eBook Encyclopedia of Dairy Science, 2nd Edition

  • Patrick Fox
  • Paul McSweeney
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0123744075
  • ISBN-13: 9780123744074
  • DDC: 636.2083
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 4170 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released May 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

The definitive reference for researchers and practitioners in all aspects of Dairy Science.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors’ Biographies.
Editorial Advisory Board.
Contributors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Preface.
Foreword.
Contents.
Introduction.
History of Dairy Science and Technology.
History of Dairy Farming.
History of Dairy Products and Processes.
History of Dairy Chemistry.
History of Dairy Bacteriology.
1: Additives in Dairy Foods.
2: Types and Functions of Additives in Dairy Products.
3: Consumer Perceptions of Additives in Dairy Products.
4: Legislation.
5: Safety.
6: Emulsifiers.
7: Analytical Methods.
8: Sampling.
9: Proximate and Other Chemical Analyses.
10: Statistical Methods for Assessing Analytical Data.
11: Multivariate Statistical Tools for Chemometrics.
12: Spectroscopy.
13: Infrared Spectroscopy in Dairy Analysis.
14: Hyperspectral Imaging for Dairy Products.
15: Light Scattering Techniques.
16: Atomic Spectrometric Techniques.
17: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: An Introduction.
18: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance: Principles.
19: Chromatographic Methods.
20: Immunochemical Methods.
21: Electrophoresis.
22: Electrochemical Analysis.
23: Mass Spectrometric Methods.
24: Ultrasonic Techniques.
25: Microbiological.
26: DNA-Based Assays.
27: Microscopy (Microstructure of Milk Constituents and Products).
28: Biosensors.
29: Physical Methods.
30: Differential Scanning Calorimetry.
31: Principles and Significance in Assessing Rheological and Textural Properties.
32: Rheological Methods: Instrumentation.
33: Sensory Evaluation.
34: Animals that Produce Dairy Foods.
35: Major Bos taurus Breeds.
36: Minor and Dual-Purpose Bos taurus Breeds.
37: Bos indicus Breeds and Bos indicus × Bos taurus Crosses.
38: Goat Breeds.
39: Sheep Breeds.
40: Water Buffalo.
41: Yak.
42: Camel.
43: Horse.
44: Donkey.
45: Reindeer.
46: Bacteria, Beneficial.
47: Bifidobacterium spp.: Morphology and Physiology.
48: Bifidobacterium spp.: Applications in Fermented Milks.
49: Brevibacterium Linens, Brevibacterium Aurantiacum and Other Smear Microorganisms.
50: Lactic Acid Bacteria: An Overview.
51: Propionibacterium spp..
52: Probiotics, Applications in Dairy Products.
53: Bacteriocins.
54: Bacteriophage.
55: Biological Aspects.
56: Technological Importance in the Diary Industry.
57: Biofilm Formation.
58: Biogenic Amines.
59: Body Condition.
60: Measurement Techniques and Data Processing.
61: Effects on Health, Milk Production, and Reproduction.
62: Bull Management.
63: Artificial Insemination Centers.
64: Dairy Farms.
65: Business Management.
66: Roles and Responsibilities of the Manager.
67: Management Records and Analysis.
68: Butter and Other Milk Fat Products.
69: The Product and Its Manufacture.
70: Modified Butters.
71: Properties and Analysis.
72: Anhydrous Milk Fat/Butter Oil and Ghee.
73: Milk Fat-Based Spreads.
74: Fat Replacers.
75: Cheese.
76: Overview.
77: Preparation of Cheese Milk.
78: Starter Cultures: General Aspects.
79: Starter Cultures: Specific Properties.
80: Secondary Cultures.
81: Rennets and Coagulants.
82: Rennet-Induced Coagulation of Milk.
83: Gel Firmness and Its Measurement.
84: Curd Syneresis.
85: Salting of Cheese.
86: Mechanization of Cheesemaking.
87: Membrane Processing in Cheese Manufacture.
88: Microbiology of Cheese.
89: Use of Microbial DNA Fingerprinting.
90: Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria.
91: Public Health Aspects.
92: Raw Milk Cheeses.
93: Avoidance of Gas Blowing.
94: Biochemistry of Cheese Ripening.
95: Cheese Flavor.
96: Cheese Rheology.
97: Acid- and Acid/Heat Coagulated Cheese.
98: Cheddar-Type Cheeses.
99: Swiss-Type Cheeses.
100: Dutch-Type Cheeses.
101: Hard Italian Cheeses.
102: Pasta-Filata Cheeses: Low-Moisture Part-Skim Mozzarella (Pizza Cheese).
103: Pasta-Filata Cheeses: Traditional Pasta-Filata Cheese.
104: Smear-Ripened Cheeses.
105: Blue Mold Cheese.
106: Camembert, Brie, and Related Varieties.
107: Cheese with Added Herbs, Spices and Condiments.
108: Cheeses Matured in Brine.
109: Accelerated Cheese Ripening.
110: Enzyme-Modified Cheese.
111: Pasteurized Processed Cheese Products.
112: Cheese Analogues.
113: Cheese as a Food Ingredient.
114: Low-Fat and Reduced-Fat Cheese.
115: Current Legislation for Cheeses.
116: Chocolate.
117: Milk Chocolate.
118: Concentrated Dairy Products.
119: Evaporated Milk.
120: Sweetened Condensed Milk.
121: Dulce de Leche.
122: Khoa.
123: Contaminants of Milk and Dairy Products.
124: Contamination Resulting from Farm and Dairy Practices.
125: Environmental Contaminants.
126: Nitrates and Nitrites as Contaminants.
127: Cream.
128: Manufacture.
129: Products.
Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors’ Biographies.
Editorial Advisory Board.
Contributors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Preface.
Foreword.
Contents.
1: Dairy Education.
2: Dairy Production.
3: Dairy Technology.
4: Dairy Farm Layout and Design.
5: Building and Yard Design, Warm Climates.
6: Dairy Farm Management Systems.
7: Seasonal, Pasture-Based, Dairy Cow Breeds.
8: Non-Seasonal, Pasture Optimized, Dairy Cow Breeds in the United States.
9: Non-Seasonal, Pasture-Based Milk Production Systems in Western Europe.
10: Dry Lot Dairy Cow Breeds.
11: Goats.
12: Sheep.
13: Dairy Production in Diverse Regions.
14: Africa.
15: China.
16: Latin America.
17: Southern Asia.
18: Dairy Science Societies, and Associations.
19: Dehydrated Dairy Products.
20: Milk Powder: Types and Manufacture.
21: Milk Powder: Physical and Functional Properties of Milk Powders.
22: Dairy Ingredients in Non-Dairy Foods.
23: Infant Formulae.
24: Diseases of Dairy Animals.
25: Infectious Diseases: Bluetongue.
26: Infectious Diseases: Brucellosis.
27: Infectious Diseases: Foot-and-Mouth Disease.
28: Infectious Diseases: Hairy Heel Warts.
29: Infectious Diseases: Johne’s Disease.
30: Infectious Diseases: Leptospirosis.
31: Infectious Diseases: Listeriosis.
32: Infectious Diseases: Salmonellosis.
33: Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis.
34: Non-Infectious Diseases: Acidosis/Laminitis.
35: Non-Infectious Diseases: Bloat.
36: Non-Infectious Diseases: Displaced Abomasum.
37: Non-Infectious Diseases: Fatty Liver.
38: Non-Infectious Diseases: Grass Tetany.
39: Non-Infectious Diseases: Ketosis.
40: Non-Infectious Diseases: Milk Fever.
41: Non-Infectious Diseases: Pregnancy Toxemia.
42: Parasites, External: Mange, Dermatitis and Dermatosis.
43: Parasites, External: Tick Infestations.
44: Parasites, Internal: Gastrointestinal Nematodes.
45: Parasites, Internal: Liver Flukes.
46: Parasites, Internal: Lungworms.
47: Enzymes Exogenous to Milk in Dairy Technology.
48: β-D-Galactosidase.
49: Lipases.
50: Proteinases.
51: Transglutaminase.
52: Catalase, Glucose Oxidase, Glucose Isomerase and Hexose Oxidase.
53: Enzymes Indigenous to Milk.
54: Lipases and Esterases.
55: Plasmin System in Milk.
56: Phosphatases.
57: Lactoperoxidase.
58: Xanthine Oxidoreductase.
59: Other Enzymes.
60: Feed Ingredients.
61: Feed Concentrates: Cereal Grains.
62: Feed Concentrates: Co-Product Feeds.
63: Feed Concentrates: Oilseed and Oilseed Meals.
64: Feed Supplements: Anionic Salts.
65: Feed Supplements: Fats and Protected Fats.
66: Feed Supplements: Macrominerals.
67: Feed Supplements: Microminerals.
68: Feed Supplements: Organic-Chelated Minerals.
69: Feed Supplements: Ruminally Protected Amino Acids.
70: Feed Supplements: Vitamins.
71: Feeds, Prediction of Energy and Proteins.
72: Feed Energy.
73: Feed Proteins.
74: Feeds, Ration Formulation.
75: Systems Describing Nutritional Requirements of Dairy Cows.
76: Models in Nutritional Research.
77: Models in Nutritional Management.
78: Dry Period Rations in Cattle.
79: Lactation Rations in Cows on Grazing Systems.
80: Lactation Rations for Dairy Cattle on Dry Lot Systems.
81: Transition Cow Feeding and Management on Pasture Systems.
82: Fermented Milks.
83: Types and Standards of Identity.
84: Starter Cultures.
85: Health Effects of Fermented Milks.
86: Buttermilk.
87: Nordic Fermented Milks.
88: Middle Eastern Fermented Milks.
89: Asian Fermented Milks.
90: Koumiss.
91: Kefir.
92: Yogurt: Types and Manufacture.
93: Yogurt: Role of Starter Culture.
94: Flavors and Off-Flavors in Dairy Foods.
95: Forages and Pastures.
96: Annual Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties.
97: Annual Forage and Pasture Crops – Establishment and Management.
98: Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Species and Varieties.
99: Perennial Forage and Pasture Crops – Establishment and Maintenance.
100: Grazing Management.
101: Gamete and Embryo Technology.
102: Artificial Insemination.
103: Cloning.
104: In Vitro Fertilization.
105: Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer.
106: Sexed Offspring.
107: Transgenic Animals.
108: Genetics.
109: Selection: Concepts.
110: Selection: Evaluation and Methods.
111: Selection: Economic Indices for Genetic Evaluation.
112: Cattle Genomics.
113: International Flow of Genes.
114: Genetic Defects in Cattle.
115: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points.
116: HACCP Total Quality Management and Dairy Herd Health.
117: Processing Plants.
118: Heat Treatment of Milk.
119: Thermization of Milk.
120: Ultra-High Temperature Treatment (UHT): Heating Systems.
121: Ultra-High Temperature Treatment (UHT): Aseptic Packaging.
122: Sterilization of Milk and Other Products.
123: Non-Thermal Technologies: Introduction.
124: Non-Thermal Technologies: High Pressure Processing.
125: Non-Thermal Technologies: Pulsed Electric Field Technology and Ultrasonication.
126: Heat Stability of Milk.
127: Homogenization of Milk.
128: Principles and Mechanism of Homogenization, Effects and Assessment of Efficiency: Valve Homogenizers.
129: High-Pressure Homogenizers.
130: Other Types of Homogenizer (High-Speed Mixing, Ultrasonics, Microfluidizers, Membrane Emulsification).
131: Hormones in Milk.
132: Husbandry of Dairy Animals.
133: Buffalo: Asia.
134: Buffalo: Mediterranean Region.
135: Goat: Feeding Management.
136: Goat: Health Management.
137: Goat: Milking Management.
138: Goat: Multipurpose Management.
139: Goat: Replacement Management.
140: Goat: Reproductive Management.
141: Predator Control in Goats and Sheep.
142: Sheep: Feeding Management.
143: Sheep: Health Management.
144: Sheep: Milking Management.
145: Sheep: Multipurpose Management.
146: Sheep: Replacement Management.
147: Sheep: Reproductive Management.
148: Ice Cream and Desserts.
149: Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts: Product Types.
150: Ice Cream and Frozen Desserts: Manufacture.
151: Dairy Desserts.
152: Imitation Dairy Products.
Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors’ Biographies.
Editorial Advisory Board.
Contributors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Preface.
Foreword.
Contents.
1: Labeling of Dairy Products.
2: Labor Management on Dairy Farms.
3: Lactation.
4: Lactogenesis.
5: Induced Lactation.
6: Galactopoiesis, Effects of Hormones and Growth Factors.
7: Galactopoiesis, Effect of Treatment with Bovine Somatotropin.
8: Galactopoiesis, Seasonal Effects.
9: Lactic Acid Bacteria.
10: Taxonomy and Biodiversity.
11: Proteolytic Systems.
12: Physiology and Stress Resistance.
13: Genomics, Genetic Engineering.
14: Lactobacillus spp.: General Characteristics.
15: Lactobacillus spp.: Lactobacillus Acidophilus.
16: Lactobacillus spp.: Lactobacillus casei Group.
17: Lactobacillus spp.: Lactobacillus Helveticus.
18: Lactobacillus spp.: Lactobacillus Plantarum.
19: Lactobacillus spp.: Lactobacillus delbrueckii Group.
20: Lactobacillus spp.: Other Species.
21: Lactococcus Lactis.
22: Leuconostoc spp..
23: Streptococcus thermophilus.
24: Pediococcus spp..
25: Enterococcus in Milk and Dairy Products.
26: Lactic Acid Bacteria in Flavor Development.
27: Citrate Fermentation by Lactic Acid Bacteria.
28: Lactose and Oligosaccharides.
29: Lactose: Chemistry, Properties.
30: Lactose: Crystallization.
31: Lactose: Production, Applications.
32: Lactose: Derivatives.
33: Lactose: Galacto-Oligosaccharides.
34: Maillard Reaction.
35: Lactose Intolerance.
36: Indigenous Oligosaccharides in Milk.
37: Liquid Milk Products.
38: Liquid Milk Products: Pasteurized Milk.
39: Liquid Milk Products: Super-Pasteurized Milk (Extended Shelf-Life Milk).
40: Liquid Milk Products: UHT Sterilized Milks.
41: Liquid Milk Products: Modified Milks.
42: Liquid Milk Products: Flavored Milks.
43: Liquid Milk Products: Membrane-Processed Liquid Milk.
44: Pasteurization of Liquid Milk Products: Principles, Public Health Aspects.
45: Recombined and Reconstituted Products.
46: Mammals.
47: Mammary Gland.
48: Anatomy.
49: Growth, Development and Involution.
50: Gene Networks Controlling Development and Involution.
51: Mammary Gland, Milk Biosynthesis and Secretion.
52: Milk Fat.
53: Milk Protein.
54: Lactose.
55: Secretion of Milk Constituents.
56: Mammary Resistance Mechanisms.
57: Anatomical.
58: Endogenous.
59: Manure/Effluent Management.
60: Systems Design and Government Regulations.
61: Nutrient Recycling.
62: Mastitis Pathogens.
63: Contagious Pathogens.
64: Environmental Pathogens.
65: Mastitis Therapy and Control.
66: Automated Online Detection of Abnormal Milk.
67: Management Control Options.
68: Medical Therapy Options.
69: Role of Milking Machines in Control of Mastitis.
70: Microorganisms Associated with Milk.
71: Milk.
72: Introduction.
73: Physical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Milk.
74: Bovine Milk.
75: Goat Milk.
76: Sheep Milk.
77: Buffalo Milk.
78: Camel Milk.
79: Equid Milk.
80: Milks of Other Domesticated Mammals (Pigs, Yaks, Reindeer, Etc.).
81: Milks of Non-Dairy Mammals.
82: Milk of Monotremes and Marsupials.
83: Milk of Marine Mammals.
84: Human Milk.
85: Colostrum.
86: Seasonal Effects on Processing Properties of Cows’ Milk.
87: Milk in Human Health and Nutrition.
88: Milk of Primates.
89: Milking and Handling of Raw Milk.
90: Milking Hygiene.
91: Influence on Free Fatty Acids.
92: Effect of Storage and Transport on Milk Quality.
93: Milk Lipids.
94: General Characteristics.
95: Fatty Acids.
96: Conjugated Linoleic Acid.
97: Triacylglycerols.
98: Phospholipids.
99: Fat Globules in Milk.
100: Milk Fat Globule Membrane.
101: Buttermilk and Milk Fat Globule Membrane Fractions.
102: Analytical Methods.
103: Rheological Properties and Their Modification.
104: Nutritional Significance.
105: Lipid Oxidation.
106: Lipolysis and Hydrolytic Rancidity.
107: Cholesterol: Factors Determining Levels in Blood.
108: Removal of Cholesterol from Dairy Products.
109: Milk Proteins.
110: Analytical Methods.
111: Heterogeneity, Fractionation, and Isolation.
112: Casein Nomenclature, Structure, and Association.
113: Casein, Micellar Structure.
114: α-Lactalbumin.
115: β-Lactoglobulin.
116: Minor Proteins, Bovine Serum Albumin, Vitamin-Binding Proteins.
117: Lactoferrin.
118: Immunoglobulins.
119: Nutritional Quality of Milk Proteins.
120: Inter-Species Comparison of Milk Proteins: Quantitative Variability and Molecular Diversity.
121: Proteomics.
122: Milk Protein Products.
123: Milk Protein Concentrate.
124: Caseins and Caseinates, Industrial Production, Compositional Standards, Specifications, and Regulatory Aspects.
125: Membrane-Based Fractionation.
126: Whey Protein Products.
127: Bioactive Peptides.
128: Functional Properties of Milk Proteins.
129: Milk Quality and Udder Health.
130: Test Methods and Standards.
131: Effect on Processing Characteristics.
132: Milk Salts.
133: Distribution and Analysis.
134: Interaction with Caseins.
135: Macroelements, Nutritional Significance.
136: Trace Elements, Nutritional Significance.
137: Milking Machines.
138: Principles and Design.
139: Robotic Milking.
140: Milking Parlors.
141: Molecular Genetics and Dairy Foods.
142: Nucleosides and Nucleotides in Milk.
143: Nutrients, Digestion and Absorption.
144: Fermentation in the Rumen.
145: Fiber Digestion in Pasture-Based Cows.
146: Small Intestine of Lactating Ruminants.
147: Absorption of Minerals and Vitamins.
148: Nutritional and Health.
149: Nutritional and Health-Promoting Properties of Dairy Products: Contribution of Dairy Foods to Nutrient Intake.
150: Nutritional and Health-Promoting Properties of Dairy Products: Bone Health.
151: Nutritional and Health-Promoting Properties of Dairy Products: Colon Cancer Prevention.
152: Nutritional and Health-Promoting Properties of Dairy Products: Fatty Acids of Milk and Cardiovascular Disease.
153: Nutritional and Oral Health-Promoting Properties of Dairy Products: Caries Prevention and Oral Health.
154: Milk Allergy.
155: Diabetes Mellitus and Consumption of Milk and Dairy Products.
156: Galactosemia.
157: Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics.
158: Nutraceuticals from Milk.
159: Effects of Processing on Protein Quality of Milk and Milk Products.
Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors’ Biographies.
Editorial Advisory Board.
Contributors.
Guide to Use of the Encyclopedia.
Preface.
Foreword.
Contents.
1: Office of International Epizooties.
2: Mission, Organization and Animal Health Code.
3: Organic Dairy Production.
4: Packaging.
5: Pathogens in Milk.
6: Bacillus Cereus.
7: Brucella spp..
8: Campylobacter spp..
9: Clostridium spp..
10: Coxiella Burnetii.
11: Escherichia Coli.
12: Enterobacteriaceae.
13: Enterobacter spp..
14: Listeria Monocytogenes.
15: Mycobacterium spp..
16: Salmonella spp..
17: Shigella spp..
18: Staphylococcus Aureus – Molecular.
19: Staphylococcus Aureus – Dairy.
20: Yersinia Enterocolitica.
21: Plant and Equipment.
22: Process and Plant Design.
23: Materials and Finishes for Plant and Equipment.
24: Flow Equipment: Principles of Pump and Piping Calculations.
25: Flow Equipment: Pumps.
26: Flow Equipment: Valves.
27: Agitators in Milk Processing Plants.
28: Centrifuges and Separators: Types and Design.
29: Centrifuges and Separators: Applications in the Dairy Industry.
30: Heat Exchangers.
31: Pasteurizers, Design and Operation.
32: Evaporators.
33: Milk Dryers: Drying Principles.
34: Milk Dryers: Dryer Design.
35: Instrumentation and Process Control: Instrumentation.
36: Instrumentation and Process Control: Process Control.
37: Robots.
38: Corrosion.
39: Continuous Process Improvement and Optimization.
40: Quality Engineering.
41: Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment.
42: In-Place Cleaning.
43: Policy Schemes and Trade in Dairy Products.
44: Agricultural Policy Schemes: Price and Support Systems in Agricultural Policy.
45: Agricultural Policy Schemes: European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy.
46: Agricultural Policy Schemes: United States’ Agricultural System.
47: Agricultural Policy Schemes: Other Systems.
48: Codex Alimentarius.
49: Standards of Identity of Milk and Milk Products.
50: Trade in Milk and Dairy Products, International Standards: Harmonized Systems.
51: Trade in Milk and Dairy Products, International Standards: World Trade Organization.
52: World Trade Organization and Other Factors Shaping the Dairy Industry in the Future.
53: Prebiotics.
54: Types.
55: Functions.
56: Psychrotrophic Bacteria.
57: Arthrobacter spp..
58: Pseudomonas spp..
59: Other Psychrotrophs.
60: Replacement Management in Cattle.
61: Growth Standards and Nutrient Requirements.
62: Pre-Ruminant Diets and Weaning Practices.
63: Growth Diets.
64: Breeding Standards and Pregnancy Management.
65: Health Management.
66: Reproduction, Events and Management.
67: Estrous Cycles: Puberty.
68: Estrous Cycles: Characteristics.
69: Estrous Cycles: Postpartum Cyclicity.
70: Estrous Cycles: Seasonal Breeders.
71: Control of Estrous Cycles: Synchronization of Estrus.
72: Control of Estrous Cycles: Synchronization of Ovulation and Insemination.
73: Mating Management: Detection of Estrus.
74: Mating Management: Artificial Insemination, Utilization.
75: Mating Management: Fertility.
76: Pregnancy: Characteristics.
77: Pregnancy: Physiology.
78: Pregnancy: Parturition.
79: Pregnancy: Periparturient Disorders.
80: Rheology of Liquid and Semi-Solid Milk products.
81: Risk Analysis.
82: Rodents, Birds, and Insects.
83: Standardization of Fat and Protein Content.
84: Stress in Dairy Animals.
85: Cold Stress: Effects on Nutritional Requirements, Health and Performance.
86: Cold Stress: Management Considerations.
87: Heat Stress: Effects on Milk Production and Composition.
88: Heat Stress: Effects on Reproduction.
89: Management Induced Stress in Dairy Cattle: Effects on Reproduction.
90: Utilities and Effluent Treatment.
91: Water Supply.
92: Heat Generation.
93: Refrigeration.
94: Compressed Air.
95: Electricity.
96: Dairy Plant Effluents.
97: Design and Operation of Dairy Effluent Treatment Plants.
98: Reducing the Negative Impact of the Dairy Industry on the Environment.
99: Vitamins.
100: General Introduction.
101: Vitamin A.
102: Vitamin D.
103: Vitamin E.
104: Vitamin K.
105: Vitamin C.
106: Vitamin B12.
107: Folates.
108: Biotin (Vitamin B7).
109: Niacin.
110: Pantothenic Acid.
111: Vitamin B6.
112: Thiamine.
113: Riboflavin.
114: Water in Dairy Products.
115: Water in Dairy Products: Significance.
116: Analysis and Measurement of Water Activity.
117: Welfare of Animals, Political and Management Issues.
118: Whey Processing.
119: Utilization and Products.
120: Demineralization.
121: Yeasts and Molds.
122: Yeasts in Milk and Dairy Products.
123: Kluyveromyces spp..
124: Geotrichum Candidum.
125: Penicillium Roqueforti.
126: Penicillium Camemberti.
127: Spoilage Molds in Dairy Products.
128: Aspergillus Flavus.
129: Mycotoxins: Classification, Occurrence and Determination.
130: Mycotoxins: Aflatoxins and Related Compounds.
Glossary.
Index.