eBook Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0080961568
  • ISBN-13: 9780080961569
  • DDC: 576.5
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 4368 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released February 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
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About

Overview

The explosion of the field of genetics over the last decade, with new technologies that have stimulated research, suggests that a new reference work is needed to keep pace with this fast-moving, interdisciplinary field. Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics, 2nd Edition, builds on the first edition by addressing many of the key subfields of genetics that were in their infancy when the first edition was published. The accessibility of content is unrivalled, making this work useful for scientists and non-scientists. Featuring relatively short entries written by experts, Brenner’s Encyclopedia of Genetics offers an effective way to quickly learn about any aspect of genetics, from abortive transduction to zygotes. Adding to its utility, the work provides brief entries that define key terms and a guide to additional reading and relevant websites. Many of the entries include figures to explain difficult concepts. Key terms in biochemistry, cell, and molecular biology are also included. There are also entries that describe historical figures in genetics, providing insights into their careers and discoveries. Expands the first edition 25%, with 1600+ articles. Thoroughly up-to-date, with many new topics and subfields that were in their infancy or not in existence at the time of the first edition.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Editors-In-Chief.
Section Editors.
Guide to Using the Encyclopedia.
Contributors of Volume 1.
Preface.
Table of Contents.
1: Abortive Transduction.
2: Acentric Fragment.
3: Achondroplasia.
4: Acridines.
5: Acrocentric Chromosome.
6: Acrosome.
7: Active Site.
8: Adaptive Landscapes.
9: Adaptive Mutation.
10: Adaptor Hypothesis.
11: Additive Genetic Variance.
12: Adenine.
13: Adenocarcinomas.
14: Adenoma.
15: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli.
16: Adenosine Phosphates.
17: Adenoviruses.
18: Adjacent/Alternate Disjunction.
19: Advanced Glycation End-Products.
20: Advanced Intercross Lines.
21: Aflatoxins.
22: Aging, Genetics of.
23: Agouti.
24: Agrobacterium.
25: Agrobacterium and Ti Plasmids.
26: Alanine.
27: Albinism.
28: Alcoholism.
29: Alignment Problem.
30: Alkaptonuria.
31: Alkyltransferases.
32: Allele Frequency.
33: Alleles.
34: Allele Specificity.
35: Allelic Exclusion.
36: Allopatric.
37: Allostery.
38: Allotypes.
39: Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.
40: Alpha-Complementation.
41: Alpha-Fetoprotein.
42: Alternation of Gene Expression.
43: Alternative Splicing.
44: Amber Codon.
45: Amber Mutation.
46: Amber Suppressors.
47: Ames, Bruce.
48: Ames Test.
49: Amino Acids.
50: Amino Acid Substitution.
51: Amino Terminus.
52: Aminoacyl-tRNA.
53: Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases.
54: Aminopterin.
55: Amniocentesis.
56: Anagenesis.
57: Analogy.
58: Anchor Locus.
59: Anchorage-Independent Growth.
60: Androgenone.
61: Aneuploidy.
62: Angiogenesis.
63: Annealing.
64: Anonymous Locus.
65: Antibiotic Resistance.
66: Antibiotic-Resistance Mutants.
67: Antibody.
68: Anticodons.
69: Antigen.
70: Antigenic Variation.
71: Antimutator.
72: Anti-Oncogenes.
73: Antiparallel.
74: Antisense DNA in Eukaryotes.
75: Antisense RNA.
76: Antitermination Factors.
77: Antitermination Proteins.
78: AP Endonucleases.
79: Apomorphy.
80: Apoptosis.
81: Aporepressors.
82: Arabidopsis thaliana: Molecular Systematics and Evolution.
83: Arabidopsis thaliana: The Premier Model Plant.
84: Arabinose.
85: Arachnodactyly.
86: Arber, Werner.
87: Archaea.
88: Archaeal Flagella.
89: Archaeal Genetics.
90: Arginine.
91: Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization.
92: Artificial Chromosomes, Yeast.
93: Artificial Selection.
94: Ascobolus.
95: Ascobolus immersus.
96: Ascus.
97: Asilomar Conference.
98: ASO (Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide).
99: Asparagine.
100: Aspartic Acid.
101: Aspergillus nidulans.
102: Assortative Mating.
103: Assortment.
104: Ataxia Telangiectasia.
105: ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate).
106: att Sites.
107: Attached X and Other Compound Chromosomes.
108: Attachment Sites.
109: Attenuation.
110: AUG Codons.
111: Autocrine/Paracrine.
112: Autogenous Control.
113: Autoimmune Diseases.
114: Autonomous Controlling Element.
115: Autoradiography.
116: Autoregulation.
117: Autosomal Inheritance.
118: Autosomes.
119: Auxotroph.
120: Bacillus subtilis.
121: Backcross.
122: Back Mutation.
123: BACs (Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes).
124: Bacteria.
125: Bacterial Chemotaxis.
126: Bacterial Genes.
127: Bacterial Genetics.
128: Bacterial Transformation.
129: Bacterial Variable Number Tandem Repeats.
130: Bacteriocins.
131: Bacteriophage.
132: Bakers’ and Brewers’ Yeast: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae.
133: Balanced Polymorphism.
134: BALB/c Mouse.
135: Basal Cell Carcinoma.
136: Base Analog Mutagens.
137: Base Composition.
138: Base Pair.
139: Base Pairing and Base Pair Substitution.
140: Base Substitution Mutations.
141: Bases.
142: Bateson, William.
143: Baur, Erwin.
144: Bayesian Analysis.
145: Bcl-2 Gene Family.
146: BCR/ABL Oncogene.
147: Bead Theory.
148: Beckwith–Wiedemann Syndrome.
149: Behavioral Genetics.
150: Benzer, Seymour.
151: Beta (β)-Galactosidase.
152: Bidirectional Replication.
153: BIME, ERIC, REP, RIME, and Other Short Bacterial Repeated Elements.
154: Binomial Distribution.
155: Biochemical Genetics.
156: Biofilms.
157: Bioinformatics.
158: Biosynthesis.
159: Biotechnology.
160: Blood Group Chimerism.
161: Blood Group Systems.
162: Bloom’s Syndrome.
163: Blunt-End Ligation.
164: Bombay Blood Group.
165: Bombyx Mori.
166: Bottleneck Effect.
167: Boveri, Theodor and Marcella O’Grady-Boveri.
168: Brachydactyly.
169: Brachyury Locus.
170: Branch Migration.
171: Brassicaceae, Molecular Systematics and Evolution of.
172: Brassinosteroids.
173: BRCA1/BRCA2.
174: Break–Copy, Break–Join.
175: Breast Cancer.
176: Breeding of Animals.
177: Brenner, Sydney.
178: Buoyant Density.
179: Burbank, Luther.
180: Burkitt Lymphoma.
181: C57BL/6.
182: CAAT Box.
183: c-ABL Gene and Gene Product.
184: Caenorhabditis Elegans (Nematode).
185: Cairns, John.
186: cAMP and Cell Signaling.
187: Campbell Model.
188: Cancer Genetics.
189: Cancer Susceptibility.
190: Candidate Gene.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 2.
Volume 2 Contents.
1: Circadian Rhythms.
2: Circular Linkage Map.
3: Circularly Permuted Proteins.
4: Cis-Acting Locus.
5: Cis-Acting Proteins.
6: Cis-Dominance.
7: Cis–Trans Configurations.
8: Cistron.
9: Clade.
10: Cladistics.
11: Cladogenesis.
12: Cladograms.
13: Class Switching.
14: Classical Genetics (History, Mouse).
15: Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate.
16: Clever Mutant Isolation: Defining the Components of Cell Biological Processes.
17: Clinical Genetics.
18: Clock Mutants.
19: Clone.
20: Cloned Organisms, Eukaryotic.
21: Cloning.
22: Cloning Vectors.
23: Closed Reading Frame.
24: Coalescent.
25: Coat Color Mutations, Animals.
26: Coding Sequences.
27: Coding Strand.
28: Codominance.
29: Codons.
30: Codons, Invariable.
31: Codon Usage Bias.
32: Coevolution.
33: Cognate tRNAs.
34: Cohesive Ends.
35: Coincidence, Coefficient of.
36: Cointegrate.
37: Coisogenic Strain.
38: Cold-Sensitive Mutant.
39: Cold Spot.
40: Col Factors.
41: Colinearity.
42: Colony Hybridization.
43: Colony PCR.
44: Color Blindness.
45: Colorectal Cancer.
46: Commaless Code.
47: Commensal.
48: Comparative Genomics.
49: Compartmentalization.
50: Compatibility Group.
51: Complementary DNA.
52: Complementation.
53: Complementation Test.
54: Complement Loci.
55: Complex Locus.
56: Complex Traits.
57: Concatemer.
58: Concatemer (Genomes).
59: Concatenated Circles.
60: Concerted Evolution.
61: Concordance.
62: Conditional Alleles.
63: Conditional Lethality.
64: Congenic Strain.
65: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome).
66: Congenital Conditions.
67: Conjugation.
68: Conjugative Transposons and Integrative and Conjugative Elements.
69: Conplastic.
70: Consanguinity.
71: Consensus Sequences.
72: Conservation Genetics.
73: Conservative Recombination.
74: Consomic.
75: Constant Regions.
76: Constitutive Expression.
77: Constitutive Mutations.
78: Continuous Variation.
79: Contractile Ring.
80: Controlling Elements.
81: Convergent Evolution.
82: Conversion Gradient.
83: Cooperativity.
84: Coordinate Regulation.
85: Copy-Choice Hypothesis.
86: Cordycepin.
87: Core Particle.
88: Corepressor.
89: Correlated Response.
90: Correns, Carl Erich.
91: Cosmids.
92: Cotransformation.
93: Counterselection.
94: Covarion Model of Molecular Evolution.
95: CpG Islands.
96: Craniosynostosis, Genetics of.
97: Cre/loxP – Transgenics.
98: Crick, Francis Harry Compton.
99: Cri-du-chat Syndrome.
100: Cross.
101: Crossing-Over.
102: Crossover Interference.
103: Crossover Suppressor.
104: Crosstalk.
105: Crow, James F.
106: Crown Gall Tumors.
107: CRP.
108: Cruciform DNA.
109: Cryptic Satellite DNA.
110: Cryptic Splice Sites and Cryptic Splicing.
111: ct DNA.
112: CTP (Cytidine Triphosphate).
113: Culture Collections.
114: Cutis Laxa.
115: C-Value Paradox.
116: Cyclic AMP (cAMP).
117: Cyclin-Dependent Kinases.
118: Cysteine, Chemical Structure.
119: Cystic Fibrosis.
120: Cytogenetics.
121: Cytokinesis.
122: Cytoplasm.
123: Cytoplasmic Genes.
124: Cytoplasmic Inheritance.
125: Cytosine.
126: Cytoskeleton.
127: Cytosol.
128: D-Amino Acids.
129: Darlington, Cyril Dean.
130: Darwin, Charles.
131: Databases, Sequenced Genomes.
132: Degenerate Code.
133: Degrees of Freedom.
134: Delbrück, Max.
135: Deletion.
136: Deletion Mapping.
137: Deletion Mapping, Mouse.
138: Deletion Mutation.
139: Demes.
140: Denaturation (Proteins).
141: Derepression.
142: Detoxification (SOD).
143: Developmental Genetics.
144: Developmental Genetics of Caenorhabditis Elegans.
145: De Vries, Hugo.
146: D’Herelle, Félix.
147: Dicentric Chromosome.
148: Dictyostelium.
149: Differential Segment.
150: DiGeorge Syndrome.
151: Diploidy.
152: Direct Repeats.
153: Directed Evolution.
154: Directed Mutation.
155: Discontinuous Replication.
156: Discordance.
157: Disjunction.
158: Disruptive Selection.
159: Distal.
160: Divergent Evolution.
161: Divergent Transcription.
162: D-Loop.
163: DNA.
164: DNA Amplification In Vivo.
165: DNAase.
166: DNA-Binding Proteins.
167: DNA Cloning.
168: DNA Denaturation.
169: DNA Fingerprinting.
170: DNA Footprinting.
171: DNA, History of.
172: DNA Hybridization.
173: DNA Lesions.
174: DNA Ligases.
175: DNA Marker.
176: DNA Modification.
177: DNA Polymerase η (Eta).
178: DNA Polymerases.
179: DNA Recombination.
180: DNA Repair.
181: DNA Repair Defects and Human Disease.
182: DNA Replication.
183: DNA Sequencing.
184: DNA Structure.
185: DNA Supercoiling.
186: DNA Synthesis.
187: Dobzhansky, Theodosius.
188: Dominance.
189: Dosage Compensation.
190: Double-Minute (Chromosomes).
191: Double-Strand Break Repair Model.
192: Downstream.
193: Down Syndrome.
194: Drug Resistance.
195: Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 3.
Volume 3 Contents.
1: F1 Generation.
2: F1 Hybrid.
3: FAB Classification of Leukemia.
4: Fabry Disease (α-Galactosidase A Deficiency).
5: 1-, 2-, 3-Factor Crosses.
6: Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
7: Fanconi Anemia.
8: Fate Map.
9: Favism.
10: F-Duction.
11: Feline Genetics.
12: Female Carriers.
13: Feral.
14: Fertilization.
15: Fertilization, Mammalian.
16: Filamentous Bacteriophages.
17: Filial Generations.
18: Filter Hybridization.
19: First and Second Division Segregation.
20: FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization).
21: Fisher, Ronald A..
22: Fitness.
23: Fix Genes.
24: Fixation Probability.
25: Flagella.
26: FLI1 Oncogene.
27: Flower Development, Genetics of.
28: Flp Site-Specific Recombination System.
29: Fluctuation Test.
30: Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.
31: FMS Oncogene.
32: Foldback DNA.
33: Follicular Lymphoma.
34: Footprinting.
35: Ford, Charles.
36: Forward Mutations.
37: Forward Mutation Tests.
38: Fosmid.
39: Founder Effect.
40: Fragile Chromosome Sites.
41: Fragile X Syndrome.
42: Frameshift Mutation.
43: Frequency-Dependent Selection.
44: Frequency-Dependent Selection as Expressed in the Rare Male Mating Advantages.
45: Fruiting Body.
46: Functional Genomics.
47: Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection.
48: Fungal Genetics.
49: Fungi.
50: Fusion Gene.
51: Fusion Protein.
52: G1.
53: G2.
54: Galactosemia.
55: Galton, Francis.
56: Galton’s Law of Ancestral Heredity.
57: Gametes.
58: Gametes, Mammalian.
59: Gametic Disequilibrium.
60: Gametogenesis.
61: Gamma Distribution.
62: Gastroenteropancreatic and Bronchopulmonary Neuroendocrine Neoplasms, Genetics of.
63: Gaucher’s Disease.
64: G-Banding.
65: Gel Electrophoresis.
66: Gene.
67: Gene Action.
68: Gene Amplification.
69: Gene and Operon Fusions.
70: Gene Cassettes.
71: Gene Conversion.
72: Gene Dosage.
73: Gene Duplication.
74: Gene Expression.
75: Gene Family.
76: Gene Flow.
77: Gene Frequency.
78: Gene Insertion.
79: Gene Interaction.
80: Gene Library.
81: Gene Mapping.
82: Gene Number.
83: Gene Pool.
84: Gene Product.
85: Gene Rearrangement, Eukaryotic.
86: Gene Rearrangements, Prokaryotic.
87: Gene Regulation.
88: Gene Silencing.
89: Gene Substitution.
90: Gene Therapy, Human.
91: Gene Trapping.
92: Gene Trees.
93: Genetic Alzheimer’s Disease.
94: Genetic Code.
95: Genetic Colonization.
96: Genetic Correlation.
97: Genetic Counseling.
98: Genetic Covariance.
99: Genetic Diseases.
100: Genetic Distance.
101: Genetic Drift.
102: Genetic Engineering.
103: Genetic Enhancement Technologies.
104: Genetic Equilibrium.
105: Genetic Homeostasis.
106: Genetic Load.
107: Genetic Marker.
108: Genetic Material.
109: Genetic Migration.
110: Genetic Nomenclature, Bacteria.
111: Genetics Nomenclature, Mouse.
112: Genetic Ratios.
113: Genetic Recombination.
114: Genetic Redundancy.
115: Genetics (as a Discipline).
116: Genetic Translation.
117: Genetic Variation.
118: Genome.
119: Genome Analysis, YACs.
120: Genome Organization.
121: Genome Relationships: Maize and the Grass Model.
122: Genome Size.
123: Genomic Libraries.
124: Genomics.
125: Genotoxic Stress.
126: Genotype.
127: Genotypic Frequency.
128: Genotyping (Subtyping) Bacteria.
129: Germ Cell.
130: Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker Disease.
131: Giemsa Banding, Mouse Chromosomes.
132: Gilbert, Walter.
133: Gliomas.
134: Globin Genes, Human.
135: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) Deficiency.
136: Glutamic Acid.
137: Glutamine.
138: Glycine.
139: Glycolysis.
140: Glycosylase Repair.
141: Goldschmidt, Richard Benedict.
142: Grasses, Synteny, Evolution, and Molecular Systematics.
143: Gravitropism in Arabidopsis Thaliana.
144: Group Selection.
145: Growth Factor and Signaling Networks.
146: GT–AG Rule.
147: GTP (Guanosine Triphosphate).
148: Guanine.
149: Gynogenone.
150: Gyrase.
151: H19 Locus.
152: Hadulins.
153: Hairpin.
154: Hairy Cell Leukemia.
155: Haldane, J. B. S..
156: Haldane–Muller Principle.
157: Handedness, Left/Right.
158: Haploid Number.
159: Haploinsufficiency.
160: Haplotype.
161: Hardy–Weinberg Law.
162: Harlequin Chromosomes.
163: Heat Shock Proteins.
164: Helicases.
165: Helicobacter Pylori.
166: Helix-Turn-Helix Motif.
167: Helper Phages.
168: Hematopoiesis.
169: Hemizygote.
170: Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn.
171: Hemophilia.
172: Hereditary Diseases.
173: Hereditary Neoplasia.
174: Heritability.
175: Hershey, Alfred.
176: Heteroallele.
177: Heterochromatin.
178: Heterochronic Mutation.
179: Heteroduplexes.
180: Heterogenote.
181: Heterokaryon.
182: Heteropyknosis.
183: Heterosis.
184: Heterotrimeric G Proteins.
185: Heterozygote and Heterozygosis.
186: Hfr.
187: Hin/Gin-Mediated Site-Specific DNA Inversion.
188: Hirschsprung’s Disease.
189: Histidine.
190: Histidine Operon.
191: Histocompatibility.
192: Histone Genes.
193: Histones.
194: Hitchhiking Effect.
195: HIV Genetics.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 4.
Volume 4 Contents.
1: Ichthyosis.
2: Identity-by-Descent.
3: Idiogram.
4: IGF2 Locus.
5: Igf2r Locus.
6: Illegitimate Recombination.
7: Imaginal Disks.
8: Immunity: Phage, Plasmids, Transposons.
9: Immunogenetics.
10: Immunoglobin Superfamily.
11: Immunological Tolerance.
12: Imprinting, Genomic.
13: In Situ Hybridization.
14: In Vitro Evolution.
15: In Vitro Fertilization.
16: In Vitro Mutagenesis.
17: In Vitro Packaging.
18: Inborn Errors of Metabolism.
19: Inbred Strain.
20: 129 Inbred Strain.
21: Inbreeding Depression.
22: Incompatibility.
23: Incomplete Dominance.
24: Incross.
25: Indel.
26: Independent Assortment.
27: Independent Segregation.
28: Inducer.
29: Induction of Prophage.
30: Induction of Transcription.
31: Infertility.
32: Influenza.
33: Influenza Virus.
34: Inheritance.
35: Inherited Rickets in Humans and Domestic Animals.
36: Initiation Factors.
37: Insertion Sequences.
38: Insulinoma.
39: Integrase.
40: Integrase Family of Site-Specific Recombinases.
41: Integration.
42: Integrons.
43: Intelligence and the ‘Intelligence Quotient’.
44: Intelligent Design.
45: Intercross.
46: Interference, Genetic.
47: Interphase.
48: Intersex.
49: Interspecific, Intraspecific Cross.
50: Intervening Sequence.
51: Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.
52: Intron Homing.
53: Introns and Exons.
54: Inversion.
55: Inverted Repeats.
56: Inverted Terminal Repeats.
57: Isochromosome.
58: Isolation by Distance.
59: Isoleucine, Chemical Structure.
60: Isomerization (of Holliday Junctions).
61: Isotype.
62: Jacob, François.
63: Jukes–Cantor Correction.
64: Junk DNA.
65: Karyotype.
66: kb (Kilobase).
67: α-Ketoacids.
68: Kimura Corrections.
69: Kimura, Motoo.
70: Kin Selection.
71: Kin Selection: Hamilton’s Theory.
72: Kinases (Protein Kinases).
73: Kinetochore.
74: Klinefelter Syndrome.
75: Knockout.
76: Khorana, Har Gobind.
77: Koelreuter, Joseph Gottlieb.
78: Kornberg, Arthur.
79: Kuru.
80: lac Mutants.
81: lac Operon.
82: Lactose.
83: Lagging Strand.
84: Lamarck, Jean Baptiste.
85: Lamarckism.
86: Lampbrush Chromosomes.
87: Late Genes.
88: Lateral Signaling.
89: Leader Peptide.
90: Leader Sequence.
91: Leading Strand.
92: Least Squares.
93: Lederberg, Joshua.
94: Leguminosae.
95: Lejeune, Jérôme.
96: Lesch–Nyhan Syndrome.
97: Lethal Locus.
98: Lethal Mutation.
99: Leucine.
100: Leukemia.
101: Leukemia, Acute.
102: Leukemia, Chronic.
103: Levan, Albert.
104: Lewis, Edward B..
105: Library.
106: LIM-domain Proteins.
107: LINE.
108: Linkage.
109: Linkage Disequilibrium.
110: Linkage Group.
111: Linkage Map.
112: Linker DNA.
113: Lipomas and Leiomyomas.
114: Little, Clarence Cook.
115: LMO Family of LIM-Only Genes.
116: Locus.
117: LOD Score.
118: Long-Period Interspersion.
119: Long Terminal Repeats.
120: Loss of Heterozygosity.
121: Lotus japonicus: A Model Plant for the Legume Family.
122: Lung Cancer, Chromosome Studies.
123: Luria–Delbrück Experiment.
124: Luria, Salvador.
125: Lutheran Blood Groups.
126: Lysenko, T. D./Lysenkoism.
127: Lysine.
128: Lysis.
129: Lysogeny.
130: Lysozyme.
131: Macronuclear Development, Ciliates.
132: Macronucleus, Ciliates.
133: Mammalian Genetics (Mouse Genetics).
134: Map Distance, Unit.
135: Map Expansion.
136: Mapping Function.
137: Mapping Panel.
138: Marfan Syndrome.
139: Marker.
140: Marker Effect.
141: Marker Rescue.
142: Masked mRNA.
143: Maternal Effect.
144: Maternal Inheritance.
145: Mating Types.
146: Mating-Type Genes and Their Switching in Yeasts.
147: Maximum Likelihood.
148: MC29 Avian Myelocytomatosis Virus.
149: McClintock, Barbara.
150: Medicago truncatula.
151: Meiosis.
152: Meiotic Drive, Mouse.
153: Meiotic Product.
154: Melanoma, Cytogenetic Studies.
155: Melting Temperature (Tm).
156: Mendel, Gregor.
157: Mendelian Genetics.
158: Mendelian Inheritance.
159: Mendelian Population.
160: Mendelian Ratio.
161: Mendel’s Laws.
162: Meselson–Radding Model.
163: Meselson–Stahl Experiment.
164: Messenger RNA.
165: MET.
166: Metabolic Disorders, Mutants.
167: Metacentric Chromosome.
168: Metagenomics.
169: Methionine.
170: Metric, Manhattan.
171: Metric, Ultra.
172: Metrics.
173: MIC and MIC-M Classifications of Leukemia.
174: Microarrays.
175: Microbial Genetics.
176: Microbial Genetics: F Factor.
177: Microbial Genomics.
178: Microchromosomes.
179: Microcomplement Fixation.
180: Microinjection.
181: Micronucleus, Ciliates.
182: Microsatellite.
183: Microtubules.
184: Minicells.
185: Minichromosome.
186: Minimal Residual Disease.
187: Minimum Change.
188: Minisatellite.
189: Mismatch Repair, Long/Short Patch.
190: Mistranslation.
191: Mitochondria.
192: Mitochondria, Genetics of.
193: Mitochondrial DNA.
194: Mitochondrial Genetics/Evolution.
195: Mitochondrial Genome.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 5.
Volume 5 Contents.
1: N2, N3, N4, etc..
2: Nägeli, Carl von.
3: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
4: Nathans, Daniel.
5: Natural Selection.
6: Nature–Nurture Controversy.
7: Nearly Neutral Theory.
8: Negative Complementation.
9: Negative Interference.
10: Negative Regulators.
11: Negative Supercoiling.
12: Neoteny.
13: Network.
14: Neu Oncogene.
15: Neurofibromatosis.
16: Neurogenetics.
17: Neurogenetics in Drosophila.
18: Neurogenetics of Neurotransmitter Release in Caenorhabditis Elegans.
19: Neuronal Guidance.
20: Neurosensory Specification and Development.
21: Neurospora Crassa.
22: Neutral Drift.
23: Neutral Mutation.
24: Neutral Theory.
25: Nick.
26: Nick Translation.
27: Nif Genes.
28: Nirenberg, Marshall Warren.
29: Nod Factors.
30: Nodulins.
31: Nomenclature of Genetics.
32: Nomenclature of Human Genes.
33: Nonautonomous Controlling Elements.
34: Non-Coding.
35: Noncoding RNA.
36: Non-Darwinian Evolution.
37: Nondisjunction.
38: Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
39: Non-Mendelian Inheritance.
40: Nonreciprocal Exchange.
41: Nonrepetitive DNA.
42: Nonsense Codon.
43: Nonsense Suppressor.
44: Nontranscribed Spacer.
45: Northern Blotting.
46: Nuclear Envelope, Transport.
47: Nuclear Pores.
48: Nuclear Transfer.
49: Nuclease.
50: Nucleic Acid.
51: Nucleolar Organizer.
52: Nucleolus.
53: Nucleomorph Genomes.
54: Nucleoside.
55: Nucleosome.
56: Nucleosome Remodelling.
57: Nucleotide.
58: Nucleus.
59: Nude Mouse.
60: Null Hypothesis.
61: Nullisomy.
62: Nutritional Mutations.
63: Ochoa, Severo.
64: Ochre Codon.
65: Ochre Mutation.
66: Ochre Suppressor.
67: Ohno’s Law.
68: Okazaki Fragment.
69: Olfaction.
70: Oncogenes.
71: OncoMouse®.
72: Oogenesis in Caenorhabditis Elegans.
73: Oogenesis, Mouse.
74: Opal Codon.
75: Open Reading Frame.
76: Operators.
77: Operon.
78: Organelles.
79: Origin (Ori).
80: Origin of Life, Theories Of.
81: Orphan Receptor.
82: Orthology.
83: Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
84: Outbreeding.
85: Outcross.
86: Overdominance.
87: Overwinding.
88: Ovotesticular Disorder of Sexual Development (Hermaphroditism).
89: Ovulation.
90: p120RasGAP.
91: Paedomorphosis.
92: Painter, Theophilus Schickel.
93: Palindrome.
94: Panmixis.
95: Paralogy.
96: Paramecium Molecular Evolution.
97: Parapatric.
98: Paraphyly.
99: Parasegment.
100: Parental.
101: Parsimony.
102: Parthenogenesis.
103: Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13).
104: Paternal Inheritance.
105: Pathogenicity and Other Genomic Islands.
106: Pattern Formation: An Integument Paradigm.
107: Pax Genes.
108: pBR322.
109: Pearson, Karl.
110: Pedigree Analysis.
111: P Elements.
112: Penetrance.
113: Peptide Bond.
114: Perinuclear Space.
115: Permissive Cells.
116: Petite.
117: P-Glycoprotein.
118: Phage (Bacteriophage).
119: Phage Crosses.
120: Phage Mu.
121: Phage Receptor.
122: Phage λ Integration/Excision.
123: Pharmacogenomics.
124: Phase Variation.
125: Phaseolus Vulgaris (Beans).
126: Phenetics.
127: Phenocopy.
128: Phenogram.
129: Phenotype.
130: Phenotypic Lag.
131: Phenotypic Mixing.
132: Phenylalanine, Chemical Structure.
133: Phenylketonuria.
134: Phi (ϕ)X174, Genetics of.
135: Philadelphia Chromosome.
136: Photomorphogenesis in Plants, Genetics of.
137: Photoreactivation.
138: Photorepair.
139: Photosynthesis, Genetics of.
140: Phylogenetic Invariants.
141: Phylogeny.
142: Phylogeography.
143: Physical Mapping.
144: Piebald Trait.
145: Pigmentation, Mouse.
146: Pim Family of Proto-Oncogenes.
147: Pisum Sativum (Peas).
148: Plant Development, Genetics of.
149: Plant Embryogenesis, Genetics of.
150: Plant Hormones.
151: Plant Root Development, Genetics and Genomics of.
152: Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria.
153: Plaques.
154: Plasmid Replication.
155: Plasmids.
156: Pleiotropy.
157: Plesiomorphy.
158: Ploidy.
159: Pluripotent Stem Cells.
160: Pneumonia Bacteria.
161: Point Mutations.
162: Polarity, Developmental.
163: Polaron.
164: Poly(A) Tails.
165: Polyadenylation.
166: Polycistronic mRNA.
167: Polymerase.
168: Polymerase Chain Reaction.
169: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real-Time Quantitative.
170: Polymorphism.
171: Polymorphisms, Tree Reconstruction.
172: Polypeptides.
173: Polyploidy.
174: Polysome (Polyribosome).
175: Polytene Chromosomes.
176: Population Genetics.
177: Population Genomics/Macro vs Microevolution.
178: Population Substructure.
179: Position Effects.
180: Positive Regulator Proteins.
181: Positive Supercoiling.
182: Postmeiotic Segregation.
183: Posttranscriptional Modification.
184: Posttranslational Modification.
185: (p)ppGpp.
186: Predator–Prey and Parasite–Host Interactions.
187: Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Preimplantation Genetic Screening, and the Transfer of In Vitro Fertilized Embryos.
188: Pre-mRNA Splicing.
189: Prenatal Diagnosis.
190: Primary Transcript.
191: Primase.
192: Primer.
193: Primer RNA.
194: Primitive Character.
195: Primosome.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 6.
Volume 6 Contents.
1: Q-Banding.
2: QTL (Quantitative Trait Locus).
3: QTL Mapping.
4: Quantitative Genetics.
5: Quantitative Inheritance.
6: Quantitative Trait.
7: Quorum Sensing.
8: RAD Genes (in Yeast).
9: Radiation Genetics, Mouse.
10: Random Mating.
11: Ras Gene Family.
12: Rats: Genetic and Functional Genomic Analyses of Complex Phenotypes.
13: rDNA Amplification.
14: Reading Frame.
15: Rearrangements.
16: Rec Genes.
17: RecA Protein and Homology.
18: RecBCD Enzyme and Pathway.
19: Recessive.
20: Recessive Inheritance and Recessiveness.
21: Recessive Lethal.
22: Reciprocal Cross.
23: Reciprocal Recombination.
24: Reciprocal Translocation.
25: Reciprocality.
26: Reckless DNA Degradation.
27: Recombinant.
28: Recombinant Congenic Strains.
29: Recombinant DNA.
30: Recombinant DNA Guidelines.
31: Recombinant Inbred Strain.
32: Recombination Hot Spots, Mouse.
33: Recombination in the Immune System.
34: Recombination Nodules.
35: Recombination Pathways.
36: Recombination Suppression.
37: Recombination, Models of.
38: Recombinational Repair.
39: Recombineering: A Modern Approach to Genetic Engineering.
40: Reed–Sternberg Cells.
41: Reeler Locus.
42: Regulation of DNA Repair.
43: Regulatory Genes.
44: Regulatory RNA.
45: Rel Oncogene.
46: Release (Termination) Factors.
47: Renal Cell Carcinoma.
48: Renaturation.
49: Repair Mechanisms.
50: Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage.
51: Repair of Oxidatively-Modified DNA.
52: Repeat Induced Point Mutation.
53: Repetitive Sequences.
54: Replication.
55: Replication Errors.
56: Replication Eye.
57: Replication Fork.
58: Replication Origin Sequences.
59: Replicon.
60: Replisome.
61: Reporter Gene.
62: Repression.
63: Repressor.
64: Reproductive Isolation.
65: Resistance Plasmids.
66: Resistance to Antibiotics, Genetics of.
67: Resolvase.
68: Resolvase Mediated Deletion.
69: Restriction and Modification.
70: Restriction Endonuclease.
71: Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism.
72: Restriction Map.
73: RET Proto-Oncogene.
74: Reticulation.
75: Retinitis Pigmentosa.
76: Retinoblastoma.
77: Retroposon.
78: Retroregulation.
79: Retrotransposons.
80: Retroviruses.
81: Reverse Genetics.
82: Reverse Mutation.
83: Reverse Transcriptase.
84: Reverse Transcription.
85: Reverse Translation.
86: Reversion.
87: Reversion Tests.
88: Revertants.
89: Rh Factor and Rh System.
90: Rhabdomyosarcoma.
91: Rhizobia and Legume Nodulation Genes.
92: Rhizobium.
93: Rho Factor.
94: Ribosomal RNA.
95: Ribosome Binding Site.
96: Ribosomes.
97: Ribozymes.
98: Rice.
99: Rifamycins.
100: Right/Left Handed DNA.
101: R-Loops.
102: RNA.
103: RNAases.
104: RNA Bacteriophages.
105: RNA-Binding Domains in Proteins.
106: RNA Editing.
107: RNA Editing in Animals.
108: RNA Editing in Plants.
109: RNA Interference.
110: RNA Polymerase.
111: RNA Splicing.
112: RNA Turnover.
113: RNA World.
114: Robertsonian Translocations.
115: Rolling Circle Replication.
116: RuvAB Enzyme.
117: RuvC Enzyme.
118: S Phase.
119: S1 Nuclease.
120: Saccharomyces Cerevisiae (Brewer’s Yeast).
121: Saccharomyces Chromosomes.
122: Salmonella.
123: Sanger, Frederick.
124: Sarcomas.
125: Satellite Chromosomes.
126: Schizophrenia.
127: Schizosaccharomyce, Comparative Genomics of the Fission Yeasts.
128: Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, The Principal Subject of Fission Yeast Genetics.
129: Screening.
130: scRNA.
131: Seed Development, Genetics of.
132: Seed Storage Proteins.
133: Segmental Interchange.
134: Segmentation Genes.
135: Segregation.
136: Segregation Distortion, Mouse.
137: Selection Coefficient.
138: Selection Differential.
139: Selection Index.
140: Selection Intensity.
141: Selection Limit.
142: Selection Pressure.
143: Selection Techniques.
144: Selective Breeding.
145: Selective Neutrality and Near Neutrality.
146: Selective Sweep.
147: Self-Fertilization.
148: Selfish DNA.
149: Semiconservative Replication.
150: Semidiscontinuous Replication.
151: Sense Codon.
152: Serine.
153: Sex Chromatin.
154: Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: XYY.
155: Sex Chromosomes.
156: Sex Determination, Human.
157: Sex Determination, Mouse.
158: Sexduction.
159: Sex-Limited Character.
160: Sex Linkage.
161: Sex Plasmid.
162: Sex Ratios.
163: Sex Reversal.
164: Sezary Syndrome.
165: SH Domains.
166: SH2 Domain.
167: SH3 Domain.
168: Shearing.
169: Shifting-Balance Theory of Evolution.
170: Shine-Dalgarno Sequence.
171: Shotgun Cloning.
172: Shuttle Vector.
173: Sickle Cell Anemia.
174: Sigma Factors.
175: Signal Sequence.
176: Signal Transduction.
177: Similarity.
178: SINE.
179: Single Nucleotyde Polymorphisms.
180: Single-Copy Plasmids.
181: Single-Gene Inheritance.
182: Single-Strand Annealing.
183: Single-Strand Assimilation.
184: Single-Stranded DNA-Binding Proteins.
185: Single-Strand Exchange.
186: Sister Chromatid Exchange.
187: Sister Chromatids.
188: Site-Specific Recombination.
189: Small Cytoplasmic Ribonucleoproteins.
190: Small Nuclear RNA.
191: Smith, Hamilton.
192: Snell, George.
193: Sno/Ski Proto-Oncogene Family.
194: snRNPs.
195: Solanum Lycopersicum Var. Lycopersicum (Tomato).
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contributors of Volume 7.
Volume 7 Contents.
1: T Cell Receptor Gene Family.
2: t Haplotype.
3: T Phages.
4: TAL Family of bHLH Genes.
5: Tandem Repeats.
6: Targeted Mutagenesis, Mouse.
7: TATA Box.
8: Tautomerism.
9: Taxonomy, Evolutionary.
10: Taxonomy, Numerical.
11: Tay–Sachs Disease.
12: T-Box Genes.
13: Telomerase.
14: Telomeres.
15: Temperate Phage.
16: Temperature-Sensitive Mutant.
17: Template.
18: Terminal Redundancy.
19: Terminator.
20: Test Cross.
21: Testes-Determining Locus.
22: Tetrad Analysis.
23: Tetraparental Mouse.
24: Tetratype.
25: Thalassemias.
26: Thermophilic Bacteria.
27: Theta Replication.
28: Three-point Cross (Test Cross).
29: Threonine.
30: Threshold Characters.
31: Thymine.
32: Thymine Dimer.
33: Tissue Culture.
34: Tjio, Joe-Hin.
35: Topoisomerases.
36: Tortoiseshell Coloring.
37: Toxicogenomics.
38: Transcribed Spacer.
39: Transcription.
40: Transcription Factors.
41: Transcriptional Attentuation.
42: Transcriptome.
43: Transduction.
44: Transfection.
45: Transfer of Genetic Information from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Plants.
46: Transfer RNA.
47: Transformation.
48: Transgenes.
49: Transgenic Animals.
50: Transient Polymorphism.
51: Transition.
52: Translation.
53: Translation Elongation.
54: Translational Control.
55: Translocation.
56: Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy.
57: Transmission Genetics.
58: Transposable Elements.
59: Transposable Elements in Plants.
60: Transposase.
61: Transposon Excision.
62: Transposons.
63: Trans-Splicing.
64: Transvection.
65: Transversion Mutation.
66: Trees.
67: Trichome Development, Genetics of.
68: Trinucleotide Repeats: Dynamic DNA and Human Disease.
69: Triplet Code, Genetic Evidence.
70: Triploidy.
71: Trisomics.
72: Trisomy 18.
73: Trisomy X Syndrome (47,XXX).
74: Triticum Species (Wheat).
75: Trivial Equilibrium.
76: Trophoblast.
77: trp Operon Organization and Regulation in Different Bacterial Species.
78: Trypanosome Editing.
79: Trypsin.
80: Tryptop