eBook Encyclopedia Of Free Blacks And People Of Color In Americas, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1438136307
  • ISBN-13: 9781438136301
  • DDC: 305.896
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 800 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released September 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

Provides articles on all major events, issues, and concepts relevant to the free black community in the United States from the colonial period to the Civil War.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
List of Entries.
List of Documents.
List of Maps.
List of Tables.
About the Editors.
Acknowledgments.
Introduction.
List of Contributors.
Chronology.
1: Abolitionism and Resistance to Slavery.
2: Adams, John (1735–1826).
3: Adams, John Quincy (1767–1848).
4: Africa.
5: African and Syncretic Religions.
6: African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E. Church).
7: Alabama.
8: Allen, Richard (1760–1831).
9: American Civil War (U.S. Civil War) (1861–1865).
10: American Colonization Society.
11: Amistad Case.
12: Ardouin, Beaubrun (1796–1865).
13: Argentina.
14: Arkansas.
15: Artisans.
16: Australia.
17: Baker, Moses (1730?–1823?).
18: Baptists and Pietists.
19: Barbados.
20: Barbour, Conway (ca. 1820–1876).
21: Beckwourth, James (James Beckwith) (ca. 1798–1866).
22: Belize.
23: Bellanton, Zabeau (Elizabeth) (ca. 1751–?).
24: Belley, Jean-Baptiste (1748 or 1749–1806?).
25: Bideau, Jean-Baptiste (ca. 1780–1817).
26: Bigode, Francisco Xavier (?–1838).
27: Bissette, Cyrille-Charles (1795–1858).
28: Black Caesar (John Caesar) (ca. 1760s–1796).
29: Black Carib (Garifuna).
30: Black Codes in the United States.
31: Black Laws in the Midwest.
32: Black Press in the United States.
33: Black Seminole.
34: Bland, James A. (1854–1911).
35: Blanke, John.
36: Bolivia.
37: Boston.
38: Bowser, Mary Elizabeth (1839–?).
39: Boyer, Jean-Pierre (1776–1850).
40: Brazil.
41: Brazil, Abolitionist Movement in.
42: Brazil, Laws on Race and Slavery.
43: Brazilian Maroons (Quilombolas).
44: Britain.
45: Britain, Abolitionist Movements in.
46: British Anti-Slavery Acts.
47: British Lesser Antilles.
48: Brown, Henry “Box” (ca. 1815–?).
49: Buchanan, James (1791–1868).
50: Bush, George Washington (ca. 1779–1863).
51: California.
52: Canada.
53: Cap-Français/Cap-Haïtien (Le Cap, Cap-François).
54: Captain Cudjoe.
55: Cartagena.
56: Casta.
57: Catholic Confraternities.
58: Cédulas De Gracias Al Sacar.
59: Charleston, South Carolina.
60: Chavannes, Jean-Baptiste (1748–1791).
61: Chavis, John (ca. 1763–1838).
62: Chicago, Illinois.
63: Chile.
64: Christiana Riot.
65: Civil Rights Laws in the United States after 1865.
66: Clark, Alexander (1826–1891).
67: Clarkson, John (1764–1828).
68: Coartación under Spanish Law.
69: Code Noir in French Law.
70: Coffee Cultivation.
71: Colombia.
72: Commerce and Trade.
73: Conceição, Rosa Maria Da (?–1843).
74: Concepción Valdés, Gabriel De La (Plácido) (1809–1844).
75: Congo and Angola.
76: Connecticut.
77: Cornish, Samuel E. (ca. 1795–1858).
78: Cornwallis, Couba (17??–1848).
79: Correa, Juan (1646–1716).
80: Costa Rica.
81: Cotton Cultivation.
82: Crafts, Hannah.
83: Creole.
84: Crowther, Samuel Ajayi (ca. 1809–1891).
85: Crummell, Alexander (1819–1898).
86: Cuba.
87: Cuffe, Paul (1759–1817).
88: Cugoano, Quobna Ottobah (ca. 1757–ca. 1803).
89: Danish Virgin Islands.
90: Dédé, Edmond (1827? 1829? –1903).
91: Delany, Martin (1812–1885).
92: Delaware.
93: Delgrès, Louis (1766–1802).
94: Diallo, Ayuba Suleiman (Job Ben Solomon) (ca. 1701–ca. 1773).
95: Dias, Henrique (?–ca. 1662).
96: Dominica.
97: Dominican Republic.
98: Dominicans, The.
99: Dorantes, Estéban De (ca. 1500–1539).
100: Douglas, Sir James (1803–1877).
101: Douglass, Frederick (1818–1895).
102: Dumas, Thomas-Alexandre (Thomas-Alexandre Davy De La Pailleterie) (1762–1806).
103: Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of (1732–1809).
104: Durán, Diego (1721–1795).
105: Du Sable, Jean-Baptiste Pointe (ca. 1745–1814 or 1818).
106: Dutch Caribbean Islands.
107: Ecuador.
108: Education and Literacy.
109: Ellison, William “April” (1790–1861).
110: El Salvador.
111: Emancipation Proclamation.
112: Emigration and Colonization.
113: Encyclopédie.
114: Enríquez, Miguel (1672—1743).
115: Equiano, Olaudah (Gustavus Vassa) (1745?–1797).
116: Exoduster Movement.
117: Family.
118: Family Relationships with Slaves.
119: Family Relationships with Whites.
120: Fédon’s Rebellion (1795–1796).
121: Fenix.
122: Fillmore, Millard (1800–1874).
123: Five Africans Brought to England in 1555.
124: Fleetwood, Christian Abraham (1840–1914).
125: Florida.
126: Fonseca Galvão, Cândido Da (Dom Obá II) (ca. 1845–1890).
127: Ford, West (Early 1780s–1863).
128: Forten Family.
129: France.
130: Freedmen’s Bureau.
131: Freemasonry.
132: French Caribbean.
133: French Revolution.
134: Freyre, Gilberto (1900-1987).
135: Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 (Fugitive Slave Law).
136: Gannibal, Abram Petrovich (1696–1781).
137: Garnet, Henry Highland (1815–1882).
138: Garrido, Juan (Active 1501–1538).
139: Gender Attitudes.
140: Georgia.
141: Gibbs, Mifflin Wistar (1823–1915).
142: Gill, Ann (1781–1865).
143: Gonçalves Teixeira E Sousa, Antônio (1812–1861).
144: Gordon, George William (1820–1865).
145: Grand United Order of Odd Fellows.
146: Grant, Ulysses S. (1822–1885).
147: Grégoire, Henri (Abbé Grégoire) (1750–1831).
148: Guatemala.
149: Guerrero.
150: Guerrero Saldaña, Vicente (1782—1831).
151: Guyana.
152: Haitian Revolution.
153: Hall, Prince (ca. 1735–1807).
154: Harrison, William Henry (1773–1841).
155: Haynes, Lemuel (1753–1833).
156: Healy Family.
157: Hemings, Sally, Children of.
158: Higher Education.
159: Honduras.
160: House, Callie (1861–1928).
161: Housekeepers.
162: Hugues, Victor (1764–1826).
163: Hull, Agrippa (1759–1848).
164: Ibn Sori, Abdul-Rahman Ibrahim (ca. 1762–1829).
165: Illinois.
166: Indiana.
167: Indian Wars, United States.
168: Indigo Cultivation.
169: Inland West of the United States.
170: Interracial Marriage.
171: Iowa.
172: Isabel of Bragança (Princess Imperial) (1846–1921).
173: Islam.
174: Jackson, Andrew (1767–1845).
175: Jacobs, Harriet (1813–1897).
176: Jamaica.
177: Jefferson, Thomas (1743–1826).
178: Jesuits.
179: Jesús, Ursula De (1604–1666).
180: Johnson, Andrew (1808–1875).
181: Jones, Absalom (1746–1818).
182: Jones, Jehu, Jr. (1786–1852).
183: Jordon, Edward (1801–1869).
184: Joseph, John (ca. 1831–1858).
185: Journalism.
1: Kansas.
2: Kentucky.
3: Kingsley, Anna (Anta Majigeen Njaay) (ca. 1793–1870).
4: Ku Klux Klan.
5: La Escalera Plot.
6: Langston, John Mercer (1829–1897).
7: Las Siete Partidas.
8: Laveau, Marie (1801–1881).
9: Laws of Free Birth.
10: Lecesne and Escoffery Case.
11: Lee, William (ca. 1750–1828).
12: Legal Discrimination on the Basis of Race.
13: Lemba, Sebastián (unknown–1547).
14: Liberia.
15: Lincoln, Abraham (1809–1865).
16: Lisboa, Antônio (O Aleijadinho) (ca. 1730s–1814).
17: Living “As Free”.
18: London, England.
19: Louisiana.
20: Louverture, Toussaint (ca. 1746–1803).
21: Lynching.
22: Maceo Y Grajales, Antonio (1845–1896).
23: Machado De Assis, Joaquim María (1839–1908).
24: Mackandal, François (ca. 1720–1758).
25: Madiou, Thomas (1814–1884).
26: Madison, James (1751–1836).
27: Maine.
28: Manumission.
29: Maroons.
30: Marriage Between Free and Slave.
31: Martín De Porres, Saint (1579–1639).
32: Maryland.
33: Massachusetts.
34: McCabe, Edwin P. (1850–1920).
35: Melungeon.
36: Merchant Seamen.
37: Mexican-American War (1846–1848).
38: Mexico.
39: Mexico, Abolition of Slavery in (1821–1829).
40: Mexico, Central and Northern.
41: Mexico, Pacific Coast.
42: Michigan.
43: Midwives and Traditional Healers.
44: Migration.
45: Militia.
46: Minnesota.
47: Miranda, Francisco De (1750—1816).
48: Miscegenation.
49: Mississippi.
50: Missouri.
51: Mobile, Alabama.
52: Monroe, James (1758–1831).
53: Montezuma, Francisco Gê Acaiaba De (Viscount of Jequitinhonha) (1794–1870).
54: Moreau De St-Méry, Médéric-Louis-Élie (1750–1819).
55: Morelos, José María (1765–1815).
56: Mulatto.
57: Navy.
58: Nebraska.
59: Negro Convention Movement in the United States.
60: New Hampshire.
61: New Jersey.
62: New Orleans, Louisiana.
63: New York City Draft Riots (1863).
64: New York State.
65: Nicaragua.
66: North Carolina.
67: Ogé, Vincent (ca. 1750–1791).
68: Ohio.
69: Oklahoma.
70: Olivier, Vincent (ca. 1680-1781).
71: “One Drop Rule” of Racial Identity.
72: Oregon.
73: Padilla, José Prudencio (1784–1828).
74: Panama.
75: Panama City (Panamá City).
76: Paraguay.
77: Pardo.
78: Patrocínio, José Carlos Do (1853–1905).
79: Paula Brito, Francisco De (1809–1861).
80: Payne, Daniel A. (1811–1893).
81: Peasants.
82: Pedro I (1798–1834).
83: Pedro II (1825–1891).
84: Pélage, Magloire (ca. 1766–1813).
85: Pennsylvania.
86: Personal Liberty Laws.
87: Peru.
88: Pétion, Alexandre Sabès (1770–1818).
89: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Colonial Period (1684–1775).
90: Piar, Manuel (1774–1817).
91: Pierce, Franklin (1804–1869).
92: Pinto Da Gama, Luis Gonzaga (1830–1882).
93: Piracy.
94: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
95: Planters and Planter Agents.
96: Police.
97: Polk, James (1795–1849).
98: Port-au-Prince.
99: Portugal.
100: Prostitutes and Courtesans.
101: Protestant Mainline Churches.
102: Protten, Rebecca (ca. 1718–ca. 1779).
103: Provision Ground Farming.
104: Puerto Rico.
105: Purvis, Robert (1810–1898).
106: Quock Walker Case (Commonwealth V. Jennison).
107: Race and Capitalism.
108: Racism and Racial Prejudice.
109: Raimond, Julien (1744–1801).
110: Ranching.
111: Rapier, James T. (1837–1883).
112: Raynal, Guillaume (1711–1796).
113: Reason, Charles L. (1818–1893).
114: Rebouças, André (1838–1898).
115: Rebouças, Antônio Pereira (1798–1880).
116: Reconstruction in the United States.
117: Re-Enslavement.
118: Regular Army.
119: Reis, Maria Firmina Dos (1825–1917).
120: Revels, Hiram (1827–1901).
121: Rhode Island.
122: Rigaud, André (1761–1811).
123: Rivadavia, Bernardino (1780–1845).
124: Roberts, Joseph Jenkins (1809–1876).
125: Rocha Vieira, Francisco Sabino Álvares Da (1796–1846).
126: Roman Catholic Church.
127: Rossignol, Anne (Flourished 1770–1790).
128: Runaway Slaves.
129: Russwurm, John (1799–1851).
130: Saint-Domingue (Haiti).
131: Saint-Georges, Joseph Bologne, Chevalier De (1745–1799).
132: Salem, Peter (1750–1816).
133: Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
134: Sánchez, Francisco Del Rosario (1817–1861).
135: Sancho, Ignatius (1729–1780).
136: Santana, Joaquim Felix De (Unknown–1814).
137: Santo Domingo.
138: Scott, Dred (1799–1858).
139: Seacole, Mary (1805–1881).
140: Segregation.
141: Senegambia.
142: Seven Years’ War (1756–1763).
143: Sharp, Granville (1735–1813).
144: Sierra Leone.
145: Silva, Chica Da (ca. 1730–1796).
146: Slave Coast, Benin, and the Bight of Biafra.
147: Slave Owners.
148: Smalls, Robert (1839–1915).
149: Smith, Venture (1729–1805).
150: Somerset V. Stewart (Somersett V. Steuart).
151: South American Wars of Liberation (1809–1824).
152: South Carolina.
153: Spain.
154: Stewart, Maria W.(1803–1879).
155: Strong, Jonathan (ca. 1747/8–1773).
156: Sugar Cultivation.
157: Surinam.
158: Tannenbaum Hypothesis.
159: Taylor, Susie Baker King (1848–1912).
160: Taylor, Zachary (1784–1850).
161: Tennessee.
162: Ten Years’ War (Great War of Cuba).
163: Texas (Tejas, Lone Star State).
164: Tolton, Augustine (1854–1897).
165: Trinidad and Tobago.
166: Truth, Sojourner (ca. 1797–1883).
167: Tubman, Harriet (Araminta Ross)(ca. 1822–1913).
168: Tye, Colonel (Titus Cornelius) (1753–1780).
169: Tyler, John (1790–1862).
170: United States, Abolition Movements in.
171: Uruguay.
172: U.S. Election of 1876.
173: U.S. Presidents and Free Blacks.
174: Valdés, José Manuel (1767–1843).
175: Van Buren, Martin (1782–1862).
176: Vashon Family.
177: Venezuela.
178: Venezuelan War of Independence.
179: Veracruz, Mexico.
180: Vermont.
181: Vesey, Denmark (Telemaque) (1767–1822).
182: Virginia and West Virginia.
183: Voting Before General Abolition, United States.
184: Walker, David (1785–1830).
185: War of American Independence (1775–1783).
186: War of Mexican Independence (1810–1821).
187: Washington, D.C. (District of Columbia, United States Territory).
188: Washington, George (1732–1799).
189: Washington, George (of Centralia, Washington) (1818–1905).
190: Washington, Harry (Dates of Birth and Death Unknown, Active 1763–1800).
191: Washington Territory.
192: Wedderburn, Robert (1762–1835).
193: Wheatley, Phillis (1753–1784).
194: "Whitening" and Racial Promotion.
195: Williamsburg, Virginia.
196: Wisconsin.
197: Woodson, Lewis (1806–1878).
198: Zambo.
199: Zumbi (ca. 1655–1695).
Bibliography.