Half Title Page.
How to Use the Encyclopedia.
1: Basic Sleep Concepts, Science, Deprivation, and Mechanisms.
4: A History of the Scientific Study of Sleep.
5: History of Sleep Medicine.
6: Normal Human Sleep.
7: Concepts of Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness.
8: Classification of Sleep Disorders.
9: Ontogeny of Sleep.
10: Evolution of Sleep (Sleep Phylogeny).
11: Sleep in Amphibians and Reptiles.
12: Sleep Physiology in Reptiles and Amphibians.
13: Sleep in Birds.
14: Sleep in Aquatic Species.
15: Mammalian Sleep.
16: Healthy Sleep.
17: Basic Sleep Tips.
18: Creating an Optimal Sleep Environment.
19: Optimal Sleep Habits in Infants and Children.
20: Early Childhood Pediatric Sleep Concerns for Parents: Cosleeping.
21: Optimal Sleep Habits in Adolescents.
22: Optimal Sleep Habits in Middle-Aged Adults.
23: Optimal Sleep Habits in the Elderly.
24: Healthy Aging and Sleep.
25: Sex Differences in Sleep.
26: Nutrition and Sleep.
27: Exercise and Sleep.
28: When an Individual should See a Physician about Sleep.
30: History of the Study of Dreams.
31: The Interpretation of Dreams.
32: The Psychology of Dreams.
33: Dreams, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy.
34: Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders.
35: Neurobiology of Dreaming.
36: Sleep Deprivation/Fragmentation Paradigms.
37: Acute Sleep Deprivation.
38: Partial and Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation.
39: Sleep Fragmentation.
40: Nonrestorative Sleep.
41: Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
42: Effects of Light and Temperature on Sleep in Adults and the Elderly.
43: Effects of Pillows and Bed Surfaces on Sleep.
44: Sleep and Mental Performance: Effects of Time-Zone Transitions.
45: Shift Work.
46: Medications, Drugs of Abuse, and Alcohol.
47: Intrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
48: Age and Individual Determinants of Cognitive Effects of Sleep Loss.
49: Homeostatic and Circadian Influences.
50: Attention and Memory Changes.
51: Electroencephalographic and Neurophysiological Changes.
52: Metabolic and Endocrine Changes During Sleep.
53: Thermoregulatory Changes.
54: Biochemical Correlates of Prolonged Wakefulness.
55: Immunologic Changes.
56: Changes in Gene Expression.
57: Genetic Effects.
58: Psychiatric Associations of Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
59: Changes in Affect.
60: Antidepressant Effects of Sleep Manipulation.
61: Personality and Psychopathic Changes.
62: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Sleep.
63: Sleep Loss in Disease States.
64: Sleep Loss from Major Sleep Disorders.
65: Sleep Loss Associated with Medical Conditions and Diseases.
66: Special Populations Affected by Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
68: Pregnancy and Postpartum.
69: Consequences of Sleep Loss.
70: Sleep Loss: Impact on Self-Reported Sleepiness, Effort, Performance, and Motivation.
71: Impact of Sleep Loss on Subjective and Objective Effort.
72: Social and Economic Impact.
73: Occupational Impact.
74: Military Operational Effectiveness.
75: Athletic Performance; Effects of Sleep Loss.
76: Medical Resident/Physician Performance.
77: Driving Risks and Accidents.
78: Legal Implications of Sleep Loss.
79: Short-Term Countermeasures for Sleep Loss Effects.
80: Behavioral and Environmental Countermeasures of Sleep Loss.
82: Critical Theoretical and Practical Issues.
83: The Function of Sleep.
84: Recovery from Sleep Loss.
85: Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt and Sleep Satiation.
86: Role of Pharmacological Interventions for Sleep Deprivation.
87: Sleep Length: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research.
88: Future of Sleep Research.
89: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Sleep.
91: Overview of Physiological Processes during Sleep.
92: Chemical Neuroanatomy of Sleep–Wake Systems.
93: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology of Sleep/Wake Regulations.
94: Chronobiology of Sleep.
95: Molecular and Genetic Bases for the Circadian System.
96: Sleep Homeostasis.
97: Circadian Rhythms and Physiological Processes.
98: Chronobiology of Sleep – Circadian Rhythms, Behavior, and Performance.
99: The Influence of Light, Exercise, and Behavior upon Circadian Rhythms.
100: Effects of Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists on Circadian Rhythms.
101: Sleep and the Nervous System.
102: Basic Sleep–Wake Mechanisms.
103: NREM Sleep: Anatomy and Physiology.
104: REM Sleep Anatomy and Physiology.
105: NREM–REM Sleep Regulation.
106: Electrophysiology of Sleep–Wake Systems.
107: Neurochemistry of Sleep.
108: Thermoregulation and Sleep.
109: Peripheral Nervous System and Sleep.
110: The Modulation of Memory by Sleep.
111: Sleep and the Respiratory System.
112: The Upper Airway Anatomy.
113: Respiratory Physiology.
114: Sleep and the Control of Breathing.
115: Physiology and Dynamics of the Pharyngeal Airway.
116: Effects of Altitude on Breathing during Sleep.
117: Sleep and Other Systems.
118: Sleep and the Cardiovascular System.
119: Sleep in Cardiovascular Disease.
120: Sleep and the Peripheral Vascular System.
121: Sleep and the Immune System.
122: Endocrinology of Sleep.
123: Gastrointestinal Physiology during Sleep.
124: Pharmacology of Sleep.
125: Basic Pharmacologic Mechanisms of Sleep.
126: Endogenous Sleep-Promoting Substances.
127: Hypnotic Substances and Medications.
128: Pharmacotherapeutic Principles for Hypnotic Medications.
129: Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Sleep.
130: Antidepressants and Sleep.
131: Wake-Promoting Substances.
132: Wake-Promoting Medications.
133: Medications that Disrupt Sleep.
Half Title Page.
1: Assessment, Methodology, Training, and Policies of Sleep.
3: History and Physical Exam.
4: Questionnaires and Rating Scales.
5: Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders.
6: Chronobiological Assessment.
7: Psychologic and Psychiatric Assessment.
8: Neurologic Assessment.
9: Cardiac and Cardiovascular Assessment.
10: Respiratory Assessment.
11: Gastrointestinal Assessment.
12: Instrumentation and Methodology.
13: Adult Polysomnography.
14: Pediatric Polysomnography.
15: Portable Monitoring.
17: Monitoring and Staging Human Sleep.
18: Respiratory Monitoring during Sleep.
19: Nocturnal Penile Tumescence.
20: Overview of Objective Tests to Assess Excessive Sleepiness.
22: Actigraphy in Children.
23: Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT).
24: Maintenance of Wakefulness Test.
25: Psychomotor Vigilance Performance.
26: Neurocognitive Testing.
27: Neuroimaging and Sleep.
28: Training and Research.
29: Sleep Technologist Requirements.
30: Fellowship Training for Sleep Medicine.
31: Board Certification for Sleep Clinicians.
32: Funding Sources for Sleep-Related Research Grants.
33: Designing and Implementing Sleep-Related Clinical Trials.
34: Setting Up a Laboratory for Sleep-Related Animal Research.
35: Planning Sleep-Related Animal and Translational Research.
36: Succeeding in an Academic Sleep Environment.
37: Policies and Procedures.
38: Accreditation for Sleep Disorders Centers.
39: Public Policy, Sleep Science, and Sleep Medicine.
40: Sleep-Related Resources for Patients and Physicians.
41: Insomnia and Hypersomnias.
42: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Insomnia.
43: Ontogeny of Insomnia.
44: Etiology and Pathogenesis of Insomnia.
45: Risk Factors.
46: Familial and Genetic Factors.
47: Descriptions of Insomnia.
48: Description of Insomnia.
49: Types of Insomnia.
50: Psychophysiological Insomnia.
51: Paradoxical Insomnia.
52: Idiopathic Insomnia.
53: Insomnia Due to Mental Illness.
54: Inadequate Sleep Hygiene.
55: Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood.
56: Insomnia Due to Drug or Substance Abuse and Dependence.
57: Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Conditions.
58: Associations and Consequences of Insomnia.
59: Endocrine Function and Glucose Metabolism.
60: Mood and Behavior.
61: Fatigue and Sleepiness.
62: Health-Related Quality of Life.
63: Individual and Societal Impact.
64: Diagnosis of Insomnia.
65: Insomnia: History and Physical Exam.
66: Diagnostic Tools for Insomnia.
67: Diagnostic Algorithm for Insomnia.
68: Treatment of Insomnia.
69: Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia.
70: Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia.
71: Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia.
72: Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Insomnia.
73: Special Considerations for the Nonpharmacological Treatment of Insomnia.
74: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Insomnia.
75: Gender Differences.
76: Insomnia in Children.
77: Insomnia in Older Adults.
78: Medication Effects.
79: Impact of Neurological Disorders on Insomnia.
80: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
81: Legal Implications of Insomnia.
82: Future Directions in Insomnia Diagnosis and Treatment.
83: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Hypersomnias.
84: The History of Narcolepsy.
85: Epidemiology of Hypersomnia.
86: Ontogeny of Hypersomnias.
87: Hypersomnia: Etiologies.
88: Pathogenesis of Hypersomnia.
89: Risk Factors for Hypersomnias.
90: Familial and Genetic Factors of Narcolepsy.
91: Descriptions of Hypersomnias.
92: Overview of Hypersomnias.
93: Description of Hypersomnias.
94: Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias.
95: Types of Hypersomnia.
96: Narcolepsy with Cataplexy.
97: Narcolepsy without Cataplexy.
98: Narcolepsy Due to a Medical Condition.
99: Recurrent Hypersomnia.
100: Idiopathic Hypersomnia with Long Sleep Time.
101: Idiopathic Hypersomnia without Long Sleep Time.
102: Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome.
103: Hypersomnia Due to Drug or Substance.
104: Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias.
105: Morbidity and Mortality.
106: Effect on the Central Nervous System.
107: Mood and Behavior.
109: Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hypersomnia.
110: Economic Impact of Sleep Deprivation.
111: Individual and Societal Impact of Hypersomnias.
112: Diagnosis of Hypersomnias.
113: Diagnosis of Hypersomnia in Children: Screening and Case Finding.
114: Diagnostic Tools for Hypersomnias.
115: Diagnostic Algorithm for Hypersomnias.
116: Treatment of Hypersomnias.
117: Treatment of Hypersomnia.
118: Special Considerations for Treatment of Hypersomnias.
119: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Hypersomnias.
120: Hypersomnias in Children.
121: Hypersomnias in the Elderly.
122: Medications and Sleep.
123: Impact of Other Sleep Disorders.
124: Impact of Neurological Diseases.
125: Impact of Medical Disorders.
126: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
127: Legal Implications of Hypersomnias.
128: Future Directions in Hypersomnias: Diagnosis and Treatment.
129: Sleep in Special Populations.
130: Pediatric Sleep.
131: Key Differences in Pediatric versus Adult Sleep.
132: Electrophysiological Changes in Sleep during Childhood.
133: Neonates and Infants.
134: Newborn and Infant Sleep.
136: Sleep in Infants and Children with Medical Disorders.
137: Sleep in Children with Genetic Disorders.
138: Sleep in Children with Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders.
139: Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.
140: Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
141: Sleep in Infants and Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders.
142: Sleep in Children with Cancer and other Chronic Diseases.
143: Sleep in Children with Psychiatric Disorders.
144: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: From Epidemiology to Pathophysiology.
145: Sleep in Chronic Pain and other Pediatric Conditions.
146: Sleep in Other Age Groups.
147: Sleep in Middle Age.
148: Sleep in Older Adults.
149: Sleep Pathology in the Elderly.
150: Sleep Disturbances in Nursing Homes.
151: Sleep in Women.
152: Normal Sleep in Women.
153: Sleep in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.
154: Sleep during Perimenopause.
155: Sleep and Ethnicity.
156: Ethnicity and Prevalence of Sleep Disorders.
157: Sleep, Sleepiness, and Sleep Disorders: Principles for Examining Differences by Ethnicity.
158: Sleep in Other Conditions.
159: Sleep in Other Conditions: Sleep in the Caregiver.
160: Sleep and Anesthesia.
161: Sleep and Athletes.
162: Sleep and Shift Work.
163: Sleep at High Altitudes.
164: Chronic Mountain Sickness and Sleep.
165: Sleep in Aviation and Space.
Half Title Page.
1: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (CRSD).
2: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of CRSD.
3: A Brief History of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
4: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder: Genetic and Environmental Factors.
5: Descriptions of CRSD.
6: Overview and Description of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
7: Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder.
8: Delayed Sleep-Phase Type.
9: Advanced Sleep Phase Type.
10: Irregular Sleep–Wake Type.
11: Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder (Free-running Type, Nonentrained Type, Hypernychthemeral Syndrome) in Sighted and Blind Patients.
12: Jet Lag Type.
13: Shift Work Type.
14: Associations and Consequences of CRSD.
15: Health Consequences of Circadian Disruption.
16: Fatigue and Sleepiness in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
17: Individual and Societal Impact.
18: Diagnosis of CRSD.
19: History and Physical Examination.
20: Diagnostic Algorithm for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
21: Treatment of CRSD.
22: Light and Melatonin Treatment for Jet Lag Disorder.
23: Light and Melatonin Treatment for Shift Work.
24: Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
25: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for CRSD.
26: Circadian Rhythm Disorders: Does Sex Matter?.
27: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Adolescents.
28: Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms During Adulthood.
29: Medication Effects.
30: Impact of Neurological and Medical Disorders.
31: Endogenous and Exogenous Melatonin, the Sleep–Wake Cycle, and the Circadian Component of Affective Disorders.
32: Special Considerations and Future Directions in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Diagnosis.
33: Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep: Role in Carcinogenesis.
34: Legal Implications of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
35: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD).
36: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRBD.
37: The History of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
39: Ontogeny of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
40: Phylogeny and Animal Models.
41: Upper Airway Pathology.
43: Pathophysiology/Pathogenesis of OSA.
44: Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
45: Familial and Genetic Factors – Sleep Apnea.
46: Associations and Consequences of OSA.
47: Descriptions of SRBD.
48: Overview, Description, and Types of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
49: Primary Central Sleep Apnea.
50: Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Breathing Pattern.
51: Central Sleep Apnea Due to a Medical Condition Not Cheyne–Stokes.
52: Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance.
54: Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.
55: Primary Sleep Apnea in Infants.
56: Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
57: Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
58: Complex Sleep Apnea.
59: Sleep-Related Idiopathic Nonobstructive Alveolar Hypoventilation.
60: Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome.
61: Sleep and Obstructive Lung Disease.
62: Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders.
63: Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD).
64: Associations and Consequences of SRBD.
65: Morbidity and Mortality of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
66: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) – Attention and Vigilance.
67: Executive and Frontal Lobe Function.
68: Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.
69: Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sleep.
70: Heart Failure.
71: Cardiovascular Effects.
73: Sleep Apnea and Stroke.
74: Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
75: Sleep and Obesity.
76: Mood and Behavior.
78: Health-Related Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.
79: Individual and Socioeconomic Impact of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
80: Commercial Transportation.
81: Diagnosis of SRBD.
82: History and Physical Examination – Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
83: Screening and Case Finding for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
84: Diagnostic Tools for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD).
85: Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
87: Home Sleep Apnea Testing.
88: Upper Airway Imaging and Endoscopy.
89: Treatment of SRBD.
90: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.
91: Bilevel Pressure.
92: Autotitrating Positive Airway Pressure.
93: Adaptive Servoventilation in Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
94: Upper Airway Surgery in the Adult.
95: Oral Appliances.
96: Adjunctive and Alternative Therapies for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
97: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRBD.
98: Gender-Specific Differences in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome.
99: Pediatric Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
100: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in the Elderly.
101: Medication Effects on Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
102: Impact of Other Respiratory Conditions and Disorders During Sleep.
103: Impact of Medical and Other Sleep Disorders.
104: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
105: Legal Aspects of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
Half Title Page.
1: Sleep Related Movement Disorders (SRMD) and Parasomnias.
2: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRMD.
3: The Evolution of Diagnostic Rules and Standards for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
4: Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
5: Etiologies of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMD).
6: Familial and Genetic Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome.
7: Descriptions of SRMD.
8: Description of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
9: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
10: Periodic Limb Movement Disorder.
11: Sleep-Related Leg Cramps.
12: Sleep Bruxism.
13: Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder.
14: Hypnagogic Foot Tremor (HFT).
15: Associations and Consequences of SRMD.
16: Morbidity in the Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
17: Mood, Behavior, and Sleepiness of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
18: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders: Health-Related Quality of Life.
19: Economic Impact, Associations, and Consequences of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
20: Diagnosis of SRMD.
21: Sleep-Related Movement Disorder: History and Physical Examination.
22: Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMDs).
23: Treatment of SRMD.
24: Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
25: Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
26: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRMD.
27: Gender Differences in Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
28: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders in Children.
29: Age-Related Changes in PLMS Characteristics of RLS Patients.
30: Medication Effects and Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
31: Restless Legs Syndrome in Internal Medicine.
32: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
33: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias.
34: History – Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias.
35: Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Parasomnias.
36: Ontogeny of Parasomnias.
37: Pathogenesis and Etiologies.
38: Familial and Genetic Factors.
39: Descriptions of Parasomnias.
40: Parasomnias in Children.
41: Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Parasomnias.
42: Classification of Parasomnias and Diagnostic Criteria.
43: Confusional Arousals.
45: Sleep Terrors.
46: REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.
47: Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis.
48: Nightmare Disorder.
49: Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders.
50: Sleep Enuresis.
51: Catathrenia: Sleep-Related Groaning.
52: Exploding Head Syndrome.
53: Sleep-Related Eating Disorder.
55: Associations and Consequences of Parasomnias.
56: Mood and Behavior.
57: Health-Related Quality of Life.
58: Diagnosis of Parasomnias.
59: History and Physical Examination, Screening and Case Finding.
60: Value of Polysomnography and Other Diagnostic Tools to Diagnose and Treat Parasomnias.
61: Diagnostic Algorithms for Parasomnias.
62: Treatment of Parasomnias.
63: Treatment of Parasomnias.
64: Special Consideration for the Treatment of Parasomnia.
65: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of Parasomnias.
66: Parasomnias of Childhood.
67: Effect of Medications and Substances on Parasomnias.
68: Impact of Medical and Neurological Disorders on Parasomnias.
69: Parasomnia: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
70: Legal Implications of Parasomnias.
71: Sleep and Other Conditions or Disorders.
72: Neurologic Disorders.
73: Neurological Conditions and Sleep.
74: Headache and Sleep.
75: Epilepsy and Sleep.
76: Cerebrovascular Disorders and Sleep.
77: Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep.
78: CNS Disease from Toxins, Alcohol, and Cannabis: Effects on Sleep.
79: Demyelinating Diseases and Sleep.
80: Neurodegenerative Diseases and Sleep.
81: Dementia and Sleep.
82: Psychiatric Disorders.
83: Overview of the Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep.
84: Mood Disorders and Sleep.
85: Anxiety Disorders and Sleep.
86: Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
87: Schizophrenia, Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Sleep.
88: Eating Disorders and Sleep.
89: Substance and Alcohol-Related Disorders and Sleep.
90: Other Medical Conditions or Disorders.
91: Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Sleep Length.
92: Pain and Sleep.
93: Fibromyalgia/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Sleep.
94: Visual Impairment and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
95: Cancer and Sleep: Cancer is a Circadian Rhythm Disorder.
96: Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension and Sleep.
97: Alterations in Gastrointestinal Functioning During Sleep: Clinical Applications.
98: Infectious Diseases and Sleep.
99: Renal Disorders and Sleep.