eBook Encyclopedia Of United States: Latin American Relations, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1608717925
  • ISBN-13: 9781608717927
  • DDC: 327.730803
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1247 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released August 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
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Overview

Details the political, economic, and military interconnections between the United States and the countries of Latin America, including Mexico and the nations in Central America, the Caribbean, and South America.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Alphabetical Table of Contents.
About the Editors.
List of Authors.
Preface.
Introduction the Context of U.S.–Latin American Relations.
1: Acheson, Dean G..
2: Adams, John Quincy.
3: Agee, Philip.
4: Alarcón De Quesada, Ricardo.
5: Albright, Madeleine.
6: Alfaro Delgado, Eloy.
7: All Mexico Movement (United States).
8: Allende Gossens, Salvador.
9: Alliance for Progress.
10: Amador Guerrero, Manuel.
11: Amapala Agreement, 1923.
12: Amazon Cooperation Treaty, 1978 (Amazon Pact).
13: American Convention on Human Rights, 1969 (Pact of San José).
14: American Institute for Free Labor Development (AIFLD).
15: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA) (Peru).
16: Americas Barometer (Latin American Public Opinion Project—LAPOP).
17: Amistad Mutiny, 1839.
18: Anglo-American Caribbean Commission.
19: Antarctica, Argentine, and Chilean Claims to.
20: Antarctic Treaty, 1959.
21: Anti-Americanism in Latin America.
22: Aranha, Oswaldo.
23: Arbenz Guzmán, Jacobo.
24: Arévalo Bermejo, Juan José.
25: Argentina, Financial Crisis, 2000–2002.
26: Argentina, U.S. Relations with.
27: Arias Madrid, Arnulfo.
28: Arias Sánchez, Oscar.
29: Aristide, Jean-Bertrand.
30: Armed Forces of National Liberation (FALN) (Puerto Rico).
31: Arms Industry in Latin America.
32: Arms Transfers to Latin America.
33: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC).
34: Aspinwall, William H..
35: Association of Caribbean States (ACS).
36: Atkins, Edwin F..
37: Atlantic Community Development Group for Latin America.
38: Atocha, Alexander.
39: Austin, Moses.
40: Austin, Stephen F..
41: Austral Plan, 1985 (Argentina).
42: Ávila Camacho, Manuel.
43: Bacon, Robert.
44: Baker, James A. III.
45: Balaguer Ricardo, Joaquín.
46: Baltimore Affair, 1891.
47: Banco Del Sur (Bank of the South).
48: Banking, Offshore.
49: Banzer Suárez, Hugo.
50: Barco Vargas, Virgilio.
51: Barletta Vallarino, Nicolás Ardito.
52: Barrios, Justo Rufino.
53: Baseball.
54: Batista Y Zaldívar, Fulgencio.
55: Batlle Y Ordóñez, José.
56: Bayard, Thomas F..
57: Bay of Pigs Invasion, 1961.
58: Beach, Moses Yale.
59: Beagle Channel Dispute (Argentina/Chile).
60: Beals, Carleton.
61: Belaúnde, Víctor Andrés.
62: Belaúnde Terry, Fernando.
63: Belize, U.S. Relations with.
64: Belize, Guatemalan Claims to.
65: Benton, Thomas Hart.
66: Berenson, Lori.
67: Berle, Adolf a. Jr..
68: Betancourt Bello, Rómulo.
69: Bidlack-Mallarino Treaty, 1846.
70: Bishops’ Conference, Medellín, 1968.
71: Bissell, Richard M. Jr..
72: Black Warrior Incident, 1854.
73: Blaine, James G..
74: Bogotá, Act of, 1960.
75: Bogotazo, 1948 (Colombia).
76: Bolívar, Simón.
77: Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA).
78: Bolivia, U.S. Military Antidrug Program, 1986.
79: Bolivia, U.S. Relations with.
80: Bolivian Revolution, 1952–1956, U.S. Policy Toward.
81: Bonsal, Philip W..
82: Bosch Gaviño, Juan.
83: Boston Fruit Company.
84: Bowers, Claude G..
85: Bracero Program.
86: Braden, Spruille.
87: Brain Drain.
88: Brazil, Coup d’État, 1964.
89: Brazil, U.S. Relations with.
90: Briggs, Ellis O..
91: Brooke, General John R..
92: Brothers to the Rescue.
93: Brum Rodríguez, Baltasar.
94: Bryan, William Jennings.
95: Bryan-Chamorro Treaty, 1915.
96: Bucareli Agreements, 1923.
97: Buchanan, James.
98: Bunau-Varilla, Philippe J..
99: Bunker, Ellsworth.
100: Bureaucratic-Authoritarian Regimes.
101: Burnham, Forbes.
102: Bush, George H. W..
103: Bush, George W..
104: Butler, Anthony.
105: Butler, Smedley D..
106: Cabot, John M..
107: Caffery, Jefferson.
108: Calderón Guardia, Rafael.
109: Calhoun, John C..
110: Calles, Plutarco Elías.
111: Calvo, Carlos.
112: Camarena, Enrique.
113: Campos, Francisco Luiz Da Silva.
114: Cañas-Jerez Treaty, 1858.
115: Caperton, Admiral William B..
116: Cardenal Martínez, Reverend Ernesto.
117: Cárdenas Del Río, Lázaro.
118: Cardoso, Fernando Henrique.
119: Carías Andino, Tiburcio.
120: Caribbean, German U-Boat Threat, World War Ii.
121: Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI).
122: Caribbean Basin Partnership Act, 2000 (United States).
123: Caribbean Community Common Market (CARICOM).
124: Caribbean Legion.
125: Carnegie, Andrew.
126: Carranza Garza, Venustiano.
127: Carrera Turcios, José Rafael.
128: Cartagena, Agreement of, 1969 (Andean Pact).
129: Carter, Jimmy.
130: Castillo Armas, Carlos.
131: Castro Ruz, Fidel.
132: Cédras, Raoul.
133: Central America, Filibusters.
134: Central America: Unification Efforts Since 1840.
135: Central American Bank for Economic Integration (CABEI).
136: Central American Common Market (CACM).
137: Central American Conference, Washington, 1907.
138: Central American Conference, Washington, 1923.
139: Central American Court of Justice.
140: Central American Defense Council (CONDECA).
141: Central American-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement, 2004 (CAFTA-DR).
142: Central American Wars, 1980s.
143: Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
144: Chaco War, 1932–1935.
145: Chamizal Boundary Dispute, 1864–1964.
146: Chamorro, Violeta.
147: Chamorro Cardenal, Pedro Joaquín.
148: Chamorro Vargas, Emiliano.
149: Chatfield, Frederick.
150: Chávez Frías, Hugo.
151: Chiari Remón, Roberto Francisco.
152: Chicago Boys.
153: Chile, U.S. Relations with.
154: Chilean Development Corporation (CORFO).
155: “Chileanization” of Foreign Properties.
156: China, People’s Republic of, Relations with Latin America.
157: Chiquita Brands International.
158: Christmas, Lee.
159: Christopher, Warren.
160: Church Committee.
161: Cipriano Castro Ruiz, José.
162: Civic Action Programs.
163: Clark, J. Reuben.
164: Clay, Henry.
165: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, 1850.
166: Cleveland, Grover.
167: Clinton, Hillary Rodham.
168: Clinton, William J..
169: Coffee as an Export Crop.
170: Colombia, U.S. Relations with.
171: Communism in Latin America.
172: Confederation of Latin American Workers (CTAL).
173: Conference of American States on Conciliation and Arbitration, Washington, 1928–1929.
174: Conference of Latin American Bishops (CELAM).
175: Continental Treaty, 1856.
176: Contreras Sepúlveda, Manuel.
177: Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, 1988.
178: Coolidge, Calvin.
179: Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, Office of, World War II.
180: Costa Rica, U.S. Relations with.
181: Costa Rica-Nicaragua Boundary Dispute.
182: Cotonou Agreement, 2000.
183: Council on Hemispheric Affairs (COHA).
184: Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON).
185: Counterinsurgency.
186: Creole Affair, 1841.
187: Cristiani Burkard, Alfredo.
188: Cromwell, William N..
189: Crowder, Enoch H..
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Alphabetical Table of Contents.
1: Fagen, Richard.
2: Falangists.
3: Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) (El Salvador).
4: Farnham, Roger.
5: Farquhar, Percival.
6: Federal Bureau of Narcotics.
7: Fifth International Conference of American States, Santiago, 1923.
8: Figueres Ferrer, José.
9: Filós-Hines Treaty, 1947.
10: First International Conference of American States, Washington, 1889.
11: First Meeting of American Presidents, Panama, 1956.
12: First Meeting of Consultation of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Panama, 1939.
13: Fish, Hamilton.
14: Flood, Daniel.
15: Food for Peace.
16: Foraker, Joseph B..
17: Ford, Gerald R..
18: Ford Foundation.
19: Foreign Sales Corporations: 927 Industries.
20: Foster, John W..
21: Fourth International Conference of American States, Buenos Aires, 1910.
22: Fox, Vicente.
23: France, Intervention in Mexico, 1862–1867.
24: France, Nineteenth-Century Interests in Latin America.
25: Frank, Andre Gunder.
26: Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).
27: Frei Montalva, Eduardo.
28: Freire, Paulo.
29: Frelinghuysen, Frederick.
30: Frelinghuysen-Zavala Treaty, 1884.
31: French Guiana, U.S. Relations with.
32: French-Speaking Caribbean: Guadeloupe, Martinique, U.S. Relations with.
33: Frondizi, Arturo.
34: Fuentes Macías, Carlos.
35: Fujimori, Alberto Keinya.
36: Fulbright, J. William.
37: Furtado, Celso.
38: Gadsden Treaty, 1853.
39: Gage, Thomas.
40: Gairy, Eric.
41: Gaitán Ayala, Jorge Eliécer.
42: Galtieri, Leopoldo Fortunato.
43: García Iñiguez, Calixto.
44: García Moreno, Gabriel.
45: García Pérez, Alan.
46: Garfield, James A..
47: Garvey, Marcus.
48: Gaviria Trujillo, César.
49: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
50: Generalized System of Preferences (GSP).
51: Germany, Nineteenth-Century Interests in Latin America.
52: Goethals, George W..
53: Gómez Báez, Máximo.
54: González, Elián.
55: Good Neighbor Policy.
56: Gordon, Lincoln.
57: Gorgas, William C..
58: Goulart, João Belchior.
59: Grace, W. R.
60: Graf Spee Incident, 1939.
61: Grant, Ulysses S..
62: Grau San Martín, Ramón.
63: Great Britain, Nineteenth-Century Interests in Latin America.
64: Great Depression, Impact on Latin America.
65: Grenada, U.S. Invasion of, 1983.
66: Greytown Incident, 1854.
67: Guani Doctrine.
68: Guantánamo Naval Base.
69: Guatemala, U.S. Invasion of, 1954.
70: Guatemala, U.S. Relations with.
71: Guatemala-Honduras Boundary Dispute.
72: Guatemalan United Revolutionary Front (URNG).
73: Guayaquil and Quito Railroad.
74: Guerrilla Warfare.
75: Guevara De La Serna, Ernesto “Che”.
76: Guggenheim, Harry F..
77: Guillaume Sam, Vilbrun.
78: Guyana, U.S. Relations with.
79: Guzmán, Abimael.
80: Haig, Alexander.
81: Haiti, Independence.
82: Haiti, Refugees from.
83: Haiti, U.S. Intervention Under President Clinton, 1994.
84: Haiti, U.S. Relations with.
85: Harding, Warren G..
86: Harrison, Benjamin.
87: Hay, John.
88: Haya De La Torre, Victor Raúl.
89: Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903.
90: Hayes, Rutherford B..
91: Hay-Herrán Treaty, 1903.
92: Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, 1901.
93: Hearst, William Randolph.
94: Helms, Jesse.
95: Hepburn Bill, 1902.
96: Hernández Martínez, Maximiliano.
97: Herrera, José Joaquín.
98: Herter, Christian a..
99: Hise-Selva Treaty, 1849.
100: Hispanidad.
101: Honduras, U.S. Relations with.
102: Honduras-Nicaragua Boundary Dispute.
103: Hoover, Herbert.
104: Houston, Sam.
105: Huerta, Victoriano.
106: Hughes, Charles Evans.
107: Hull, Cordell.
108: Hull-Alfaro Treaty, 1936.
109: Human Rights.
110: Ibáñez Del Campo, Carlos.
111: Immigration Act, 1924 (United States).
112: Immigration Act, 1990 (United States).
113: Immigration and Nationality Acts, 1952 and 1965 (United States).
114: Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), United States.
115: Immigration Policy, United States.
116: Immigration Reform and Control Act, 1986 (IRCA) (United States).
117: Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI).
118: Institute for European-Latin American Relations (IRELA).
119: Institute for the Integration of Latin America (INTAL).
120: Institute of Inter–American Affairs (IIAA).
121: Intellectual Property Rights.
122: Inter–American Children’S Institute (IIN).
123: Inter–American Coffee Agreement, 1940.
124: Inter–American Commission of Women (IACW).
125: Inter–American Commission on Human Rights.
126: Inter–American Committee Against Terrorism (CICTE).
127: Inter–American Conference, Proposed, 1881.
128: Inter–American Conference for the Maintenance of Continental Peace and Security, Rio De Janeiro, 1947.
129: Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, Buenos Aires, 1936.
130: Inter-American Conference on the Problems of War and Peace, Mexico City, 1945.
131: Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (ICAC), 1996.
132: Inter-American Council for Commerce and Production (CICYP).
133: Inter-American Council of Jurists (IACJ).
134: Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
135: Inter-American Defense Board (IADB).
136: Inter-American Defense College (IADC).
137: Inter-American Development Bank (IDB).
138: Inter-American Dialogue.
139: Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD).
140: Inter-American Federation of Labor (CIT).
141: Inter-American Indian Institute (III).
142: Inter-American Peace Force (IAPF).
143: Inter American Press Association (IAPA).
144: Inter-American Regional Organization of Workers (ORIT).
145: Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, 1982.
146: Intergovernmental Council of Copper Exporting Countries (CIPEC).
147: International Bauxite Association (IBA).
148: International Coffee Agreement (ICA), 1962.
149: International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU).
150: International Court of Justice (ICJ-CIJ).
151: International Monetary Fund (IMF).
152: International Organization of Banana Exporters (UPEB).
153: International Railway of Central America (IRCA).
154: International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) Corporation.
155: International Tin Agreement (ITA), 1981.
156: Interoceanic Canal Commission (ICC) (United States).
157: Iron Exporting Countries, Association of (APEF).
158: Isle of Pines Treaty, 1925.
159: Isthmian Canal Commission (ICC) (Walker Commission).
160: Jackson, Andrew.
161: Jagan, Cheddi.
162: Japan, Relations with Latin America.
163: Japanese Community in Latin America.
164: Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1785–1786.
165: Jay’S Treaty, 1794.
166: Jefferson, Thomas.
167: Jewish Communities in Latin America.
168: Johnson, Lyndon B..
169: Johnson Doctrine.
170: Juárez García, Benito.
171: Justice Studies Center of the Americas.
172: Keith, Minor C..
173: Kellogg, Frank B..
174: Kellogg-Alfaro Treaty, 1926.
175: Kemmerer, Edwin W..
176: Kennan, George F..
177: Kennedy, John F..
178: Khrushchev, Nikita.
179: Kissinger, Henry A..
180: Kissinger Commission.
181: Knox, Philander C..
182: Knox-Castrillo Treaty, 1911.
183: Knox-Paredes Convention, 1911.
184: Korean War, 1950–1953.
185: Kubitschek De Oliveira, Juscelino.
186: La Matanza (El Salvador).
187: Lagos Escobar, Ricardo.
188: Lansing, Robert.
189: Larkin, Thomas O..
190: Latin American Economic System (SELA).
191: Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE).
192: Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA).
193: Latin American Independence, 1803–1826, U.S. Policy Toward.
194: Latin American Integration Association (ALADI).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedication.
Contents.
Alphabetical Table of Contents.
1: Obama, Barack H..
2: Ochoa Sánchez, Arnaldo T..
3: Odría Amoretti, Manuel A..
4: Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin America and the Caribbean (United States).
5: Offshore Assembly: “807 Industries”.
6: Oil, Expropriation of Foreign Companies.
7: Oil Shocks Since 1970, Impact on Latin America.
8: Olney, Richard.
9: Onís Y González, Luis De.
10: Operation Bootstrap (Puerto Rico).
11: Operation Condor.
12: Operation Mongoose.
13: Organization for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL).
14: Organization of American States (OAS).
15: Organization of Central American States (ODECA).
16: Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).
17: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
18: Ortega Saavedra, José Daniel.
19: Ortega Y Gasset, José.
20: Ostend Manifesto, 1854.
21: O’Sullivan, John.
22: Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC).
23: Padilla Peñalosa, Ezequiel.
24: Panama, Independence of, 1903.
25: Panama, Isthmian Canal Interests, Nineteenth Century.
26: Panama, U.S. Invasion of, 1989.
27: Panama, U.S. Relations with.
28: Panama Canal, Administration of.
29: Panama Canal Expansion, 2007.
30: Panama Canal Treaties (Carter-Torrijos), 1977.
31: Panama Conference, 1826.
32: Panama Railroad.
33: Panama Riots, 1964.
34: Pan American Airways.
35: Pan American Airways Airport Development Program.
36: Pan American Development Foundation (PADF).
37: Pan American-Grace Airways.
38: Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
39: Pan American Highway.
40: Pan American Institute of Geography and History (PAIGH).
41: Pan-Americanism.
42: Pan-American Union.
43: Pani Arteaga, Alberto J.
44: Paraguay, U.S. Relations with.
45: Pardo, Rodrigo.
46: Paris, Treaty of, 1898.
47: Partners of the Americas.
48: Pastor, Robert.
49: Pastora Gómez, Edén.
50: Pastry War, 1838–1839 (France/Mexico).
51: Paz Estenssoro, Á. Víctor.
52: Pedro II, Emperor Dom.
53: Pérez De Cuéllar Guerra, Javier.
54: Pérez Jiménez, Marcos.
55: Perón Sosa, Juan Domingo.
56: Peru, U.S. Relations with.
57: Peurifoy, John.
58: Pierce, Franklin.
59: Pinckney’s Treaty, 1795.
60: Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto.
61: Platt, Orville.
62: Plaza Lasso, Galo.
63: Poinsett, Joel R..
64: Point Four Program.
65: Polk, James K..
66: Pope John Paul II.
67: Powell, Colin L..
68: Prebisch, Raúl.
69: Preston, Andrew.
70: Prío Socarrás, Carlos.
71: Proposition 187, California.
72: Protestantism in Latin America.
73: Puerto Rico, U.S. Relations with.
74: Quadros Da Silva, Jânio.
75: Radio and Tv Martí.
76: Reagan, Ronald W..
77: Remón Cantera, José A..
78: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
79: Rice, Condoleezza.
80: Rio Branco, Barão Do.
81: Rio Group (Permanent Mechanism of Political Consultation and Agreement).
82: Ríos Montt, Efraín.
83: River Plate Basin Treaty, 1969.
84: Roa García, Raúl.
85: Rockefeller, Nelson A..
86: Rodó Piñeyro, José Enrique.
87: Rogers, William P..
88: Roman Catholic Church in Latin America.
89: Romero, Archbishop Oscar Arnulfo.
90: Roosevelt, Franklin D..
91: Roosevelt, Theodore.
92: Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
93: Root, Elihu.
94: Root-Cortés Treaty, 1909.
95: Rosario Mining Company.
96: Rowe, Leo S..
97: Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company.
98: Rubottom, Roy R. Jr..
99: Rusk, Dean.
100: Sacasa, Juan B..
101: Salinas De Gortari, Carlos.
102: Samaná Bay, U.S. Interest in.
103: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) (Nicaragua).
104: Sandino, Augusto César.
105: San José Agreement, Declaration of, 1960.
106: San Juan River Canal Project.
107: Santa Anna, Antonio López De.
108: Santiago Conference, 1856.
109: Santos Montejo, Eduardo.
110: Sarmiento, Domingo Faustino.
111: School of the Americas.
112: Scott, Winfield.
113: Scrymser, James.
114: Seabed Arms Control Treaty (SACT), 1972.
115: Seaga, Edward.
116: Second International Conference of American States, Mexico City, 1901–1902.
117: Second Meeting of American Presidents, Punta Del Este, 1967.
118: Second Meeting of Consultation of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Havana, 1940.
119: Seventh International Conference of American States, Montevideo, 1933.
120: Seward, William H..
121: Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) (Peru).
122: Shultz, George P..
123: Sixth International Conference of American States, Havana, 1928.
124: Slacum, George W..
125: Slidell, John.
126: Soccer War, 1969 (Honduras/El Salvador).
127: Social Progress Trust Fund.
128: Somoza Debayle, Anastasio.
129: Somoza García, Anastasio.
130: Soulé, Pierre.
131: Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR).
132: South Korea, Relations with Latin America.
133: Soviet Union, Latin American Policy.
134: Spanish-Cuban-American War, 1895–1898.
135: Spooner Act, 1902 (United States).
136: Squier, Ephraim G..
137: St. Louis Affair, 1939.
138: Standard Fruit and Steamship Company.
139: Standard Oil Company.
140: Stephens, John Lloyd.
141: Stimson, Henry L..
142: Stroessner, Alfredo.
143: Sugar, U.S. Policy.
144: Suriname, U.S. Relations with.
145: Sutter’s Fort, California.
146: Tacna-Arica Dispute, 1883–1929.
147: Taft, William H..
148: Taft-Bacon Mission to Cuba, 1906.
149: Taiwan, Relations with Latin America.
150: Taylor, Zachary.
151: Teller, Henry M..
152: Tenth International Conference of American States, Caracas, 1954.
153: Ten Years’ War, 1868–1878 (Cuba).
154: Tequila Effect, 1994 (Mexico).
155: Texas, U.S. Annexation of.
156: Texas (Lone Star Republic), U.S. Relations with, 1836–1846.
157: Third International Conference of American States, Rio De Janeiro, 1906.
158: Third Meeting of Consultation of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Rio De Janeiro, 1942.
159: Thomson-Urrutia Treaty, 1914.
160: Timerman, Jacobo.
161: Tipitapa, Peace Treaty, 1927 (Nicaragua).
162: Tlatelolco Treaty, 1967.
163: Tobar Donoso, Julio.
164: Torrijos Herrera, Omar.
165: Transcontinental Treaty, 1819.
166: Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1825 (United Provinces of Central America/United States).
167: Trescot, William H..
168: Trilateral Commission.
169: Trist, Nicholas P..
170: Trujillo Molina, Rafael Leónidas.
171: Truman, Harry S..
172: Tugwell, Rexford G..
173: Tuna War, 1963–1975 (Ecuador/United States).
174: Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) (Peru).
175: Tupamaros (National Liberation Front) (Uruguay).
176: Turcios Lima, Luis Augusto.
177: Tyler, John.
178: Ubico Y Castañeda, Jorge.
179: United Fruit Company (UFCO).
180: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio De Janeiro, 1992.
181: United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, 1982.
182: United Nations Observer Group in Central America (Onuca), 1989–1992.
183: United Nations Stabilization Mission to Haiti (Minustah), 2004–.
184: United Provinces of Central America, 1823–1839.
185: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Costa Rica.
186: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Cuba.
187: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Dominican Republic.
188: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Haiti.
189: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions 1900–1934: Honduras.
190: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Mexico.
191: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Nicaragua.
192: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Panama.
193: United States, Circum-Caribbean Interventions, 1900–1934: Venezuela.
194: U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID).