eBook The International Encyclopedia of Communication, 1st Edition

  • Wolfgang Donsbach
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1405186402
  • ISBN-13: 9781405186407
  • DDC: 302.203
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 6128 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2008 | Published/Released July 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2008
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

The International Encyclopedia of Communication represents the definitive reference work in this interdisciplinary and dynamic field. This authoritative 12-volume set is jointly published by Wiley-Blackwell and the International Communication Association (ICA), the leading academic association of the discipline. Key features include: 1,339 newly-commissioned A-Z entries, divided into 29 editorial areas representing major fields of inquiry, each of which is headed by a leading expert in their respective fieldĀ  Spans the breadth of communication studies, including coverage of theories, media and communication phenomena, research methods, problems, concepts, and geographical areas Simultaneously publishing in print and in a fully accessible and searchable online version Features sophisticated cross-referencing and search facilities, lexicon by subject area, and a comprehensive index Entries ranging from extended explorations of major topics to short descriptions of key concepts Written and edited by an international team of the world's best scholars and teachers, representing the international character of the ICA Editorial areas include: communication theory and philosophy, interpersonal communication, journalism, intercultural and intergroup communication, media effects, strategic communication/PR, communication and media law and policy, media systems in the world, and communication and technology. This unique and inclusive work will strengthen the identity of the growing field of communication studies, support its institutions, and most of all, improve the study of communication problems and phenomena worldwide. For further information visit www.communicationencyclopedia.com.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Other Frontmatter.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
All Entries.
All Entries by Editorial Area.
Notes on Editors and Contributors - (Part 1).
Notes on Editors and Contributors - (Part 2).
Preface and Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
1: Academy Awards.
2: Access to the Media.
3: Accountability of the Media.
4: Accountability of the News.
5: Accounting Research.
6: Acculturation Processes and Communication.
7: Accuracy.
8: Action Assembly Theory.
9: Action-Implicative Discourse Analysis.
10: Activist Media.
11: Addiction and Exposure.
12: Advertisement Campaign Management.
13: Advertisement, Visual Characteristics of.
14: Advertising.
15: Advertising, Cross-Cultural.
16: Advertising, Economics of.
17: Advertising Effectiveness.
18: Advertising Effectiveness, Measurement of.
19: Advertising, Emotions in.
20: Advertising, Endorsement in.
21: Advertising Ethics.
22: Advertising Frequency and Timing.
23: Advertising: Global Industry.
24: Advertising, History of.
25: Advertising Law and Regulation.
26: Advertising as Persuasion.
27: Advertising: Responses across the Life-Span.
28: Advertising Strategies.
29: Advocacy Journalism.
30: Aesthetics.
31: Affective Disposition Theories.
32: Affects and Media Exposure.
33: Africa: Media Systems.
34: Age Identity and Communication.
35: Agenda Building.
36: Agenda-Setting Effects.
37: Aging and Cognitive Processing.
38: Aging and Message Production and Processing.
39: Alternative Journalism.
40: Amateur Photography and Movies.
41: American Convention on Human Rights.
42: Americanization of the Media.
43: Animation.
44: Anime.
45: Antitrust Regulation.
46: Anxiety Uncertainty Management Theory.
47: Apologies and Remedial Episodes.
48: Applied Communication Research.
49: Appraisal Theory.
50: Arab Satellite TV News.
51: Archiving of Internet Content.
52: Argentina: Media System.
53: Argumentative Discourse.
54: Arrangement and Rhetoric.
55: Art as Communication.
56: Artifacts.
57: Attending to the Mass Media.
58: Attention.
59: Attention to Media Content across the Life-Span.
60: Attitude Accessibility.
61: Attitude–Behavior Consistency.
62: Attitude Functions.
63: Attitudes.
64: Attitudes, Values, and Beliefs, Media Effects on.
65: Attribution Processes.
66: Audience.
67: Audience Commodity.
68: Audience Research.
69: Audience Segmentation.
70: Audiences, Female.
71: Australia: Media System.
72: Austria: Media System.
73: Automaticity.
74: Availability, Cognitive.
75: Avatars and Agents.
Title Page.
Editors.
Editorial Areas.
1: Bad News in Medicine, Communicating.
2: Bakhtin, Mikhail.
3: Balance.
4: Balkan States: Media Systems.
5: Baltic States: Media Systems.
6: Bandura, Albert.
7: Bandwagon Effect.
8: Barthes, Roland.
9: BBC.
10: BBC World Service.
11: Behavioral Norms: Perception through the Media.
12: Bertelsmann Corporation.
13: Bi- and Multilingualism.
14: Bias in the News.
15: Black Feminist Media Studies.
16: Blogger.
17: Body Images in the Media.
18: Bolivia: Media System.
19: Bollywood.
20: Bona Fide Groups.
21: Book.
22: Branding.
23: Brands.
24: Brazil: Media System.
25: Broadcast Journalism.
26: Broadcast Talk.
27: Bureaucracy and Communication.
28: Business Discourse.
29: Cable Television.
30: Canada: Media System.
31: Candidate Image.
32: Caribbean States: Media Systems.
33: Caricature.
34: Cartography.
35: Cartoons.
36: Case Studies.
37: Catharsis Theory.
38: Celebrity Culture.
39: Celebrity Journalists.
40: Censorship.
41: Censorship, History of.
42: Central America: Media Systems.
43: Chaffee, Steven H..
44: Change Management and Communication.
45: Channel/Program Loyalty.
46: Child Art.
47: Child Protection, Media Regulations for.
48: Chile: Media System.
49: China Central Television Channel 9 (CCTV-9).
50: China: Media System.
51: Cinema.
52: Cinematography.
53: Cinematography, History of.
54: Circulation.
55: Citizen Journalism.
56: Citizen Journalism, History of.
57: Citizens' Media.
58: Civil Rights Movement and the Media.
59: Classroom Instructional Technology.
60: Classroom Management Techniques.
61: Classroom Power.
62: Classroom Questioning.
63: Classroom Student–Teacher Interaction.
64: Climate of Opinion.
65: Cluster Analysis.
66: CNN.
67: Code.
68: Code as Law.
69: Coding.
70: Coffee Houses as Public Sphere.
71: Cognition.
72: Cognitive Dissonance Theory.
73: Cognitive Science.
74: Collective Action and Communication.
75: Collective Memory and the Media.
76: Colombia: Media System.
77: Comforting Communication.
78: Comics.
79: Commentary.
80: Commercialization: Impact on Media Content.
81: Commercialization of the Media.
82: Commodification of the Media.
83: Commodity Feminism.
84: Communibiology.
85: Communication as an Academic Field: Africa.
86: Communication as an Academic Field: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Rim.
87: Communication as an Academic Field: East Asia.
88: Communication as an Academic Field: Eastern Europe and Russia.
89: Communication as an Academic Field: Latin America.
90: Communication as an Academic Field: Middle East, Arab World.
91: Communication as an Academic Field: Middle East, Israel.
92: Communication as an Academic Field: South Asia.
93: Communication as an Academic Field: USA and Canada.
94: Communication as an Academic Field: Western Europe.
95: Communication Accommodation Theory.
96: Communication Apprehension.
97: Communication Apprehension: Intervention Techniques.
98: Communication Apprehension and Social Anxiety.
99: Communication: Definitions and Concepts.
100: Communication Education, Goals of.
101: Communication Evaluation Research.
102: Communication as a Field and Discipline.
103: Communication: History of the Idea.
104: Communication Inequality.
105: Communication Infrastructure.
106: Communication and Law.
107: Communication Law and Policy: Africa.
108: Communication Law and Policy: Asia.
109: Communication Law and Policy: Europe.
110: Communication Law and Policy: Middle East.
111: Communication Law and Policy: North America.
112: Communication Law and Policy: South America.
113: Communication Management.
114: Communication and Media Studies, History Since 1968.
115: Communication and Media Studies, History to 1968.
116: Communication Modes, African.
117: Communication Modes, Asian.
118: Communication Modes, Hispanic.
119: Communication Modes, Muslim.
120: Communication Modes, Western.
121: Communication Networks.
Title Page.
1: Communication Professions and Academic Research.
2: Communication: Relationship Rules.
3: Communication Research and Politics.
4: Communication Skills Across the Life-Span.
5: Communication and Social Change: Research Methods.
6: Communication Strategies for Empowerment.
7: Communication Technology and Democracy.
8: Communication Technology and Development.
9: Communication Technology Standards.
10: Communication Theory and Philosophy.
11: Communicator Style.
12: Communicology.
13: Communities of Practice.
14: Community Integration.
15: Community Media.
16: Community Structure Model.
17: Community Video.
18: Comparative Research.
19: Competition in Media Systems.
20: Compliance Gaining.
21: Comprehension.
22: Computer Games and Child Development.
23: Computer Games and Reality Perception.
24: Computer–User Interaction.
25: Computers and Display Programs in Education.
26: Concentration in Media Systems.
27: Conflict and Cooperation Across the Life-Span.
28: Conflict as Media Content.
29: Conflict Resolution.
30: Conflicts of Law.
31: Consensus-Oriented Public Relations.
32: Consistency Theories.
33: Consolidation of Media Markets.
34: Consonance of Media Content.
35: Construction of Reality Through the News.
36: Constructivism.
37: Constructivism and Interpersonal Processes.
38: Consumer Culture.
39: Consumer Informatics.
40: Consumers in Media Markets.
41: Content Analysis, Qualitative.
42: Content Analysis, Quantitative.
43: Contingency Model of Conflict.
44: Control and Authority in Organizations.
45: Convergence of Media Systems.
46: Conversation Analysis.
47: Co-Orientation Model of Public Relations.
48: Copyright.
49: Copy Test and Starch Test.
50: Corporate Communication.
51: Corporate Design.
52: Corporate and Organizational Identity.
53: Corporate Reputation.
54: Corporate Social Responsibility.
55: Correlation Analysis.
56: Cost and Revenue Structures in the Media.
57: Course Organization Programs in Education.
58: Co-Viewing.
59: Credibility of Content.
60: Credibility Effects.
61: Crime and Communication Technology.
62: Crime Reporting.
63: Crisis Communication.
64: Critical Rationalism.
65: Critical Theory.
66: Cross-Media Marketing.
67: Cross-Media Production.
68: Cross-Ownership.
69: Cuba: Media System.
70: Cultivation Effects.
71: Cultivation Theory.
72: Cultural Appropriation.
73: Cultural Imperialism Theories.
74: Cultural Patterns and Communication.
75: Cultural Products as Tradable Services.
76: Cultural Studies.
77: Cultural Studies: Feminist Popular Culture.
78: Cultural Topoi in Public Relations.
79: Culture and Communication, Ethnographic Perspectives on.
80: Culture: Definitions and Concepts.
81: Culture and Health Communication.
82: Culture Industries.
83: Cumulative Media Effects.
84: Curriculum Studies.
85: Cyberfeminism.
86: Cybernetics.
87: Cyborgs.
88: Czech Republic: Media System.
89: Dance.
90: Dating Relationships.
91: Death, Dying, and Communication.
92: Deception Detection Accuracy.
93: Deception in Discourse.
94: Deceptive Message Production.
95: Decision-Making Processes in Organizations.
96: Deduction vs Induction vs Abduction.
97: Definition.
98: Deliberative Polls.
99: Deliberativeness in Political Communication.
100: Delivery and Rhetoric.
101: Delphi Studies.
102: Dependency Theories.
103: Desensitization.
104: Design.
105: Design Theory.
106: Determination Theory in Public Relations.
107: Deutsche Welle.
108: Development Communication.
109: Development Communication: Africa.
110: Development Communication: Asia.
111: Development Communication Campaigns.
112: Development Communication: Latin America.
113: Development Communication: Middle East.
114: Development Communication, Planning of.
115: Development Discourse.
116: Development, Gender, and Communication.
117: Development, Geometry of.
118: Development Institutions.
119: Development Journalism.
120: Development Support Communication.
121: Developmental Communication.
122: Dialogic Perspectives.
123: Diffusion of Information and Innovation.
124: Digital Divide.
Title Page.
1: Digital Imagery.
2: Digital Media, History of.
3: Digitization and Media Convergence.
4: Direct-to-Consumer Advertising.
5: Directives.
6: Disability and Communication.
7: Disasters and Communication.
8: Disclosure in Health Communication.
9: Disclosure in Interpersonal Communication.
10: Discourse.
11: Discourse Analysis.
12: Discourse, Cognitive Approaches to.
13: Discourse Comprehension.
14: Discourse in the Law.
15: Discourse Markers.
16: Discriminant Analysis.
17: Discursive Psychology.
18: Disney.
19: Disowning Projection.
20: Dissent in Organizations.
21: Distance Education.
22: Distribution.
23: Diversification of Media Markets.
24: Diversity in the Workplace.
25: Doctor-Patient Talk.
26: Document Analysis.
27: Documentary Film.
28: Documentary Film, History of.
29: Domain Names.
30: Domestication of Technology.
31: Drama in Media Content.
32: Dual Coding Theory.
33: E-Commerce.
34: Economies of Scale in Media Markets.
35: E-Democracy.
36: Editorial.
37: Educational Communication.
38: Educational Media.
39: Educational Media Content.
40: Educational Television, Children's Responses to.
41: E-Government.
42: Egypt: Media System.
43: Elaboration Likelihood Model.
44: Election Campaign Communication.
45: Election Polls and Forecasts.
46: Election Surveys.
47: Elections and Media, History of.
48: Electronic Mail.
49: Embedded Journalists.
50: Emic vs Etic Research.
51: Emotion.
52: Emotion and Communication in Organizations.
53: Emotion and Discourse.
54: Emotional Arousal Theory.
55: Emotions, Media Effects on.
56: Empathy Theory.
57: Endorsement.
58: English-Only Movements.
59: Enjoyment/Entertainment Seeking.
60: Entertainment Content and Reality Perception.
61: Entertainment Education.
62: Entertainment, Effects of.
63: Environment and Social Interaction.
64: Environmental Communication.
65: Escapism.
66: Ethics in Journalism.
67: Ethics of Media Content.
68: Ethnic Journalism.
69: Ethnic Media and their Influence.
70: Ethnicity and Exposure to Communication.
71: Ethnographic Film.
72: Ethnography of Communication.
73: Ethnolinguistic Vitality and Communication.
74: Ethnomethodology.
75: Ethos and Rhetoric.
76: European Court of Human Rights.
77: European Union: Communication Law.
78: Evolutionary Theory.
79: Excellence Theory in Public Relations.
80: Excitation and Arousal.
81: Excitation Transfer Theory.
82: Exemplification and Exemplars, Effects of.
83: Expectancy Value Model.
84: Expectancy Violation.
85: Experiment, Field.
86: Experiment, Laboratory.
87: Experiment, Natural.
88: Experimental Design.
89: Exposure to Communication Content.
90: Exposure to Film.
91: Exposure to the Internet.
92: Exposure to News.
93: Exposure to Print Media.
94: Exposure to Radio.
95: Exposure to Television.
96: Extended Parallel Process Model.
97: Extra-Media Data.
98: Eye Behavior.
99: Facial Expressions.
100: Factor Analysis.
101: Fair Trial and Freedom of the Press.
102: Fairness Doctrine.
103: False Consensus.
104: False Uniqueness.
105: Family Communication Patterns.
106: Family Decision-Making.
107: Fandom.
108: Fantasy/Imagination.
109: Fantasy–Reality Distinction.
110: Fashion.
111: Fear Induction through Media Content.
112: Fear Induction through Media Content in Children.
113: Federal Communications Commission (FCC).
114: Feedback Processes in Organizations.
115: Feminine Mystique.
116: Femininity and Feminine Values.
117: Feminist Communication Ethics.
118: Feminist and Gender Studies.
119: Feminist Media.
120: Feminist Media Pedagogy.
121: Feminist Media Studies, Transnational.
122: Feminization of Media Content.
123: Festinger, Leon.
124: Fetishization.
125: Fiction.
126: Fictional Media Content.
Title Page.
1: Field Research.
2: Film Genres.
3: Film as Popular Culture.
4: Film Production.
5: Film Theory.
6: Financial Communication.
7: Fleet Street.
8: Foreign Correspondents.
9: Foreign Policy and the Media.
10: Fourth Estate.
11: Framing Effects.
12: Framing of the News.
13: France: Media System.
14: Francophonie.
15: Free Flow of Information.
16: Freedom of Communication.
17: Freedom of Information.
18: Freedom of the Press, Concept of.
19: Friendship and Communication.
20: Friendship and Peer Interaction.
21: Frustration Aggression Theory.
22: Functional Analysis.
23: Fundraising.
24: Gag Orders.
25: Gatekeeping.
26: Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Media Studies.
27: Gaze in Interaction.
28: Gender and Discourse.
29: Gender and Journalism.
30: Gender and Media Organizations.
31: Gender: Representation in the Media.
32: Generalizability.
33: Genre.
34: Gerbner, George.
35: Germany: Media System.
36: Gestures in Discourse.
37: Gestures and Kinesics.
38: Girl Culture.
39: Global Media, History of.
40: Globalization of the Media.
41: Globalization of Organizations.
42: Globalization Theories.
43: Goals, Cognitive Aspects of.
44: Goals, Social Aspects of.
45: Goffman, Erving.
46: Government Speech, Law and Policy on.
47: Graffiti.
48: Graphic Design.
49: Grassroots Media.
50: Grounded Theory.
51: Group Communication.
52: Group Communication and Problem-Solving.
53: Group Communication and Social Influence.
54: Group Decision-Making, Functional Theory of.
55: Gulf States: Media Systems.
56: Habermas, Jürgen.
57: Habituation.
58: Hacktivism.
59: Hate Speech and Ethnophaulisms.
60: Health Behavior Change, Transtheoretical Model of.
61: Health Belief Model.
62: Health Campaigns, Communication in.
63: Health Campaigns for Development.
64: Health Communication.
65: Health Communication, Ethics in.
66: Health Communication and the Internet.
67: Health Communication and Journalism.
68: Health Disparities, Communication in.
69: Health Literacy.
70: Heraldry.
71: Hermeneutics.
72: Heterosexism and the Media.
73: Historic Key Events and the Media.
74: Historiography.
75: Hollywood.
76: Hong Kong Cinema.
77: Horse Race Coverage.
78: Hostile Media Phenomenon.
79: Hovland, Carl I..
80: Human–Computer Interaction.
81: Hybridity Theories.
82: Hypothesis.
83: Iconography.
84: Identification.
85: Identities and Discourse.
86: Identity Politics.
87: Idiographic vs Nomothetic Science.
88: Illustrated Newspapers.
89: Image.
90: Image Ethics.
91: Image Restoration Theory.
92: Imagined Interactions.
93: Impersonal Effects.
94: Implicit Personality Theories.
95: Impression Management.
96: Independent Media Centers Network.
97: India: Media System.
98: Individual Differences and Information Processing.
99: Infographics.
100: Information.
101: Information and Communication Technology, Development of.
102: Information and Communication Technology, Economics of.
103: Information Literacy.
104: Information Overload.
105: Information Processing.
106: Information Processing: Self-Concept.
107: Information Processing: Stereotypes.
108: Information Scanning.
109: Information Science.
110: Information Seeking.
111: Information Society.
112: Informational Utility.
113: Infotainment.
114: Ingratiation and Affinity Seeking.
115: Initial Interaction.
116: Innis, Harold.
117: Institutional Theory.
118: Instructional Television.
119: Instrumental Actualization.
120: Integrated Marketing Communications.
121: Intellectual Property Law.
122: Interaction.
123: Interaction Adaptation Theory.
124: Interactional Sociolinguistics.
125: Interactivity, Concept of.
126: Interactivity in Reception.
127: Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
Title Page.
1: Intercultural Communication in Health-Care.
2: Intercultural Communication Training.
3: Intercultural Conflict Styles and Facework.
4: Intercultural and Intergroup Communication.
5: Intercultural Media Effects.
6: Intercultural Norms.
7: Intereffication Approach in Public Relations.
8: Interethnic Relationships in Families.
9: Intergenerational Communication.
10: Intergroup Accommodative Processes.
11: Intergroup Communication and Discursive Psychology.
12: Intergroup Contact and Communication.
13: Intergroup Dimensions of Organizational Life.
14: Intermediality.
15: International Association for Media and Communication Research (IAMCR).
16: International Communication.
17: International Communication Agencies.
18: International Communication Association (ICA).
19: International News Reporting.
20: International Radio.
21: International Television.
22: Internet.
23: Internet: International Regulation.
24: Internet Law and Regulation.
25: Internet News.
26: Internet and Popular Culture.
27: Internet Ratings Systems.
28: Internet, Technology of.
29: Internet Use Across the Life-Span.
30: Interorganizational Communication.
31: Interpersonal Attraction.
32: Interpersonal Communication.
33: Interpersonal Communication Competence and Social Skills.
34: Interpersonal Communication, Sex and Gender Differences in.
35: Interpersonal Conflict.
36: Interpretive Journalism.
37: Interview.
38: Interview as Journalistic Form.
39: Interview, Qualitative.
40: Interview, Standardized.
41: Intimate Talk with Family and Friends.
42: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation and Volition.
43: Invention and Rhetoric.
44: Investigative Reporting.
45: Involvement with Media Content.
46: Iran: Media System.
47: Israel: Media System.
48: Issue Management.
49: Issue Management in Politics.
50: Issue Voting.
51: Italy: Media System.
52: Japan: Media System.
53: Journalism.
54: Journalism Education.
55: Journalism: Group Dynamics.
56: Journalism, History of.
57: Journalism: Legal Situation.
58: Journalism: Normative Theories.
59: Journalists, Credibility of.
60: Journalists: Professional Associations.
61: Journalists' Role Perception.
62: Katz, Elihu.
63: Knowledge Gap Effects.
64: Knowledge Interests.
65: Knowledge Management.
66: Korean Cultural Influence.
67: Kurdish International Broadcasting.
68: Labor in the Media.
69: Labor Unions in the Media.
70: Language Acquisition in Childhood.
71: Language Attitudes in Intergroup Contexts.
72: Language and the Internet.
73: Language and Social Interaction.
74: Language and Social Psychology.
75: Language Varieties.
76: Lasswell, Harold D..
77: Latina Feminist Media Studies.
78: Latitude of Acceptance.
79: Lazarsfeld, Paul F..
80: Le Monde Diplomatique.
81: Leadership in Organizations.
82: Learning and Communication.
83: Learning Organizations.
84: Legitimacy Gap Theory.
85: Lerner, Daniel.
86: Libel and Slander.
87: Licensing of Journalists.
88: Limited Capacity Model.
89: Linear and Nonlinear Models of Causal Analysis.
90: Linguistic Pragmatics.
91: Linguistics.
92: Link Analysis.
93: Lippmann, Walter.
94: Listening.
95: Literary Journalism.
96: Lobbying.
97: Local News.
98: Log-File Analysis.
99: Logos and Rhetoric.
100: Long-Distance Relationships.
101: Longitudinal Analysis.
102: Magazine.
103: Magazine, History of.
104: Magazine, Visual Design of.
105: Mainstreaming.
106: Malaysia: Media System.
107: Marginality, Stigma, and Communication.
108: Marital Communication.
109: Marital Typologies.
110: Marketing.
111: Marketing: Communication Tools.
112: Markets of the Media.
113: Masculinity and the Media.
114: Mask.
115: McLuhan, Marshall.
116: Meaning.
117: Measurement Theory.
118: Media.
119: Media Advocacy in Health Communication.
120: Media Campaigns and Perceptions of Reality.
121: Media Conglomerates.
122: Media Content in Interpersonal Communication.
123: Media Content and Social Networks.
Title Page.
1: Media Corporations, Forms of.
2: Media Democracy.
3: Media Democracy Movement.
4: Media Diplomacy.
5: Media Ecology.
6: Media Economics.
7: Media Effects.
8: Media Effects: Direct and Indirect Effects.
9: Media Effects Duration.
10: Media Effects, History of.
11: Media Effects Models: Elaborated Models.
12: Media Effects, Strength of.
13: Media Equation Theory.
14: Media Events and Pseudo-Events.
15: Media and Group Representations.
16: Media History.
17: Media Literacy.
18: Media Logic.
19: Media Management.
20: Media Marketing.
21: Media Messages and Family Communication.
22: Media and Perceptions of Reality.
23: Media Performance.
24: Media Planning.
25: Media Policy.
26: Media as Political Actors.
27: Media Production and Content.
28: Media Relations.
29: Media System Dependency Theory.
30: Media Use and Child Development.
31: Media Use by Children.
32: Media Use, International Comparison of.
33: Media Use across the Life-Span.
34: Media Use by Social Variable.
35: Mediated Populism.
36: Mediated Social Interaction.
37: Mediated Terrorism.
38: Mediating Factors.
39: Mediatization of Organizations Theory.
40: Mediatization of Politics.
41: Mediatization of Society.
42: Medium Theory.
43: Meeting Technologies.
44: Memory.
45: Memory, Message.
46: Memory, Person.
47: Memory and Rhetoric.
48: Mentoring.
49: Mergers.
50: Message Design Logics.
51: Message Discrimination.
52: Message Editing.
53: Message Effects, Structure of.
54: Message Production.
55: Meta-Analysis.
56: Meta-Discourse.
57: Metaphor.
58: Metonymy.
59: Mexico: Media System.
60: Microethnography.
61: Migrant Community Media.
62: Migration and Immigration.
63: Mindlessness and Automaticity.
64: Minority Journalism.
65: Mobility, Technology for.
66: Modality and Multimodality.
67: Models of Communication.
68: Modernity.
69: Modernization.
70: Mood Management.
71: Morality and Taste in Media Content.
72: Muckraking.
73: Multitasking.
74: Museum.
75: Music Industry.
76: Music Videos.
77: NAFTA and International Communication.
78: Narrative News Story.
79: Navigation.
80: Negative Campaigning.
81: Negativity.
82: Negotiation and Bargaining.
83: Netherlands: Media System.
84: Network Analysis.
85: Network Organizations through Communication Technology.
86: Neutrality.
87: New Journalism.
88: New Journalism, Nineteenth-Century.
89: New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO).
90: News.
91: News Agencies.
92: News Agencies, History of.
93: News Audience.
94: News Corporation.
95: News Cycles.
96: News as Discourse.
97: News Factors.
98: News Ideologies.
99: News Magazine, History of.
100: News Myths.
101: News Processing across the Life-Span.
102: News Processing and Retention.
103: News Production and Technology.
104: News Routines.
105: News Sources.
106: News Story.
107: News Values.
108: News Workers.
109: Newscast.
110: Newscast, 24-Hour.
111: Newspaper.
112: Newspaper, Antecedents of.
113: Newspaper, History of.
114: Newspaper Journalism.
115: Newspaper, Visual Design of.
116: Newsreel.
117: Nielsen Ratings.
118: Noelle-Neumann, Elisabeth.
119: Nollywood.
120: Nonparametric Analysis.
121: Nonverbal Communication and Culture.
122: Nonverbal Signals, Effects of.
123: North Africa: Media Systems.
124: Objectivity in Reporting.
Title Page.
1: Objectivity in Science.
2: Observation.
3: Observational Learning.
4: Online Journalism.
5: Online Media.
6: Online Relationships.
7: Online Research.
8: Open Access Journals.
9: Open Meetings Law.
10: Open Source.
11: Operationalization.
12: Opinion Leader.
13: Order of Presentation.
14: Organization–Public Relationships.
15: Organizational Assimilation.
16: Organizational Change Processes.
17: Organizational Communication.
18: Organizational Communication: Critical Approaches.
19: Organizational Communication: Postmodern Approaches.
20: Organizational Conflict.
21: Organizational Crises, Communication in.
22: Organizational Culture.
23: Organizational Discourse.
24: Organizational Ethics.
25: Organizational Identification.
26: Organizational Image.
27: Organizational Metaphors.
28: Organizational Structure.
29: Organizations, Cultural Diversity in.
30: Ownership in the Media.
31: P2P NetWorking.
32: Painting.
33: Paperback Fiction.
34: Paradigm.
35: Paralanguage.
36: Parasocial Interactions and Relationships.
37: Parental Mediation Strategies.
38: Participative Processes in Organizations.
39: Participatory Action Research.
40: Participatory Communication.
41: Partisan Press.
42: Party Political Communication.
43: Party–Press Parallelism.
44: Pathos and Rhetoric.
45: Patient–Provider Communication.
46: Peace Journalism.
47: Pedagogy, Communication in.
48: Penny Press.
49: People-Meter.
50: Perceived Realism as a Decision Process.
51: Perceived Reality as a Communication Process.
52: Perceived Reality: Meta-Analyses.
53: Perceived Reality as a Social Process.
54: Perception.
55: Personal Communication by CMC.
56: Personal Publishing.
57: Personality Development and Communication.
58: Personality and Exposure to Communication.
59: Personalization of Campaigning.
60: Perspective, Pictorial.
61: Persuasion.
62: Persuasion and Resistance.
63: Phenomenology.
64: Photography.
65: Photojournalism.
66: Physical Effects of Media Content.
67: Physiological Measurement.
68: Picture Magazines.
69: Piracy.
70: Planned Behavior, Theory of.
71: Planned Social Change through Communication.
72: Playing.
73: Pluralistic Ignorance.
74: Pluralistic Ignorance and Ideological Biases.
75: Plurality.
76: Poland: Media System.
77: Politainment.
78: Politeness Theory.
79: Political Advertising.
80: Political Cognitions.
81: Political Communication.
82: Political Communication Culture.
83: Political Communication Systems.
84: Political Consultant.
85: Political Cynicism.
86: Political Discourse.
87: Political Economy of the Media.
88: Political Efficacy.
89: Political Journalists.
90: Political Knowledge.
91: Political Language.
92: Political Marketing.
93: Political Media Content, Quality Criteria in.
94: Political Media Use.
95: Political News.
96: Political Personality in Media Democracy.
97: Political Persuasion.
98: Political Socialization through the Media.
99: Political Symbols.
100: Politics in Popular Communication.
101: Polls and the Media.
102: Popular Communication.
103: Popular Communication and Social Class.
104: Popular Culture.
105: Popular Culture and the News Media.
106: Popular Music.
107: Popular Mythology.
108: Population Campaigns.
109: Populism and Responsiveness.
110: Pornography, Feminist Debates on.
111: Pornography, Media Law on.
112: Pornography Use Across the Life-Span.
113: Portraiture.
114: Portugal: Media System.
115: Positioning Theory.
116: Postal Service, History of.
117: Postcolonial Theory.
118: Postdevelopment.
119: Poster.
120: Postfeminism.
121: Postmodernism and Communication.
122: Power and Discourse.
123: Power, Dominance, and Social Interaction.
124: Power in Intergroup Settings.
125: Pragmatism.
Title Page.
1: Precision Journalism.
2: Prejudiced and Discriminatory Communication.
3: Presence.
4: Press Conference.
5: Prevention and Communication.
6: Priming Theory.
7: Printer-Editors.
8: Printing, History of.
9: Prints.
10: Privacy.
11: Privatization of the Media.
12: Professionalization of Journalism.
13: Professionalization of Public Relations.
14: Propaganda.
15: Propaganda, Visual Communication of.
16: Propaganda in World War II.
17: Proxemics.
18: Psychology in Communication Processes.
19: Public.
20: Public Access Television.
21: Public Affairs.
22: Public Broadcasting, History of.
23: Public Broadcasting Systems.
24: Public Diplomacy.
25: Public Goods.
26: Public Interest.
27: Public Journalism.
28: Public Meetings.
29: Public Opinion.
30: Public Opinion, Media Effects on.
31: Public Opinion Polling.
32: Public Relations.
33: Public Relations Ethics.
34: Public Relations Evaluation.
35: Public Relations Field Dynamics.
36: Public Relations: Global Firms.
37: Public Relations, Intercultural.
38: Public Relations: Media Influence.
39: Public Relations Planning.
40: Public Relations Roles.
41: Public Service Broadcasting: Law and Policy.
42: Public Sphere.
43: Public Sphere, Fragmentation of.
44: Publics: Situational Theory.
45: Qualitative Methodology.
46: Quality of the News.
47: Quality Press.
48: Quantitative Methodology.
49: Questions and Questioning.
50: Radical Media.
51: Radio.
52: Radio Broadcasting, Regulation of.
53: Radio for Development.
54: Radio France Internationale.
55: Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
56: Radio Networks.
57: Radio News.
58: Radio: Social History.
59: Radio Technology.
60: Rating Methods.
61: Readership Research.
62: Real-Time Ratings (RTR).
63: Realism.
64: Realism in Film and Photography.
65: Reality and Media Reality.
66: Reality TV.
67: Reasoned Action, Theory of.
68: Reciprocal Effects.
69: Reciprocity and Compensation in Interaction.
70: Regression Analysis.
71: Reification.
72: Relational Control.
73: Relational Dialectics.
74: Relational Maintenance.
75: Relational Schemas.
76: Relational Termination.
77: Relational Uncertainty.
78: Relationship Development.
79: Reliability.
80: Religion and Popular Communication.
81: Remediation.
82: Research Dissemination.
83: Research Ethics.
84: Research Ethics: Internet Research.
85: Research Methods.
86: Response Sets.
87: Reticence.
88: Rhetoric in Africa.
89: Rhetoric, Argument, and Persuasion.
90: Rhetoric in Central and South America.
91: Rhetoric and Class.
92: Rhetoric and Dialectic.
93: Rhetoric in East Asia: China and Japan.
94: Rhetoric in East Asia: Korea.
95: Rhetoric in Eastern Europe.
96: Rhetoric, Epideictic.
97: Rhetoric and Epistemology.
98: Rhetoric and Ethics.
99: Rhetoric and Ethnography.
100: Rhetoric, European Renaissance.
101: Rhetoric and Gender.
102: Rhetoric, Greek.
103: Rhetoric and History.
104: Rhetoric and Language.
105: Rhetoric and Logic.
106: Rhetoric and Media Studies.
107: Rhetoric, Medieval.