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eBook Encyclopedia of Sleep, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123786118
  • ISBN-13: 9780123786111
  • DDC: 154.6
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 2736 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released June 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
  • Price:  Sign in for price



In a world of 24-hour media saturation, sleep has become an increasingly fraught enterprise. The award-winning Encyclopedia of Sleep is the largest reference on the subject of sleep. Useful for the novice and established researchers and clinicians, topic include sleep across the life cycle and in other species, sleep and women, sleep and the elderly, pediatric sleep, sleep deprivation and loss, sleep physiology and pathophysiology, sleep disorders, and impact of disorders on sleep. Recognizing the many fields that are connected to sleep science, the editorial team has been carefully chosen to do justice to this highly interdisciplinary field of study. The steady growth of researchers and clinicians in the sleep field attests to the continued interest in the scientific study of sleep and the management of patients with sleep disorders, and anyone involved in this exciting field should find this work to be an invaluable reference.


  • PROSE Award 2013

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editorial Board.
How to Use the Encyclopedia.
1: Basic Sleep Concepts, Science, Deprivation, and Mechanisms.
2: Background.
3: Perspectives.
4: A History of the Scientific Study of Sleep.
5: History of Sleep Medicine.
6: Normal Human Sleep.
7: Concepts of Fatigue, Sleepiness, and Alertness.
8: Classification of Sleep Disorders.
9: Ontogeny of Sleep.
10: Evolution of Sleep (Sleep Phylogeny).
11: Sleep in Amphibians and Reptiles.
12: Sleep Physiology in Reptiles and Amphibians.
13: Sleep in Birds.
14: Sleep in Aquatic Species.
15: Mammalian Sleep.
16: Healthy Sleep.
17: Basic Sleep Tips.
18: Creating an Optimal Sleep Environment.
19: Optimal Sleep Habits in Infants and Children.
20: Early Childhood Pediatric Sleep Concerns for Parents: Cosleeping.
21: Optimal Sleep Habits in Adolescents.
22: Optimal Sleep Habits in Middle-Aged Adults.
23: Optimal Sleep Habits in the Elderly.
24: Healthy Aging and Sleep.
25: Sex Differences in Sleep.
26: Nutrition and Sleep.
27: Exercise and Sleep.
28: When an Individual should See a Physician about Sleep.
29: Dreaming.
30: History of the Study of Dreams.
31: The Interpretation of Dreams.
32: The Psychology of Dreams.
33: Dreams, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy.
34: Dreaming and Psychiatric Disorders.
35: Neurobiology of Dreaming.
36: Sleep Deprivation/Fragmentation Paradigms.
37: Acute Sleep Deprivation.
38: Partial and Sleep-Stage-Selective Deprivation.
39: Sleep Fragmentation.
40: Nonrestorative Sleep.
41: Extrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
42: Effects of Light and Temperature on Sleep in Adults and the Elderly.
43: Effects of Pillows and Bed Surfaces on Sleep.
44: Sleep and Mental Performance: Effects of Time-Zone Transitions.
45: Shift Work.
46: Medications, Drugs of Abuse, and Alcohol.
47: Intrinsic Factors Affecting Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
48: Age and Individual Determinants of Cognitive Effects of Sleep Loss.
49: Homeostatic and Circadian Influences.
50: Attention and Memory Changes.
51: Electroencephalographic and Neurophysiological Changes.
52: Metabolic and Endocrine Changes During Sleep.
53: Thermoregulatory Changes.
54: Biochemical Correlates of Prolonged Wakefulness.
55: Immunologic Changes.
56: Changes in Gene Expression.
57: Genetic Effects.
58: Psychiatric Associations of Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
59: Changes in Affect.
60: Antidepressant Effects of Sleep Manipulation.
61: Personality and Psychopathic Changes.
62: Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder and Sleep.
63: Sleep Loss in Disease States.
64: Sleep Loss from Major Sleep Disorders.
65: Sleep Loss Associated with Medical Conditions and Diseases.
66: Special Populations Affected by Sleep Loss/Deprivation.
67: Adolescence.
68: Pregnancy and Postpartum.
69: Consequences of Sleep Loss.
70: Sleep Loss: Impact on Self-Reported Sleepiness, Effort, Performance, and Motivation.
71: Impact of Sleep Loss on Subjective and Objective Effort.
72: Social and Economic Impact.
73: Occupational Impact.
74: Military Operational Effectiveness.
75: Athletic Performance; Effects of Sleep Loss.
76: Medical Resident/Physician Performance.
77: Driving Risks and Accidents.
78: Legal Implications of Sleep Loss.
79: Short-Term Countermeasures for Sleep Loss Effects.
80: Behavioral and Environmental Countermeasures of Sleep Loss.
81: Naps.
82: Critical Theoretical and Practical Issues.
83: The Function of Sleep.
84: Recovery from Sleep Loss.
85: Eliminating Cumulative Sleep Debt and Sleep Satiation.
86: Role of Pharmacological Interventions for Sleep Deprivation.
87: Sleep Length: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research.
88: Future of Sleep Research.
89: Anatomy, Physiology, and Pharmacology of Sleep.
90: Background.
91: Overview of Physiological Processes during Sleep.
92: Chemical Neuroanatomy of Sleep–Wake Systems.
93: Neurotransmitters and Neuropharmacology of Sleep/Wake Regulations.
94: Chronobiology of Sleep.
95: Molecular and Genetic Bases for the Circadian System.
96: Sleep Homeostasis.
97: Circadian Rhythms and Physiological Processes.
98: Chronobiology of Sleep – Circadian Rhythms, Behavior, and Performance.
99: The Influence of Light, Exercise, and Behavior upon Circadian Rhythms.
100: Effects of Melatonin and Melatonin Agonists on Circadian Rhythms.
101: Sleep and the Nervous System.
102: Basic Sleep–Wake Mechanisms.
103: NREM Sleep: Anatomy and Physiology.
104: REM Sleep Anatomy and Physiology.
105: NREM–REM Sleep Regulation.
106: Electrophysiology of Sleep–Wake Systems.
107: Neurochemistry of Sleep.
108: Thermoregulation and Sleep.
109: Peripheral Nervous System and Sleep.
110: The Modulation of Memory by Sleep.
111: Sleep and the Respiratory System.
112: The Upper Airway Anatomy.
113: Respiratory Physiology.
114: Sleep and the Control of Breathing.
115: Physiology and Dynamics of the Pharyngeal Airway.
116: Effects of Altitude on Breathing during Sleep.
117: Sleep and Other Systems.
118: Sleep and the Cardiovascular System.
119: Sleep in Cardiovascular Disease.
120: Sleep and the Peripheral Vascular System.
121: Sleep and the Immune System.
122: Endocrinology of Sleep.
123: Gastrointestinal Physiology during Sleep.
124: Pharmacology of Sleep.
125: Basic Pharmacologic Mechanisms of Sleep.
126: Endogenous Sleep-Promoting Substances.
127: Hypnotic Substances and Medications.
128: Pharmacotherapeutic Principles for Hypnotic Medications.
129: Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists and Sleep.
130: Antidepressants and Sleep.
131: Wake-Promoting Substances.
132: Wake-Promoting Medications.
133: Medications that Disrupt Sleep.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Assessment, Methodology, Training, and Policies of Sleep.
2: Assessment.
3: History and Physical Exam.
4: Questionnaires and Rating Scales.
5: Rating Scales to Assess Sleep Disorders.
6: Chronobiological Assessment.
7: Psychologic and Psychiatric Assessment.
8: Neurologic Assessment.
9: Cardiac and Cardiovascular Assessment.
10: Respiratory Assessment.
11: Gastrointestinal Assessment.
12: Instrumentation and Methodology.
13: Adult Polysomnography.
14: Pediatric Polysomnography.
15: Portable Monitoring.
16: Electroencephalography.
17: Monitoring and Staging Human Sleep.
18: Respiratory Monitoring during Sleep.
19: Nocturnal Penile Tumescence.
20: Overview of Objective Tests to Assess Excessive Sleepiness.
21: Actigraphy.
22: Actigraphy in Children.
23: Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT).
24: Maintenance of Wakefulness Test.
25: Psychomotor Vigilance Performance.
26: Neurocognitive Testing.
27: Neuroimaging and Sleep.
28: Training and Research.
29: Sleep Technologist Requirements.
30: Fellowship Training for Sleep Medicine.
31: Board Certification for Sleep Clinicians.
32: Funding Sources for Sleep-Related Research Grants.
33: Designing and Implementing Sleep-Related Clinical Trials.
34: Setting Up a Laboratory for Sleep-Related Animal Research.
35: Planning Sleep-Related Animal and Translational Research.
36: Succeeding in an Academic Sleep Environment.
37: Policies and Procedures.
38: Accreditation for Sleep Disorders Centers.
39: Public Policy, Sleep Science, and Sleep Medicine.
40: Sleep-Related Resources for Patients and Physicians.
41: Insomnia and Hypersomnias.
42: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Insomnia.
43: Ontogeny of Insomnia.
44: Etiology and Pathogenesis of Insomnia.
45: Risk Factors.
46: Familial and Genetic Factors.
47: Descriptions of Insomnia.
48: Description of Insomnia.
49: Types of Insomnia.
50: Psychophysiological Insomnia.
51: Paradoxical Insomnia.
52: Idiopathic Insomnia.
53: Insomnia Due to Mental Illness.
54: Inadequate Sleep Hygiene.
55: Behavioral Insomnia of Childhood.
56: Insomnia Due to Drug or Substance Abuse and Dependence.
57: Insomnia Comorbid with Medical Conditions.
58: Associations and Consequences of Insomnia.
59: Endocrine Function and Glucose Metabolism.
60: Mood and Behavior.
61: Fatigue and Sleepiness.
62: Health-Related Quality of Life.
63: Individual and Societal Impact.
64: Diagnosis of Insomnia.
65: Insomnia: History and Physical Exam.
66: Diagnostic Tools for Insomnia.
67: Diagnostic Algorithm for Insomnia.
68: Treatment of Insomnia.
69: Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia.
70: Cognitive Therapy for Insomnia.
71: Pharmacologic Treatment of Insomnia.
72: Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Insomnia.
73: Special Considerations for the Nonpharmacological Treatment of Insomnia.
74: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Insomnia.
75: Gender Differences.
76: Insomnia in Children.
77: Insomnia in Older Adults.
78: Medication Effects.
79: Impact of Neurological Disorders on Insomnia.
80: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
81: Legal Implications of Insomnia.
82: Future Directions in Insomnia Diagnosis and Treatment.
83: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Hypersomnias.
84: The History of Narcolepsy.
85: Epidemiology of Hypersomnia.
86: Ontogeny of Hypersomnias.
87: Hypersomnia: Etiologies.
88: Pathogenesis of Hypersomnia.
89: Risk Factors for Hypersomnias.
90: Familial and Genetic Factors of Narcolepsy.
91: Descriptions of Hypersomnias.
92: Overview of Hypersomnias.
93: Description of Hypersomnias.
94: Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias.
95: Types of Hypersomnia.
96: Narcolepsy with Cataplexy.
97: Narcolepsy without Cataplexy.
98: Narcolepsy Due to a Medical Condition.
99: Recurrent Hypersomnia.
100: Idiopathic Hypersomnia with Long Sleep Time.
101: Idiopathic Hypersomnia without Long Sleep Time.
102: Behaviorally Induced Insufficient Sleep Syndrome.
103: Hypersomnia Due to Drug or Substance.
104: Associations and Consequences of Hypersomnias.
105: Morbidity and Mortality.
106: Effect on the Central Nervous System.
107: Mood and Behavior.
108: Sleepiness.
109: Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Hypersomnia.
110: Economic Impact of Sleep Deprivation.
111: Individual and Societal Impact of Hypersomnias.
112: Diagnosis of Hypersomnias.
113: Diagnosis of Hypersomnia in Children: Screening and Case Finding.
114: Diagnostic Tools for Hypersomnias.
115: Diagnostic Algorithm for Hypersomnias.
116: Treatment of Hypersomnias.
117: Treatment of Hypersomnia.
118: Special Considerations for Treatment of Hypersomnias.
119: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for Hypersomnias.
120: Hypersomnias in Children.
121: Hypersomnias in the Elderly.
122: Medications and Sleep.
123: Impact of Other Sleep Disorders.
124: Impact of Neurological Diseases.
125: Impact of Medical Disorders.
126: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
127: Legal Implications of Hypersomnias.
128: Future Directions in Hypersomnias: Diagnosis and Treatment.
129: Sleep in Special Populations.
130: Pediatric Sleep.
131: Key Differences in Pediatric versus Adult Sleep.
132: Electrophysiological Changes in Sleep during Childhood.
133: Neonates and Infants.
134: Newborn and Infant Sleep.
135: Children.
136: Sleep in Infants and Children with Medical Disorders.
137: Sleep in Children with Genetic Disorders.
138: Sleep in Children with Neurological and Neuromuscular Disorders.
139: Sleep Disturbance in Children with Intellectual and Neurodevelopmental Disabilities.
140: Sleep in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
141: Sleep in Infants and Children with Chronic Respiratory Disorders.
142: Sleep in Children with Cancer and other Chronic Diseases.
143: Sleep in Children with Psychiatric Disorders.
144: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: From Epidemiology to Pathophysiology.
145: Sleep in Chronic Pain and other Pediatric Conditions.
146: Sleep in Other Age Groups.
147: Sleep in Middle Age.
148: Sleep in Older Adults.
149: Sleep Pathology in the Elderly.
150: Sleep Disturbances in Nursing Homes.
151: Sleep in Women.
152: Normal Sleep in Women.
153: Sleep in Pregnancy and the Postpartum.
154: Sleep during Perimenopause.
155: Sleep and Ethnicity.
156: Ethnicity and Prevalence of Sleep Disorders.
157: Sleep, Sleepiness, and Sleep Disorders: Principles for Examining Differences by Ethnicity.
158: Sleep in Other Conditions.
159: Sleep in Other Conditions: Sleep in the Caregiver.
160: Sleep and Anesthesia.
161: Sleep and Athletes.
162: Sleep and Shift Work.
163: Sleep at High Altitudes.
164: Chronic Mountain Sickness and Sleep.
165: Sleep in Aviation and Space.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders (CRSD).
2: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of CRSD.
3: A Brief History of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
4: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder: Genetic and Environmental Factors.
5: Descriptions of CRSD.
6: Overview and Description of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
7: Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder.
8: Delayed Sleep-Phase Type.
9: Advanced Sleep Phase Type.
10: Irregular Sleep–Wake Type.
11: Non-24-h Sleep–Wake Disorder (Free-running Type, Nonentrained Type, Hypernychthemeral Syndrome) in Sighted and Blind Patients.
12: Jet Lag Type.
13: Shift Work Type.
14: Associations and Consequences of CRSD.
15: Health Consequences of Circadian Disruption.
16: Fatigue and Sleepiness in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
17: Individual and Societal Impact.
18: Diagnosis of CRSD.
19: History and Physical Examination.
20: Diagnostic Algorithm for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
21: Treatment of CRSD.
22: Light and Melatonin Treatment for Jet Lag Disorder.
23: Light and Melatonin Treatment for Shift Work.
24: Adjunctive and Alternative Treatment of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
25: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues for CRSD.
26: Circadian Rhythm Disorders: Does Sex Matter?.
27: Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders in Adolescents.
28: Age-Related Changes in Circadian Rhythms During Adulthood.
29: Medication Effects.
30: Impact of Neurological and Medical Disorders.
31: Endogenous and Exogenous Melatonin, the Sleep–Wake Cycle, and the Circadian Component of Affective Disorders.
32: Special Considerations and Future Directions in Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Diagnosis.
33: Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep: Role in Carcinogenesis.
34: Legal Implications of Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
35: Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD).
36: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRBD.
37: The History of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
38: Epidemiology.
39: Ontogeny of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
40: Phylogeny and Animal Models.
41: Upper Airway Pathology.
42: Arousals.
43: Pathophysiology/Pathogenesis of OSA.
44: Risk Factors for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
45: Familial and Genetic Factors – Sleep Apnea.
46: Associations and Consequences of OSA.
47: Descriptions of SRBD.
48: Overview, Description, and Types of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
49: Primary Central Sleep Apnea.
50: Central Sleep Apnea Due to Cheyne–Stokes Breathing Pattern.
51: Central Sleep Apnea Due to a Medical Condition Not Cheyne–Stokes.
52: Central Sleep Apnea Due to Drug or Substance.
53: Snoring.
54: Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.
55: Primary Sleep Apnea in Infants.
56: Adult Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
57: Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
58: Complex Sleep Apnea.
59: Sleep-Related Idiopathic Nonobstructive Alveolar Hypoventilation.
60: Congenital Central Alveolar Hypoventilation Syndrome.
61: Sleep and Obstructive Lung Disease.
62: Sleep-Related Hypoventilation and Hypoxemia Due to Neuromuscular and Chest Wall Disorders.
63: Rapid-Onset Obesity with Hypothalamic Dysfunction, Hypoventilation, and Autonomic Dysregulation (ROHHAD).
64: Associations and Consequences of SRBD.
65: Morbidity and Mortality of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
66: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (SRBD) – Attention and Vigilance.
67: Executive and Frontal Lobe Function.
68: Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.
69: Cardiac Arrhythmias and Sleep.
70: Heart Failure.
71: Cardiovascular Effects.
72: Hypertension.
73: Sleep Apnea and Stroke.
74: Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
75: Sleep and Obesity.
76: Mood and Behavior.
77: Sleepiness.
78: Health-Related Quality of Life in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.
79: Individual and Socioeconomic Impact of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
80: Commercial Transportation.
81: Diagnosis of SRBD.
82: History and Physical Examination – Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
83: Screening and Case Finding for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
84: Diagnostic Tools for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD).
85: Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
86: Polysomnography.
87: Home Sleep Apnea Testing.
88: Upper Airway Imaging and Endoscopy.
89: Treatment of SRBD.
90: Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.
91: Bilevel Pressure.
92: Autotitrating Positive Airway Pressure.
93: Adaptive Servoventilation in Treatment of Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
94: Upper Airway Surgery in the Adult.
95: Oral Appliances.
96: Adjunctive and Alternative Therapies for Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
97: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRBD.
98: Gender-Specific Differences in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea–Hypopnea Syndrome.
99: Pediatric Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing.
100: Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in the Elderly.
101: Medication Effects on Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
102: Impact of Other Respiratory Conditions and Disorders During Sleep.
103: Impact of Medical and Other Sleep Disorders.
104: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
105: Legal Aspects of Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
1: Sleep Related Movement Disorders (SRMD) and Parasomnias.
2: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of SRMD.
3: The Evolution of Diagnostic Rules and Standards for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
4: Epidemiology of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
5: Etiologies of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMD).
6: Familial and Genetic Factors of Restless Legs Syndrome.
7: Descriptions of SRMD.
8: Description of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
9: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
10: Periodic Limb Movement Disorder.
11: Sleep-Related Leg Cramps.
12: Sleep Bruxism.
13: Sleep-Related Rhythmic Movement Disorder.
14: Hypnagogic Foot Tremor (HFT).
15: Associations and Consequences of SRMD.
16: Morbidity in the Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
17: Mood, Behavior, and Sleepiness of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
18: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders: Health-Related Quality of Life.
19: Economic Impact, Associations, and Consequences of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
20: Diagnosis of SRMD.
21: Sleep-Related Movement Disorder: History and Physical Examination.
22: Diagnostic Algorithm for Sleep-Related Movement Disorders (SRMDs).
23: Treatment of SRMD.
24: Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
25: Special Considerations for Treatment of Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
26: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of SRMD.
27: Gender Differences in Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
28: Sleep-Related Movement Disorders in Children.
29: Age-Related Changes in PLMS Characteristics of RLS Patients.
30: Medication Effects and Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
31: Restless Legs Syndrome in Internal Medicine.
32: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep-Related Movement Disorders.
33: Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias.
34: History – Features, Factors, and Characteristics of Parasomnias.
35: Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Parasomnias.
36: Ontogeny of Parasomnias.
37: Pathogenesis and Etiologies.
38: Familial and Genetic Factors.
39: Descriptions of Parasomnias.
40: Parasomnias in Children.
41: Pathophysiology, Associations, and Consequences of Parasomnias.
42: Classification of Parasomnias and Diagnostic Criteria.
43: Confusional Arousals.
44: Sleepwalking.
45: Sleep Terrors.
46: REM Sleep Behavior Disorder.
47: Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis.
48: Nightmare Disorder.
49: Sleep-Related Dissociative Disorders.
50: Sleep Enuresis.
51: Catathrenia: Sleep-Related Groaning.
52: Exploding Head Syndrome.
53: Sleep-Related Eating Disorder.
54: Sexsomnia.
55: Associations and Consequences of Parasomnias.
56: Mood and Behavior.
57: Health-Related Quality of Life.
58: Diagnosis of Parasomnias.
59: History and Physical Examination, Screening and Case Finding.
60: Value of Polysomnography and Other Diagnostic Tools to Diagnose and Treat Parasomnias.
61: Diagnostic Algorithms for Parasomnias.
62: Treatment of Parasomnias.
63: Treatment of Parasomnias.
64: Special Consideration for the Treatment of Parasomnia.
65: Special Conditions, Disorders, and Clinical Issues of Parasomnias.
66: Parasomnias of Childhood.
67: Effect of Medications and Substances on Parasomnias.
68: Impact of Medical and Neurological Disorders on Parasomnias.
69: Parasomnia: Impact of Psychiatric Disorders.
70: Legal Implications of Parasomnias.
71: Sleep and Other Conditions or Disorders.
72: Neurologic Disorders.
73: Neurological Conditions and Sleep.
74: Headache and Sleep.
75: Epilepsy and Sleep.
76: Cerebrovascular Disorders and Sleep.
77: Parkinson’s Disease and Sleep.
78: CNS Disease from Toxins, Alcohol, and Cannabis: Effects on Sleep.
79: Demyelinating Diseases and Sleep.
80: Neurodegenerative Diseases and Sleep.
81: Dementia and Sleep.
82: Psychiatric Disorders.
83: Overview of the Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Sleep.
84: Mood Disorders and Sleep.
85: Anxiety Disorders and Sleep.
86: Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.
87: Schizophrenia, Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders, and Sleep.
88: Eating Disorders and Sleep.
89: Substance and Alcohol-Related Disorders and Sleep.
90: Other Medical Conditions or Disorders.
91: Morbidity and Mortality Associated with Sleep Length.
92: Pain and Sleep.
93: Fibromyalgia/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Sleep.
94: Visual Impairment and Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders.
95: Cancer and Sleep: Cancer is a Circadian Rhythm Disorder.
96: Systemic and Pulmonary Hypertension and Sleep.
97: Alterations in Gastrointestinal Functioning During Sleep: Clinical Applications.
98: Infectious Diseases and Sleep.
99: Renal Disorders and Sleep.
100: Nocturia.