eBook Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos And Latinas In United States, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 019518842X
  • ISBN-13: 9780195188424
  • DDC: 973.0468
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 2344 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2005 | Published/Released October 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2005
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About

Overview

Provides access to information about the fastest growing minority population in the United States. With an unprecedented scope and cutting-edge scholarship, the Encyclopedia draws together the diverse historical and contemporary experiences in the United States of Latinos and Latinas from Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. Over 900 A-to-Z articles written by academics, scholars, writers, artists, and journalists, address such broad topics as identity, art, politics, religion, education, health, and history.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Editorial Board.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editorial and Production Staff.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: Acequias.
2: Acosta, Iván.
3: Acosta, Oscar “Zeta”.
4: Actors and Actresses.
5: Acuña, Rodolfo F..
6: Adál.
7: Adobe.
8: Adolescence.
9: Adoption.
10: Advertising and Marketing.
11: Affirmative Action.
12: Africa and Latinos and Latinas.
13: Afro-Latinos.
14: Agosín, Marjorie.
15: Agriculture and Agribusiness.
16: Agroecology.
17: Aguilar, Laura.
18: Aid to Families with Dependent Children.
19: Alabados and Alabanzas.
20: Alabama.
21: Alamo.
22: Alarcón, Norma.
23: Alaska.
24: Albizu Campos, Pedro.
25: Alcoholism.
26: Alexander v. Sandoval.
27: Alfaro, Luis.
28: Alfonzo, Carlos J..
29: Alianza Dominicana.
30: Allende, Isabel.
31: Almanza, Susana.
32: Almaraz, Carlos.
33: Altares.
34: Alurista.
35: Alvarez, Julia.
36: American G.I. Forum.
37: Americanization.
38: Amnesty Movement.
39: Anaya, Rudolfo A..
40: Anthony, Marc.
41: Anzaldúa, Gloria.
42: Architecture.
43: Areíto.
44: Arenas, Reinaldo.
45: Arizona.
46: Arkansas.
47: Arnaz, Desi.
48: Art, Chicano.
49: Art, Cuban American.
50: Art, Dominican.
51: Art, Puerto Rican.
52: Asian Latinos.
53: ASPIRA.
54: ASPIRA Consent Decree.
55: Assimilation and Acculturation.
56: Asthma.
57: Azaceta, Luis Cruz.
58: Aztlán.
59: Baca, Judy.
60: Bachata.
61: Baez, Joan.
62: Ballot Propositions 187, 209, and 227.
63: Balmaseda, Liz.
64: Balseros.
65: Banda.
66: Barraza, Santa.
67: Barrera, Aída.
68: Barretto, Ray.
69: Barrios.
70: Baseball.
71: Bautizo.
72: Bauzá, Mario.
73: Bay of Pigs.
74: Beans.
75: Bencastro, Mario.
76: Bilingual Education.
77: Bilingual Education Act.
78: Bilingualism and Biculturalism.
79: Bilingual Teacher Training.
80: Birth Defects.
81: Bisexuality.
82: Black-Latino Relations.
83: Blades, Rubén.
84: Blanqueamiento.
85: Bomba.
86: Bonilla, Frank.
87: Border, The.
88: Border Art.
89: Border Industrialization Program.
90: Border Patrol.
91: Boricua College.
92: Botánicas.
93: Bracero Program.
94: Brazilians.
95: Break Dancing.
96: Breast Cancer.
97: Brigada Antonio Maceo.
98: Brown Berets.
99: Brujería.
100: Burciaga, José Antonio.
101: Burgos, Julia de.
102: Business.
103: Buzio, Lidya.
104: Cabrera, Lydia.
105: Califano v. Torres (1978).
106: California.
107: Calle Ocho.
108: Caló.
109: Camnitzer, Luis.
110: Campaign for a Just Transition.
111: Cananea Miners' Strike.
112: Cannery Workers.
113: Cantinflas.
114: Cantú, Norma V..
115: Capetillo, Luisa.
116: CARA Exhibition.
117: Carrascolendas.
118: CASA HGT.
119: Casal, Lourdes.
120: Castillo, Ana.
121: Castillo, Aurora.
122: Castro, Fidel.
123: Catholicism.
124: Census.
125: Center for Latino Initiatives.
126: Central Americans.
127: Centro Cultural de la Raza.
128: Centro de Estudios Puertorriqueños.
129: Cervantes, Lorna Dee.
130: Chacón, Juan.
131: Chávez, Angélico.
132: Chávez, César.
133: Chávez, Denise.
134: Chávez, Helen.
135: Chavez, Linda.
136: Chavez Ravine.
137: Chicago.
138: Chicano/a Movement.
139: Chicano Park, San Diego.
140: Chicanos and Chicanas.
141: Chico and the Man.
142: Children in the Juvenile Justice System.
143: Children's Books.
144: Chimayó.
145: Chistes.
146: Cholos and Cholas.
147: Choteo.
148: Cinco de Mayo.
149: Cisneros, Henry G..
150: Cisneros, Sandra.
151: Citizenship.
152: Civil Rights Act (1964).
153: Clemente, Roberto.
154: Coalition for Justice in the Maquiladoras.
155: Coalition of Guatemalan Immigrants in the U.S..
156: Code-Switching.
157: COINTELPRO.
158: Colón, Jesús.
159: Colón, Miriam.
160: Colón, Willie.
161: Colonias.
162: Colorado.
163: Colorado Acequia Association.
164: Comedy and Humor.
165: Comisión Femenil Mexicana Nacional.
166: Committee in Solidarity with the People of El Salvador.
167: Communities Organized for Public Service.
168: Commuter Nation.
169: Congreso Mexicanista.
170: Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
171: Conjunto.
172: Connecticut.
173: Conquistadora, La.
174: Coors Boycott.
175: Corona, Bert.
176: Corpi, Lucha.
177: Corretjer, Juan Antonio.
178: Corridos.
179: Cortez, Ernesto, Jr..
180: Cortez, Gregório.
181: Cortina, Juan.
182: Costureras and Sastres.
183: Cotera, Martha.
184: Criminal Justice System.
185: Critical Race Theory and Lat Crit Theory.
186: Crusade for Justice.
187: Cruz, Celia.
188: Cruz, Migdalia.
189: Cruz, Nilo.
190: Cuban American Committee.
191: Cuban American National Foundation/PAC.
192: Cuban American Writers.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: East Los Angeles.
2: East Los Angeles Community Union.
3: Ecological Ethics.
4: Education.
5: Elizondo, Hector.
6: El Vez.
7: Employment Discrimination.
8: Encuentro Femenil.
9: English as a Second Language.
10: Entertainment Industry.
11: Environmental Equity.
12: Environmental Impact Studies.
13: Environmental Justice.
14: Environmental Justice and Latinas.
15: Environmental Justice Networks.
16: Environmental Knowledge, Traditional.
17: Environmental Protection Agency.
18: Environmental Racism.
19: Environmental Risk Assessment.
20: Espada, Martín.
21: Espaillat, Rhina.
22: Esperanza Peace and Justice Center.
23: Espiritismo.
24: Essayists.
25: Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico.
26: Estefan, Emilio, Jr..
27: Esteves, Sandra María.
28: Executive Order 12898.
29: Exilio.
30: Familia.
31: Family Planning.
32: Fania All-Stars.
33: Farming, Latinoization of.
34: Farm Labor Organizing Committee.
35: Farmworker Network for Economic and Environmental Justice.
36: Fashion.
37: Felix, Diane.
38: Female-Headed Households.
39: Fernández, Roberto.
40: Ferré, Rosario.
41: Festivals.
42: Film.
43: Film Producers.
44: First Nations and Mexican-Origin People.
45: Florida.
46: Folklore.
47: Food and Literature.
48: Foraker Act.
49: Forced Sterilization.
50: Fornes, Maria Irene.
51: Fusco, Coco.
52: Galarza, Ernesto.
53: Gallegos, Joseph C..
54: Gamboa, Harry, Jr..
55: Games.
56: Ganados del Valle.
57: Gandert, Miguel.
58: Gangs.
59: García, Cristina.
60: García, Hector Pérez.
61: García, Rupert.
62: Garífuna.
63: Garment Industry.
64: Gaspar de Alba, Alicia.
65: Gauna, Jeanne.
66: Gays.
67: Genetic Sciences.
68: Georgia.
69: Gilb, Dagoberto.
70: Gil de Montes, Roberto.
71: Global Cities and Processes.
72: Globalization and Transnationalism.
73: Gloria Estefan and the Miami Sound Machine.
74: Goldemberg, Isaac.
75: Gómez-Peña, Guillermo.
76: Gonzales, Alberto.
77: Gonzáles, Rodolfo Corky.
78: Gonzales-Day, Ken.
79: González, Elián.
80: González, Henry B..
81: González, Jerry and Andy.
82: González, José Luis.
83: González, Jovita.
84: González, Juan.
85: Gonzalez-Torres, Felix.
86: Gorras Blancas, Las.
87: Graffiti.
88: Gran Combo de Puerto Rico, El.
89: Green Card.
90: Grever, María.
91: Gronk.
92: Guadalupe Cultural Arts Center.
93: Guantánamo Bay.
94: Guatemalan Human Rights Commission/USA.
95: Guerra, Juan Luis.
96: Guerrero, Lalo.
97: Guerrero-Cruz, Dolores.
98: Guevara, Ernesto “Che”.
99: Gutiérrez, José Angel.
100: Gutierrez, Juana.
101: Gutiérrez, Luis.
102: Guzmán, Pablo.
103: Gwin Commission.
104: Haciendas.
105: Harlow, Larry.
106: Harris v. Rosario.
107: Hawaii.
108: Hayworth, Rita.
109: Health.
110: Health, Children's.
111: Health Care Access.
112: Helms-Burton Act.
113: Hermita de la Caridad.
114: Hernández, Ester.
115: Hernández, Rafael.
116: Hernandez v. Texas (1954).
117: Higher Education.
118: High School Blow Outs.
119: Hijuelos, Oscar.
120: Hinojosa, María.
121: Hinojosa, Rolando.
122: Hinojosa, Tish.
123: Hip-Hop.
124: Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities.
125: Hispanic Heritage Month.
126: HIV and AIDS.
127: Hollywood, Latinas in.
128: Hometown Associations.
129: Hopwood v. State of Texas.
130: Hostos Community College.
131: Housing.
132: Huerta, Dolores.
133: Hypertension.
134: Hypertext.
135: Idaho.
136: Ilegales, Los.
137: Illinois.
138: Immigrant Children.
139: Immigrant Incorporation into U.S. Society.
140: Immigration.
141: Immigration and Naturalization Service.
142: Immigration Museum, El Paso.
143: Immigration Policy, Twentieth Century.
144: Immigration Policy and Border Control: Post–September 11.
145: Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
146: Incest.
147: Independent Hospital Workers Union 1199.
148: Indiana.
149: Indian Camp Dam.
150: Indians, South American.
151: Inditas, Las.
152: Indocumentados.
153: Indo-Latino.
154: Industrial Workers of the World.
155: In Laak' Teech.
156: In Re: Rodriguez.
157: Institute for Cuban Studies.
158: Institute for Puerto Rican Policy.
159: Insular Cases.
160: INTAR.
161: Intel.
162: Intercultural Development and Research Association.
163: Internal Colonialism.
164: Internalized Racism.
165: International Indian Treaty Council.
166: Internet.
167: Inter-University Program for Latino Research.
168: Iowa.
169: Islam.
170: Islamic Right of Thirst.
171: Islas, Arturo.
172: Jaar, Alfredo.
173: Jaramillo, Cleofas.
174: Jaramillo, Pedrito.
175: Jaripeo.
176: Jewish Latin American Immigration to the United States.
177: Jewish Latinos and Latinas.
178: Jim Crow.
179: Jiménez, Flaco.
180: Jiménez, Luis.
181: Jiménez, Santiago, Sr..
182: Jones Act.
183: Juárez-Lincoln University.
184: Juárez Murders.
185: Julián Samora Research Institute.
186: Justice for Janitors.
187: Kansas.
188: Katz, Leandro.
189: Kentucky.
190: Kid Frost.
191: Labor and Labor Strikes.
192: Labor/Community Strategy Center.
193: Labor Markets, Informal.
194: Land Grants.
195: Land Rights Council, San Luis, Colorado.
196: Language and Identity.
197: Language Rights.
198: La Paz Agreement.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Lobato v. Taylor.
2: Lobos, Los.
3: Locally Unwanted Land Uses.
4: Loisaida.
5: Lomas Garza, Carmen.
6: López, Alma.
7: López, Félix.
8: Lopez, Jennifer.
9: López, Yolanda.
10: Lopez v. Seccombe.
11: Lopez v. Union Tank Car Co..
12: Lotería.
13: Louisiana.
14: Lowriders.
15: Lozano, Rudy.
16: Luciano, Felipe.
17: Luján, Gilbert Sánchez.
18: Lupe, La.
19: Machado v. Goodman Manufacturing Company.
20: Machismo.
21: Machito.
22: Madres del Este de Los Angeles.
23: Madrid, Arturo.
24: Mafia, La.
25: Magazines, Commercial.
26: Magonistas.
27: Maine.
28: Malinche, La.
29: Mambo.
30: Manifest Destiny.
31: Manny Oquendo and the Conjunto Libre.
32: Manrique, Jaime.
33: Maquiladoras.
34: Mariachi Music.
35: Marianismo.
36: Mari Bras, Juan.
37: Marielitos.
38: Marín, Cheech.
39: Marisol.
40: Marqués, René.
41: Martell, Esperanza.
42: Martí, José.
43: Martín, María.
44: Martin, Ricky.
45: Martínez, Antonio José.
46: Martínez, César.
47: Martínez, Demetria.
48: Martínez, Elizabeth.
49: Martínez, Rubén.
50: Martínez Celaya, Enrique.
51: Maryland.
52: Marzán, Gregório.
53: Más Canosa, Jorge.
54: Masculinity.
55: Massachusetts.
56: Matachines.
57: McKinney v. Saviego (1855).
58: Meatpacking Industry.
59: Media.
60: Media and Latino Identity.
61: Medicine, Traditional.
62: Méndez v. Westminster.
63: Mendieta, Ana.
64: Mendoza, Lydia.
65: Mental Health.
66: Mercado, Ralph.
67: Merengue.
68: Mestizaje.
69: Mexican American Cultural Center.
70: Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund.
71: Mexican American Political Association.
72: Mexican American Youth Organization.
73: Mexican Consulates.
74: Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, Chicago.
75: Mexican Home Country Projects.
76: Mexican Museum, San Francisco.
77: Mexican-Origin People in the United States.
78: Mexican Revolution.
79: Michigan.
80: Midwest Voter Registration Education Project.
81: Migradólares and Remittances.
82: Migrant Workers.
83: Militarization of the Border.
84: Military.
85: Minnesota.
86: Missions and Other Colonial Churches.
87: Mississippi.
88: Missouri.
89: Mitos y Leyendas.
90: Mohr, Nicholasa.
91: Molina, Mario.
92: Montana.
93: Montoya, Delilah.
94: Moore, Richard.
95: Mora, Pat.
96: Moraga, Cherríe.
97: Morales, Aurora Levins.
98: Morales, Iris.
99: Morales, Rosario.
100: Morales, Sylvia.
101: Moreno, Luisa.
102: Moreno, Rita.
103: Mormonism.
104: Movimiento de Arte y Cultura Latino Americana.
105: Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán.
106: Mujeres Activas en Letras y Cambio Social.
107: Mujer Obrera, La.
108: Muñoz, Elías Miguel.
109: Muñoz Marín, Luis.
110: Murals.
111: Murieta, Joaquín.
112: Museo del Barrio.
113: Museums.
114: Music, Afro-Caribbean.
115: Music, Popular.
116: Music Industry.
117: Mutualista Organizations.
118: National Association of Hispanic Journalists.
119: National Association of Latino Elected and Appointed Officials.
120: National Chicano Moratorium.
121: National Congress for Puerto Rican Rights.
122: National Council of La Raza.
123: National Forests.
124: National Hispanic Cultural Center of New Mexico.
125: Native Americans/Mexicanos.
126: Nava, Gregory.
127: Nava, Michael.
128: Nebraska.
129: Negrophobia.
130: Nevada.
131: New Hampshire.
132: New Jersey.
133: New Mexico.
134: New Mexico Acequia Association.
135: News Networks.
136: Newspapers, Historical.
137: New York.
138: Nicaraguan Organizations.
139: Noguera, Olga.
140: Norteño.
141: North American Free Trade Agreement.
142: North Carolina.
143: North Dakota.
144: Nueva Canción.
145: Nutrition.
146: Nuyorican Poets Café.
147: Nuyorican Theater and Poetry.
148: Oaxacalifornia.
149: Obejas, Achy.
150: Obledo, Mario.
151: Ohio.
152: Oklahoma.
153: Oliver, Denise.
154: Ollantay Center for the Arts.
155: Olmos, Edward James.
156: Operation Bootstrap/Section 936.
157: Operation Pedro Pan.
158: Oregon.
159: Ortiz Cofer, Judith.
160: Pachucos and Pachucas.
161: Padilla, Elena.
162: Painters.
163: Palmieri, Eddie.
164: Pantoja, Antonia.
165: Parades.
166: Paredes, Américo.
167: Parque de Dominoes.
168: Parsons, Lucy G..
169: Partnoy, Alicia.
170: Pastorelas and Pastores.
171: Peña, Albert, Jr..
172: Peña, La.
173: Penitentes.
174: Pennsylvania.
175: People Organized in Defense of Earth and Her Resources, Austin.
176: People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights, San Francisco.
177: People v. de la Guerra.
178: Pérez, Danilo.
179: Pérez, Loida Maritza.
180: Pérez, Lourdes.
181: Pérez, Ramón “Tianguis”.
182: Pérez, Richie.
183: Pérez, Rosie.
184: Pérez Prado, Dámaso.
185: Performing Arts and Theater.
186: Periodicals, Newspapers, and Journals.
187: Pesticides.
188: Philanthropy.
189: Photographers.
190: Pietri, Pedro.
191: Pigmentocracy.
192: Piñatas and Paper Arts.
193: Pineda, Cecile.
194: Piñero, Miguel.
195: Plan de Aztlán.
196: Plan de Santa Barbara.
197: Platt Amendment.
198: Playwrights.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Religion and Spirituality.
2: Repatriation Programs.
3: Reproduction and Health.
4: Research Centers.
5: Resolana.
6: Resurrection Blvd.
7: Rhode Island.
8: Riparian Long-Lot.
9: Rivera, Edward.
10: Rivera, Louis Reyes.
11: Rivera, Tomás.
12: Rock en Español.
13: Rock Music.
14: Rodríguez, Luis J..
15: Rodriguez, Richard.
16: Romero, Frank.
17: Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana.
18: Roybal, Edward.
19: Ruiz de Burton, María Amparo.
20: Rural America.
21: Sábado Gigante.
22: Sáenz, Diana.
23: Saints and Border Saints.
24: Salazar, Rubén.
25: Salinas, Raúl.
26: Salsa.
27: Samora, Julián.
28: Sánchez, Graciela.
29: Sánchez, Luis Rafael.
30: Sánchez, Ricardo.
31: Sánchez V. United States.
32: Sanctuary Movement.
33: Sandoval, Arturo.
34: San Luis People's Ditch.
35: Santa Fe Style.
36: Santamaría, Mongo.
37: Santana.
38: Santería.
39: Santeros and Santeras.
40: Santiago, Esmeralda.
41: Schomburg, Arturo.
42: School of the Americas.
43: Schools, Parochial.
44: Schools, Public.
45: Scientific Racism.
46: Sculptors.
47: Second Generation.
48: Selena.
49: Self-Help Graphics.
50: Seniors.
51: Señor de los Milagros.
52: Sepúlveda, Emma.
53: Serros, Michele.
54: Sexual Abuse.
55: Sexuality.
56: Sex Workers.
57: Shakira.
58: Silva, Chelo.
59: Sin Fronteras.
60: 16 de Septiembre.
61: Sleepy Lagoon Trial.
62: Social and Public Art Research Center.
63: Social Movements.
64: Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science.
65: Socio-Economic Profile.
66: Soldaderas.
67: Sonny and the Sunliners.
68: Soto, Gary.
69: Soto, Pedro Juan.
70: South Americans.
71: South Carolina.
72: South Dakota.
73: Southwest Hispanic Research Institute.
74: Southwest Network for Environmental and Economic Justice.
75: Southwest Organizing Project.
76: Southwest Voter Registration Education Project.
77: Southwest Workers Union.
78: Spanglish.
79: Spanish Harlem.
80: Spanish International Network.
81: Spanish-Speaking Unity Council.
82: Stereotypes.
83: Student Movements.
84: Suárez, Virgil.
85: Summit of the Americas.
86: Sustainable Development.
87: Svich, Caridad.
88: Tafolla, Carmen.
89: Taller Puertorriqueño.
90: Taos Valley Acequia Association.
91: Tatuajes.
92: Taylor, Sheila Ortiz.
93: Teatro Campesino.
94: Teatro de las Chicanas.
95: Teatro Nacional de Aztlán.
96: Teenage Pregnancy.
97: Telenovelas.
98: Television, Spanish-Language.
99: Temporary Worker Plan.
100: Tenayuca Emma.
101: Tennessee.
102: Terrorism.
103: Testimonios.
104: Texas.
105: Texas Association of Chicanos in Higher Education.
106: Texas Rangers.
107: Texas Tornados.
108: Tex-Mex Music.
109: Theology.
110: Thomas, Piri.
111: Tierra.
112: Tijerina, Reies López.
113: Title VI.
114: Title VII.
115: Tomás Rivera Policy Institute.
116: Tortilla Factory.
117: Toxic Avengers.
118: Toypurina.
119: Transgender.
120: Transgenic Maize.
121: Transsexuals.
122: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
123: Treaty of Paris, 1898.
124: Trejo, Rubén.
125: Tres Reyes.
126: Trujillo, Rafael.
127: Tucsonians for a Clean Environment.
128: Ulibarrí, Sabine.
129: Umpierre-Herrera, Luz María.
130: Unions.
131: United Farm Workers.
132: United States Foreign Policy.
133: United States Interventions in Latin America.
134: United States–Mexican War.
135: University of California Committee on Latino Research.
136: Univision.
137: Urrea, Luis Alberto.
138: Urrea, Teresa.
139: Utah.
140: Valadez, John.
141: Valdez, Luis.
142: Valdez, Patssi.
143: Valdez Condo Wars.
144: Valens, Ritchie.
145: Vaqueros.
146: Varela, Félix.
147: Varela, María.
148: Vargas, Alberto.
149: Vega, Bernardo.
150: Vega, Ed.
151: Vega, Marta Moreno.
152: Vejigantes.
153: Velasquez, Baldemar.
154: Vermont.
155: Vicuña, Cecilia.
156: Vieques and Culebra.
157: Villa, Francisco.
158: Villa, Lucha.
159: Villarreal, Edit.
160: Villarreal, José Antonio.
161: Villaseñor, Victor.
162: Villegas de Magnon, Leonor.
163: Viramontes, Helena María.
164: Virgen de Guadalupe.
165: Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre.
166: Virginia.
167: War of 1898.
168: Washington.
169: Washington Heights.
170: Weaving and Wool Arts.
171: West Harlem Environmental Action.
172: West Virginia.
173: Whiteness.
174: Widowhood.
175: William C. Velásquez Institute.
176: Wilson, Liliana.
177: Wisconsin.
178: Women and Migration.
179: Workplace Safety and Health.
180: Wyoming.
181: Ybor City.
182: Yglesias, José.
183: Young Lords Party.
184: Youth Culture.
185: Zapatistas.
186: Zapotecs.
187: Zoot Suit.
Topical Outline of Entries.
Directory of Contributors.
Index.