eBook The Living Earth: Oceans and Oceanography, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615304061
  • ISBN-13: 9781615304066
  • DDC: 551.46
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 288 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released May 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

Constituting more than 70 percent of Earth's surface, the world's oceans are so vast as to remain something of an enigma to this day. Navigating these imposing seas and unlocking their secrets is the calling of oceanographers. Their research helps determine what climatic, geologic, and chemical impact oceans have on a variety of organisms. In spite of their magnitude and might, the world's oceans are not immune to the effects of adverse human activity, such as pollution. This volume surveys this huge, but fragile, ecosystem and the individuals who help fight for the preservation of this vital resource that has critical significance to all earthly life.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: The Ocean.
2: Relative Distribution of the Oceans.
3: Hypsometry.
4: Major Subdivisions of the Oceans.
5: Origin of Ocean Waters.
6: Composition of Seawater.
7: Dissolved Inorganic Substances.
8: Dissolved Organic Substances.
9: Effects of Human Activities.
10: The Physical Properties of Seawater.
11: Salinity Distribution.
12: Horse Latitudes.
13: Temperature Distribution.
14: Thermal Properties.
15: Density of Seawater and Pressure.
16: Optical Properties.
17: Acoustic Properties.
18: Chemical Evolution of the Oceans.
19: The Early Oceans.
20: The Transition Stage.
21: The Modern Oceans.
22: Ocean Basins.
23: Sea Level.
24: Exploration of the Ocean Basins.
25: Seasat.
26: Deep-Sea Sediments.
27: Sediment Types.
28: Sedimentation Patterns.
29: Evolution of the Ocean Basins through Plate Movements.
30: Island Arcs.
31: Ocean Basin Features.
32: Abyssal Hills.
33: Continental Margins.
34: Continental Rises.
35: Continental Shelves.
36: Continental Slopes.
37: Deep-Sea Trenches.
38: Oceanic Crust.
39: Oceanic Plateaus.
40: Oceanic Ridges.
41: Circulation and Waves.
42: The Circulation of the Ocean Waters.
43: Distribution of Ocean Currents.
44: Causes of Ocean Currents.
45: Pressure Gradients.
46: Coriolis Effect.
47: Frictional Forces.
48: Geostrophic Currents.
49: Density Currents in the Oceans.
50: Ekman Layer.
51: Wind-Driven Circulation.
52: Equatorial Currents.
53: The Subtropical Gyres.
54: The Subpolar Gyres.
55: Antarctic Circumpolar Current.
56: Thermohaline Circulation.
57: Waves of the Sea.
58: Surface Gravity Waves.
59: Tsunamis.
60: Seiche Waves and Internal Waves.
61: Ocean Tides.
62: Tide-Generating Forces.
63: Tidal Bores.
64: The Climatic and Economic Impacts of the Oceans.
65: Seasonal and Interannual Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions.
66: The Link between Ocean Surface Temperature and Climate Anomalies.
67: Formation of Tropical Cyclones.
68: Effects of Tropical Cyclones on Ocean Waters.
69: Influence on Atmospheric Circulation and Rainfall.
70: The Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Systems.
71: The Gulf Stream.
72: The Kuroshio Current.
73: The Poleward Transfer of Heat.
74: El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Climatic Change.
75: The El Niño Phenomenon.
76: The Southern Oscillation.
77: Economic Aspects of the Oceans.
78: Medium for Transportation and Communications.
79: Source of Food and Water.
80: Energy Resources.
81: Source of Minerals and Other Raw Materials.
82: Deepwater Disaster.
83: Waste Disposal and Other Related Actions.
84: Oceanography.
85: Ancient Oceanography.
86: The Discovery of the Hydrologic Cycle.
87: The Initial Studies of the Tides.
88: Early Oceanography.
89: The Rise of Subterranean Water.
90: Evaporation from the Sea.
91: Oceanography in the 19th Century.
92: Oceanography in the 20th Century.
93: Ocean Circulation, Currents, and Waves.
94: Ocean Bathymetry.
95: Bathymetry.
96: Water Resources and Seawater Chemistry.
97: Desalinization, Tidal Power, and Minerals from the Sea.
98: Marine Geology.
99: Undersea Exploration.
100: Basic Elements of Undersea Exploration.
101: Dead Reckoning.
102: Methodology and Instrumentation.
103: Nansen Bottle.
104: Sonar.
105: Conclusion.
106: Marine Explorers and Oceanographers.
107: Alexander Agassiz.
108: Prince Albert I of Monaco.
109: Robert Ballard.
110: Jacques-Yves Cousteau.
111: Robert S. Dietz.
112: Vagn Walfrid Ekman.
113: Richard H. Fleming.
114: Bjørn Helland-Hansen.
115: Columbus O'Donnell Iselin.
116: Matthew Fontaine Maury.
117: Walter Munk.
118: Sir John Murray.
119: Fridtjof Nansen.
120: Jacques Piccard.
121: Francis P. Shepard.
122: Henry Melson Stommel.
123: Georg Wüst.
Appendix.
Glossary.
Bibliography.
Index.