald, Johann Von: (1744–1813).
17: Fazl, Abul: (1551–1602).
18: Feuquières, Antoine de pas, Marquis de: (1648–1711).
19: Fourquevaux, Raimond de Beccarie de Pavie, Seigneur de: (1509–1574).
20: Frontinus, Sextus Julius: (ca. 35–103 CE).
21: Guibert, Jacques-Antoine-Hippolyte, Comte de: (1743–1790).
22: Hay du Chastelet, Paul: (1619–1682?).
23: Herodotus: (ca. 484 BCE–ca. 425 BCE).
24: Ibn Akhi Hizam, Muhammad Ibn Ya’qub al-Khuttali: (ca. Ninth Century CE).
25: Kamandaka: (450–550 CE).
26: Kant, Immanuel: (1724–1804).
27: Kautilya: (ca. 300 BCE).
28: Khevenhüller, Ludwig Andreas, Graf von Frankenburg zu Aichelburg: (1683–1744).
29: Le Tellier, Michel and Le Tellier de Louvois, François-Michel: (1603–1685 and 1641–1691).
30: Leo VI: (866–912).
31: Li Ching: (571–649).
32: Li Ch’üan: (ca. 760 CE).
33: Lindenau, Feldmarschalleutnant Karl Friedrich, Graf v.: (1742–1817).
34: Lippe, Field Marshal Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst, Graf zu Schaumburg: (1724–1777).
35: Lipsius, Justus: (October 18, 1547 to March 23, 1606).
36: Lloyd, Major General Henry Humphrey Evans: (ca. 1729–1783).
37: Loque, Bertrand de (aka François de Saillans): (b. between ca. 1540–1550, d. after 1600).
38: Machiavelli, Niccolò di Bernardo dei: (1469–1527).
39: Maizeroy, Brigadier General Paul Gédéon Joly de: (1719–1780).
40: Majorovich, Andrea: (fl. 1750?).
41: Manu: (ca. 100 BCE).
42: Marlborough, John Churchill, Duke of: (1650–1722).
43: Masashige, Kusunoki: (1294–1336).
44: Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange, Stadtholder of Holland: (1567–1625).
45: Molyneux, Sir Thomas More, First Baronet: (1724–1776).
46: Montecúccoli, Raimondo Count of, Prince of the Empire, Duke of Melfi: (1608–1680).
47: Mubarakshah, Fakhr-i Mudabbir: (ca. 1150–1224 CE).
48: Muhammad Ibn Abdallah: (570–632 CE).
49: Naṣûḥ bin Karagöz, called Matrakçı, Matrâqî, Silâḥî, etc.: (ca. 1495?–ca. 1565?).
50: Onasander (Onasandros, Onesandros, Onosandros), Philosopher.
51: Pepys, Samuel: (1633–1703).
52: Pizan (or Pisan), Christine de: (1363–ca. 1430).
53: Polybius: (ca. 200 BCE–ca. 118 BCE).
54: Saxe, Marshal General of France, Comte Herman-Maurice de: (1696–1750).
55: Sertorius, Quintus.
56: Shang Yang: (d. 338 BCE).
57: Sima Qian: (?145–?86 BCE).
58: Sirhindi, Abdullah: (ca. 15th Century CE; Writing about 12th Century CE).
59: Sun Tzu: (ca. 500 BCE–300 BCE).
60: Thucydides, Son of Oloros, Strategos: (ca. 460–ca. 400 BCE).
61: Timur, Amir (or Tamerlane or Timur the Lame): (April 8, 1336 CE to February 14, 1405 CE).
62: Tran Hung Dao: (1228?-1300).
63: Usama Ibn Munqidh: (1095–ca. 1185 CE).
64: Valturio, Roberto: (1405–1475).
65: Yi Sunshin: (1545–1598).
66: Politics and Grand Strategic Theory.
67: Barrin, Rolland-Michel, Marquis de La Galissonière: (1693–1756).
68: Caesar, Gaius Julius: (100–44 BC).
69: Carnot, Comte Lazare Nicolas Marguerite: (1753–1823).
70: Constantine, “the Great” (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus): (272–327 AD).
71: Dubois, Pierre: (ca. 1255–Post 1321).
72: Fabius Maximus Verrucosus Cunctator, Quintus, Dictator: (ca. 285–203 BCE).
73: Marius, Caius: (Consul 107, 104, 103, 102, 101, 100, 86 BCE) (157–86 BCE).
74: Mendoza, Don Bernardino de: (1540–1604).
75: Nizam al-Mulk, Abu ‘Ali al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali: (ca. 1018–1092).
76: Rühle von Lilienstern, August: (1780–1847).
77: Santa Cruz de Marcenado: (1684–1732).
78: Scharnhorst, Gerhard Johann David von and Gneisenau, August Wilhelm Anton Count Neidhardt von: (1755–1813 and 1760–1831).
79: Siege Warfare and Artillery Theory.
80: Aineias, Called Aeneas Tacticus: (fl. 360 BE).
81: Al-Tabari, ‘Abd al-Rahman: (ca. Late Eighth Century to Early Ninth Century CE).
82: Apollodorus (Apollodoros), Architect.
83: Archimedes of Syracuse: (ca. 287–212 BCE).
84: Biton, Engineer.
85: Brialmont, Major General Henri Alexis: (1821–1903).
86: Coehoorn, Baron Menno Van: (1641–1704).
87: Dionysios I: (Also Dionysios the Elder Greek).
88: Gribeauval, Jean-Baptiste Vaquette de: (1715–1789).
89: Hero of Alexandria: (fl. 66 CE).
90: il Taccola, Mariano di Jacopo detto: (il Taccola, “the Crow,” is a Nickname) (1382–ca. 1453).
91: Kyeser, Conrad (Konrad): (1366–Post 1405).
92: Martini, Francesco di Giorgio: (1439–1502).
93: Tartaglia (The Stammerer) (aka Niccolò Fontana): (1500–1557).
94: Teil de Beaumont, Major General Jean du: (1738–1820).
95: Vinci, Leonardo da: (1452–1519).
96: Vitruvius, Marcus Pollio, Architect.
97: Tactical and Operational Theory.
98: Arrian, Governor of Cappadocia, Lucius Flavius Arrianus (Arrianos) Xenophon.
99: Asklepiodotos (Asclepiodotus) the Philosopher.
100: Bourcet, Lieutenant General Pierre-Joseph de: (1700–1780).
101: Bülow, (Adam) Dietrich (Heinrich) Freiherr von: (1757–1808).
102: De Ligne, Charles Joseph, Prince: (1735–1814).
103: Folard, Jean-Charles, Chevalier de: (1669–1752).
104: Frederick II (“the Great”), King of Prussia: (b. 1712, r. 1740–1786).
105: Genghis Khan (Personal Name: Temüjin): (1167–1227).
106: Gustavus II Adolphus, King of Sweden: (1594–1632).
107: Hannibal Barca: (247–183 BCE).
108: Howe, George Augustus: (ca. 1725–1758).
109: Kikkuli the Mitannian.
110: Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus): (ca. 539–602 CE).
111: Musashi, Miyamoto: (ca. 1584–1645 CE).
112: Nelson, Vice Admiral Horatio: (1758–1805).
113: Paré, Ambroise: (1510–1590).
114: Philip II: (382–336 BC).
115: Puységur, Jacques-François De Chastenet, Marquis de: (1655–1743).
116: Subotai, Baator (Sübedei Baatar): (1175?–1248?).
117: Sutcliffe, Matthew: (ca. 1550–1629).
118: Suvorov, Alexander Vasilievich: (1729–1800).
119: Tukulti-Ninurta II: (890–884 BCE).
120: Valentini, Lieutenant General Georg Wilhelm Freiherr von: (1775–1834).
121: Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus): (fl. 385–435 CE).
122: Xenophon of Athens: (ca. 430–354 BC).
123: General Essays.
124: Byzantine Military Doctrine.
125: Chinese Naval Theorists: (549 BCE–1895 CE).
126: Ethiopian Military Culture: (Fifth century CE–1941).
127: Forest Kingdoms of West Africa: (ca. 1500–1900).
128: Hindu Tradition of Just and Unjust War: (ca. 500 BCE–900 CE).
129: Incan Approaches to War: (1438–1532).
130: Indian Use of Chariots: (1500 BCE–170 BCE).
131: Indigenous Southern African Military Cultures.
132: Just War Theory (Western): (ca. 600 BCE–1800 CE).
133: Mesoamerican Cultures of War: (1200 BCE–1521 CE).
134: Pacific Islander Culture of War, Including Maori.
135: Southeast Asian Naval Warfare.
136: Sub-Saharan Military Responses to European Invasion: (1500–1900).
137: Thai Military Culture (Ramathibodi II): (1491–1529).
138: Use of Elephants in Indian Warfare: (1000 BCE–1943 CE).
139: War and Military Philosophy in Traditional Japan: (ca. 600–1868 CE).
140: Warfare in the Western and Central Sudan: (14th to 20th centuries CE).
141: Western Naval Warfare: (1450–1850).
About the Editors and Contributors.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
List of Entries by Section.
Alphabetical List of Entries.
Introduction to Volume 2.
1: General Theory.
2: Angell, Sir (Ralph) Norman (Formerly Ralph Angell Norman Lane): (1872–1967).
3: Baudissin, Lieutenant General Wolf Graf von: (1907–1993).
4: Bloch (Bliokh), Ivan Stanislavich: (1836–1902).
5: Clausewitz, Carl von: (1780–1831).
6: Delbrück, Hans: (1848–1929).
7: DePuy, General William E.: (1919–1992).
8: Frunze, Mikhail Vasilevich: (1885–1925).
9: Fuller, Major General John Frederick Charles, CB, CBE, DSO: (1878–1966).
10: Halleck, General Henry W.: (1815–1872).
11: Haushofer, Karl Ernst: (August 27, 1869, Munich–March 10, 1946, Pfähl/Ammersee, Bavaria).
12: Ishiwara, Kanji: (1889–1949).
13: Isserson, Division Commander Georgii Samoilovich: (1898–1976).
14: Jomini, Antoine Henri Baron de: (1779–1869).
15: Kissinger, Henry A.: (Born 1923).
16: Leeb, Wilhelm Josef Franz Ritter, von: (September 5, 1876–April 29, 1956).
17: Lieber, Francis: (1800–1872).
18: Lind, William S.: (Born 1947).
19: Lossberg, General Friedrich von: (1868–1942).
20: Mackinder, Sir Halford J.: (1861–1947).
21: Mahan, Dennis Hart: (1802–1871).
22: Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich: (1818–1883 and 1820–1895).
23: Montgomery, Field Marshal Bernard Law: (1887–1976).
24: Nasution, General Abdul Haris: (1918–2000).
25: Picq, Colonel Charles Ardant du: (1821–1870).
26: Schmitt, Major John F.: (1959–).
27: Sherman, William Tecumseh: (1820–1891).
28: Slim, Viscount and Field Marshall William Joseph: (1891–1970).
29: Svechin, Division Commander Aleksandr Andreevich: (1878–1938).
30: Trotsky, Leon (Lev Davidovich Bronshtein): (1879–1940).
31: Varfolomeev, Brigade Commander Nikolai Yefimovich: (1890–1939).
32: Willoughby, Major General Charles Andre: (1892–1972).
33: Naval Theory.
34: Akiyama Saneyuki: (1868–1918).
35: Aleksandrov, Rear Admiral Aleksandr Petrovich: (1900–1946).
36: Belli, Professor and Rear Admiral Vladimir Aleksandrovich: (1887–1981).
37: Cable, Sir James: (1920–2001).
38: Castex, Vice Admiral Raoul Victor Patrice: (1878–1968).
39: Colomb, Captain Sir John Charles Ready: (1838–1909).
40: Colomb, Vice Admiral Philip Howard: (1831–1889).
41: Corbett, Sir Julian Stafford: (1854–1922).
42: Dönitz, Grand Admiral Karl: (1891–1980).
43: Fiske, Rear Admiral Bradley A.: (1854–1942).
44: Genda, Lieutenant General Minoru: (1904–1989).
45: Gorshkov, Sergei Georgyevich: (1910–1988).
46: Hamilton, General Sir Ian Standish Monteith: (1853–1947).
47: Heye, Vice Admiral Hellmuth Guido Alexander: (1895–1970).
48: Jeune École: (1880–1905).
49: Kuznetsov, Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Nikolai Gerasimovich: (1904–1974).
50: Mahan, Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer: (1840–1914).
51: Moffett, Admiral William A.: (1869–1933).
52: Nimitz, Fleet Admiral Chester W.: (1885–1966).
53: Raeder, Grand Admiral Erich: (1876–1960).
54: Richmond, Admiral Sir Herbert KCB: (1871–1946).
55: Rickover, Hyman George: (1900–1986).
56: Scott, Admiral Sir Percy Moreton, First Baronet GCB KCVO: (1853–1924).
57: Sims, Admiral William Sowden: (1858–1936).
58: Smith, General Holland M.: (1882–1967).
59: Stenzel, Captain Alfred: (1832–1906).
60: Tetsutaro, Sato: (1866–1942).
61: Tirpitz, Grand Admiral Alfred von: (March 19, 1849–March 6, 1930).
62: Togo, Admiral Heihachiro, Japanese Navy: (1848–1934).
63: Turner, Admiral Stansfield: (December 1, 1923–).
64: Wegener, Vice Admiral Wolfgang: (1875–1956).
65: Wylie, Rear Admiral Joseph C. “J. C.” Jr.: (1911–1993).
66: Yamamoto, Admiral Isoroku: (1884–1943).
67: Zherve (Gervais), Professor Boris Borisovich and Petrov, Professor Mikhail Aleksandrovich: (1878–1934 and 1885–1938).
68: Zumwalt, Admiral Elmo R. Jr.: (1920–2000).
69: Airpower Theory.
70: Arnold, General Henry H. “Hap”: (1886–1950).
71: Boelcke, Hauptmann Oswald: (1891–1916).
72: Boyd, Colonel John R.: (1927–1997).
73: Chennault, Major General (USAAF) Claire Lee: (1893–1958).
74: Coningham, Air Marshal Sir Arthur “Mary”: (1895–1948).
75: De Seversky, Major Alexander Procofieff: (1894–1974).
76: Douhet, General Giulio: (1869–1930).
77: Dowding, Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Caswall Tremenheere: (1882–1970).
78: Fairchild, General Muir S.: (1894–1950).
79: Groves, Brigadier General Percy Robert Clifford: (1878–1959).
80: Harris, Sir Arthur Travers: (1892–1984).
81: Kammhuber, Josef: (August 19, 1896, Burgkirchen a. Wald, Bavaria–January 25, 1986, Munich).
82: Kinnard, Lieutenant General Harry William Osborne Jr.: (1915–).
83: Lapchinsky, Alexander Nikolaevich: (July 23, 1882–May 2, 1938).
84: LeMay, General Curtis E.: (1906–1990).
85: Lindemann, Frederick Alexander, Viscount Cherwell: (1886–1957).
86: Mitchell, William “Billy”: (1879–1936).
87: Novikov, Chief Marshal of Aviation Aleksandr Aleksandrovich: (1900–1976).
88: Quesada, Lieutenant General Elwood Richard “Pete”: (1904–1993).
89: Richthofen, Wolfram von: (October 10, 1895–July 12, 1945).
90: Rogers, General Bernard William, Supreme Allied Commander, NATO: (1921–).
91: Slessor, Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir John C.: (1897–1979).
92: Smuts, Field Marshal Jan Christiaan: (1870–1950).
93: Spaatz, General Carl A.: (1891–1974).
94: Student, Kurt Arthur Benno: (May 12, 1890, Birkholz–July 1, 1978, Lemgo).
95: Sykes, Major General Sir Frederick Hugh: (1877–1954).
96: Trenchard, Hugh Montague, 1st Viscount, Air Marshal: (1873–1956).
97: Warden, Colonel John A. III: (1943–).
98: Wever, Lieutenant General Walther: (1887–1936).
99: Wilberg, General der Flieger Helmuth: (1880–1941).
100: Zuckerman, Solly Baron: (1904–1993).
101: Tactical (Ground) Theory.
102: Bernhardi, General Friedrich von: (1849–1930).
103: Bruchmüller, Major General Georg: (1863–1948).
104: Foch, Marshal Ferdinand: (1851–1929).
105: Gavin, Lieutenant General James Maurice: (1907–1990).
106: Grandmaison, General Louis Loyseau de: (1861–1915).
107: Hardee, General William J.: (October 12, 1815–November 6, 1873).
108: Hutier, General Oskar von: (1857–1934).
109: Laffargue, Lieutenant General André Charles Victor: (1891–1994).
110: Plumer, Field Marshal the Viscount of Messines, Herbert Charles Onslow: (1857–1932).
111: Rawlinson, General Sir Henry: (1864–1925).
112: Rohr, Willy Martin: (1877–1929).
113: Rommel, Field Marshal Erwin: (1891–1944).
114: Schlichting, Sigismund von: (1829–1909).
115: Verdy du Vernois, Julius von: (July 19, 1832–September 30, 1910).
116: Voronov, Chief Marshal of Artillery Nikolai Nikolaevich: (1899–1968).
117: Modern Armor and Mechanized Warfare Theory.
118: Beck, General Ludwig: (1880–1944).
119: Chaffee, Major General Adna Romanza Jr.: (1884–1941).
120: de Gaulle, Brigadier General Charles: (November 22, 1890–November 9, 1970).
121: Fedorenko, Marshal of Armored Forces Iakov Nikolaevich: (1896–1947).
122: Guderian, Colonel General Heinz Wilhelm: (1888–1954).
123: Heigl, Major Dr. Fritz: (1893–1930).
124: Hobart, Major General Percy Cleghorn Stanley: (1885–1957).
125: Liddell Hart, Sir Basil Henry: (1895–1970).
126: Lutz, General of Armored Troops Oswald: (1876–1944).
127: Movchin, Colonel Nikolai Nikolaevich: (1896–1938).
128: Simpkin, Brigadier Richard Evelyn: (1921–1986).
129: Triandafillov, Corps Commander Vladimir Kiriakovich: (1894–1931).
130: Tukhachevskii, Marshal Mikhail Nikolaevich: (1893–1937).
131: Volckheim, Colonel Ernst: (1898–1962).
132: Insurgency Theory.
133: Bakunin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich: (1814–1876).
134: Bayó y Giroud, Alberto: (1892–1967).
135: Bin Ladin, Osama.
136: Chu Teh, FM (Zhu De), Marshal: (1886–1976).
137: Collins, Michael: (1890–1922).
138: Debray, Régis: (1940–).
139: Fanon, Frantz M. D.: (1925–1961).
140: Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (Known as Mahatma “Great Soul”): (1869–1948).
141: Giap, General Vo Nguyen: (1911–).
142: Guevara de la Serna, Ernesto (aka Che Guevara): (1928–1967).
143: Guillen, Abraham: (1910–1993).
144: Lawrence, Thomas Edward: (1888–1935).
145: Lemière (Le Mière) de Corvey, Jean-Frédéric-Auguste: (1771–1832).
146: Lenin, Vladimir: (1870–1924).
147: Mao Tse-Tung: (December 26, 1893–September 9, 1976).
148: Marighella, Carlos: (1911–1969).
149: Most, Johann Joseph: (1846–1906).
150: Poiteau, Major Étienne “Stéphane”: (1919–1952).
151: Sendic Antonaccio, Raúl: (1926–1989).
152: Wisner, Frank Gardiner: (1909–1965).
153: Counterinsurgency Theory.
154: Best, SS-Obergruppenführer (Lieutenant General) Werner: (1903–1989).
155: Briggs, Lieutenant General Sir Harold Rawdon, KCIE, KBE, CB, DSO: (1884–1951).
156: Bugeaud, Marshal of France Thomas Robert: (1784–1849).
157: Callwell, Major General Sir Charles Edward: (1859–1928).
158: Fall, Bernard B.: (1926–1967).
159: Gallieni, Marshal of France Joseph Simon: (1849–1916).
160: Galula, Lieutenant Colonel David: (1919–1967).
161: Gwynn, Major General Sir Charles, KCB, CMG, DSO: (1870–1963).
162: Kilcullen, Dr. David: (1967-Present).
163: Kitson, Sir Frank, GBE, KCB, MC and Bar: (1926–).
164: Komer, Robert W.: (1922–2000).
165: Lacheroy, Colonel Charles: (1906–2005).
166: Lansdale, Major General Edward G.: (1908–1987).
167: Lyautey, Marshal of France Louis Hubert Gonzalve: (1854–1934).
168: McMaster, Brigadier General Herbert Raymond: (1962–Present).
169: Petraeus, David Howell: (1952–).
170: Schenckendorff, General der Infanterie Max von: (1875–1943).
171: Simson, Colonel H. J.: (1886–1941).
172: Thompson, Sir Robert Grainger Ker: (1916–1992).
173: Trinquier, Colonel Roger: (1908–1986).
174: Zeng Guofan (Also Tseng Kuo-Fan), General: (1811–1872).
175: Military Organization and Management Theory.
176: Albrecht, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Teschen: (1817–1895).
177: Brialmont, Major General Henri Alexis: (1821–1903).
178: Dunant, Jean Henry: (1828–1910).
179: Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt: (1916–1995).
180: Falkenhayn, General Erich von: (1861–1922).
181: Goebbels, Reich Minister (Paul) Joseph: (1897–1945).
182: Goltz, Colmar von der: (1843–1916).
183: Haupt, Colonel and Superintendent of Union Railroads Herman: (1817–1905).
184: Henderson, Lieutenant General Sir David: (1862–1921).
185: Huntington, Samuel Phillips: (1927–).
186: Larrey, Baron Dominique-Jean: (1766–1842).
187: Luce, Stephen: (1827–1917).
188: Ludendorff, Quartermaster General Erich: (1865–1937).
189: Marshall, Andrew: (1920–).
190: Moltke “the Elder,” Helmuth Carl Bernard Graf von: (1800–1891).
191: Myer, Brigadier General Albert James: (1828–1880).
192: Root, Elihu: (1845–1937).
193: Schlieffen, Count Alfred von: (1833–1913).