eBook Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 0444536426
  • ISBN-13: 9780444536426
  • DDC: 551.79
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 3888 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2013 | Published/Released February 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2013
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About

Overview

The second revised edition of the Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, provides both students and professionals with an up-to-date reference work on this important and highly varied area of research. There are lots of new articles, and many of the articles that appeared in the first edition have been updated to reflect advances in knowledge since 2006, when the original articles were written. The second edition will contain about 375 articles, written by leading experts around the world. This major reference work is richly illustrated with more than 3,000 illustrations, most of them in colour.Research in the Quaternary sciences has advanced greatly in the last 10 years, especially since topics like global climate change, geologic hazards and soil erosion were put high on the political agenda. This second edition builds upon its award-winning predecessor to provide the reader assured quality along with essential updated coverage. Contains 357 broad-ranging articles (4310 pages) written at a level that allows undergraduate students to understand the material, while providing active researchers with a ready reference resource for information in the field. Facilitates teaching and learning. The first edition was regarded by many as the most significant single overview of Quaternary science ever, yet Editor-in-Chief, Scott Elias, has managed to surpass that in this second edition by securing even more expert reviews whilst retaining his renowned editorial consistency that enables readers to navigates seamlessly from one unfamiliar topic to the next.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Dedications.
Foreword.
Introduction.
Editorial Advisory Board.
Contributors.
How to Use the Encyclopedia.
Contents List by Subject.
Contents.
Introductory Articles.
History of Quaternary Science.
History of Dating Methods.
Societal Relevance of Quaternary Research.
Understanding Quaternary Climatic Change.
1: Amino Acid Dating.
2: Archaeological Records.
3: Overview.
4: 2.7 Myr–300 000 Years Ago in Africa.
5: 2.7 Myr–300 000 Years Ago in Asia.
6: 1.9 Myr–300 000 Years Ago in Europe.
7: Global Expansion 300 000–8000 Years Ago, Africa.
8: Global Expansion 300 000–8000 Years Ago, Asia.
9: Global Expansion 300 000–8000 Years Ago, Australia.
10: Global Expansion 300 000–8000 Years Ago, Americas.
11: Human Evolution in the Quaternary.
12: Neanderthal Demise.
13: Postglacial Adaptations.
14: Beetle Records.
15: Overview.
16: Late Tertiary and Early Quaternary Records.
17: Middle Pleistocene of Western Europe.
18: Late Pleistocene of Australia.
19: Late Pleistocene of Europe.
20: Late Pleistocene of Japan.
21: Late Pleistocene of North America.
22: Late Pleistocene of South America.
23: Late Pleistocene of New Zealand.
24: Late Pleistocene of Northern Asia.
25: Postglacial Europe.
26: Postglacial North America.
27: Carbonate Stable Isotopes.
28: Overview.
29: Speleothems.
30: Terrestrial Teeth and Bones.
31: Terrestrial Organic Materials.
32: Non-Lacustrine Terrestrial Studies.
33: Lake Sediments.
34: Nonmarine Biogenic Carbonates.
35: Chironomid Records.
36: Chironomid Overview.
37: Africa.
38: Late Pleistocene of Europe.
39: Postglacial Europe.
40: Postglacial Southern Hemisphere.
41: Cosmogenic Nuclide Dating.
42: Overview.
43: Methods.
44: Cosmic Ray Interactions in Minerals.
45: Exposure Geochronology.
46: Landscape Evolution.
47: Dating Techniques.
48: Dendrochronology.
49: Dendroclimatology.
50: Diatom Introduction.
51: Diatom Methods.
52: δ18O Records.
53: Data Interpretation.
54: Diatomites: Their Formation, Distribution, and Uses.
55: Salinity and Climate Reconstructions from Continental Lakes.
56: Use in Archaeology.
57: Diatoms.
58: Diatom Records.
59: Antarctic Waters.
60: Freshwater Laminated Sequences.
61: Large Lakes.
62: Diatom Fossil Records from Marine Laminated Sediments.
63: North Atlantic and Arctic.
64: Pacific.
65: Structures and Applications of Biomarkers from Arctic Sea Ice Diatoms.
66: Dune Fields.
67: High Latitudes.
68: Mid-Latitudes.
69: Low Latitudes.
70: Eolian Records, Deep-Sea Sediments.
71: Fission-Track Dating.
72: Fluvial Environments.
73: Sediments.
74: Responses to Rapid Environmental Change.
75: Terrace Sequences.
76: Deltaic Environments.
77: Geomagnetic Excursions and Secular Variations.
78: Glacial Climates.
79: Biosphere Feedbacks.
80: Effects of Atmospheric Dust.
81: Thermohaline Circulation.
82: Volcanic and Solar Forcing.
83: Glacial Landforms.
84: Introduction.
85: Moraine Forms and Genesis.
86: Quaternary Vulcanism: Subglacial Landforms.
87: Evidence of Glacier Recession.
88: Glacial Landsystems.
89: Glaciofluvial Landforms of Erosion.
90: Glacitectonic Structures and Landforms.
91: Glacial Landforms, Erosional Features.
92: Major Scale Forms.
93: Micro- to Macroscale Forms.
94: Glacial Landforms, Ice Sheets.
95: Growth and Decay.
96: Evidence of Glacier and Ice Sheet Extent.
97: Evidence of Glacier Flow Directions.
98: Paleo-ELAs.
99: Trimlines and Paleonunataks.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Glacial Landforms, Sediments.
2: Clast Form Analysis.
3: Glaciofluvial Landforms of Deposition.
4: Glaciogenic Lithofacies.
5: Glaciomarine Sediments and Ice-Rafted Debris.
6: Glaciolacustrine.
7: Micromorphology of Glacial Sediments.
8: Tills.
9: Till Fabric Analysis.
10: Glacial Erratics and Till Dispersal Indicators.
11: Glacial Sequence Stratigraphy.
12: Glacial Landforms, Tree Rings.
13: Dendrogeomorphology.
14: Dendroglaciology.
15: Glacial–Interglacial Scale Fluvial Responses.
16: Glaciation, Causes.
17: Tectonic Uplift and Continental Configurations.
18: Astronomical Theory of Paleoclimates.
19: Glaciations.
20: Overview.
21: Transition from Late Neogene to Early Quaternary Environments.
22: Early Quaternary (Pleistocene) and Precursors.
23: Middle Pleistocene in Eurasia.
24: Mid-Quaternary in North America.
25: Middle Pleistocene Glaciations in the Southern Hemisphere.
26: Late Pleistocene Glacial Events in Beringia.
27: Late Quaternary of the Southwest Pacific Region.
28: Late Quaternary of Antarctica.
29: Late Pleistocene in Eurasia.
30: Late Quaternary in Highland Asia.
31: Late Quaternary in North America.
32: Late Pleistocene in South America.
33: Neoglaciation in Europe.
34: Neoglaciation in the American Cordilleras.
35: Ice Core Methods.
36: Overview.
37: Biological Material.
38: Borehole Temperature Records.
39: Chronologies.
40: CO2 Studies.
41: Conductivity Studies.
42: Glaciochemistry.
43: Methane Studies.
44: Microparticle and Trace Element Studies.
45: Stable Isotopes.
46: 10Be and Cosmogenic Radionuclides in Ice Cores.
47: Studies of Firn Air.
48: Ice Core Records.
49: Africa.
50: Chinese, Tibetan Mountains.
51: South America.
52: Antarctic Stable Isotopes.
53: Greenland Stable Isotopes.
54: Correlations Between Greenland and Antarctica.
55: Ice Margin Sites.
56: Thermal Diffusion Paleotemperature Records.
57: Ice Cores.
58: History of Research, Greenland and Antarctica.
59: Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet.
60: Dynamics of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.
61: Dynamics of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet.
62: History of Carbon Monoxide and Ultra-Trace Gases from Ice Cores.
63: History of Nitrous Oxide from Ice Cores.
64: K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar Dating.
65: Lake Level Studies.
66: Overview.
67: Africa during the Late Quaternary.
68: Asia.
69: Australia.
70: Latin America.
71: North America.
72: West-Central Europe.
73: Modeling.
74: Lichenometry.
75: Loess Deposits: Origins and Properties.
76: Loess Records.
77: Central Asia.
78: China.
79: Europe.
80: North America.
81: South America.
82: Luminescence Dating.
83: Thermoluminescence.
84: Optical Dating.
85: Electron Spin Resonance Dating.
86: Oribatid Mites.
87: Paleobotany.
88: Overview of Terrestrial Pollen Data.
89: Ancient Plant DNA.
90: Charred Particle Analyses.
91: Paleophytogeography.
92: Silicon Isotopes in Diatoms.
93: Paleoceanography.
94: Paleoceanography an Overview.
95: Paleoceanography, Biological Proxies.
96: Alkenone Paleothermometry Based on the Haptophyte Algae.
97: Benthic Foraminifera.
98: Biomarker Indicators of Past Climate.
99: Coccolithophores.
100: Corals, Sclerosponges and Mollusks.
101: Dinoflagellates.
102: Marine Diatoms.
103: Planktic Foraminifera.
104: Radiolarians and Silicoflagellates.
105: Temperature Proxies, Census Counts.
106: Paleoceanography, Physical and Chemical Proxies.
107: Carbon Cycle Proxies (δ11B, δ13Ccalcite, δ13Corganic, Shell Weights, B/Ca, U/Ca, Zn/Ca, Ba/Ca).
108: Dissolution of Deep-Sea Carbonates.
109: Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca Paleothermometry from Calcareous Marine Fossils.
110: Magnetic Proxies and Susceptibility.
111: Nutrient Proxies.
112: Oxygen-Isotope Stratigraphy of the Oceans.
113: Oxygen Isotope Composition of Seawater.
114: Radioisotope Proxies.
115: Salinity Proxies δ18O.
116: Terrigenous Sediments.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Paleoceanography, Records.
2: Early Pleistocene.
3: Late Pleistocene North Atlantic.
4: Late Pleistocene South Atlantic.
5: Late Pleistocene North Pacific.
6: Postglacial Indian Ocean.
7: Postglacial North Atlantic.
8: Postglacial North Pacific.
9: Postglacial South Pacific.
10: Paleoclimate.
11: Introduction.
12: Timescales of Climate Change.
13: Modern Analog Approaches in Paleoclimatology.
14: Paleoclimate History of the Arctic.
15: The Younger Dryas Climate Event.
16: Paleoclimate Modeling.
17: Data–Model Comparisons.
18: Quaternary Environments.
19: The Last Interglacial.
20: Last Glacial Maximum GCMs.
21: Paleo-Enso.
22: Paleoclimate Reconstruction.
23: Approaches.
24: Pliocene Environments.
25: Paleodroughts and Society.
26: Sub-Milankovitch (DO/Heinrich) Events.
27: Paleotempestology.
28: Younger Dryas Oscillation, Global Evidence.
29: The Last Millennium.
30: Historical Climatology.
31: Paleoclimate Relevance to Global Warming.
32: Paleohydrology.
33: Paleolimnology.
34: Overview of Paleolimnology.
35: Cladocera.
36: Freshwater Mollusks.
37: Lake Chemistry.
38: Physical Properties of Lake Sediments.
39: Contributions of Paleolimnological Research to Biogeography.
40: Pigment Studies.
41: Multiproxy Approaches.
42: Visible and Infrared Spectroscopical Applications.
43: Paleosols and Wind-Blown Sediments.
44: Overview.
45: Nature of Paleosols.
46: Mineral Magnetic Analysis.
47: Soil Micromorphology.
48: Weathering Profiles.
49: Soil Morphology in Quaternary Studies.
50: Biogeochemical Role of Dust in Quaternary Climate Cycles.
51: Permafrost and Periglacial Features.
52: Active Layer Processes.
53: Cryoturbation Structures.
54: Ice Wedges and Ice-Wedge Casts.
55: Patterned Ground.
56: Permafrost.
57: Frost Mounds: Active and Relict Forms.
58: Slope Deposits and Forms.
59: Periglacial Fluvial Sediments and Forms.
60: Rock Weathering.
61: Permafrost and Glacier Interactions.
62: Block/Rock Streams.
63: Blockfields (Felsenmeer).
64: Rock Glaciers and Protalus Forms.
65: Yedoma: Late Pleistocene Ice-Rich Syngenetic Permafrost of Beringia.
66: Paraglacial Geomorphology.
67: Talus Slopes.
68: Thermokarst Topography.
69: Phytoliths.
70: Plant Macrofossil Introduction.
71: Plant Macrofossil Methods and Studies.
72: CO2 Reconstruction from Fossil Leaves.
73: Megafossils.
74: Dendroarchaeology.
75: Mire and Peat Macros.
76: Paleolimnological Applications.
77: Rodent Middens.
78: Surface Samples, Taphonomy, Representation.
79: Treeline Studies.
80: Use in Environmental Archaeology.
81: Validation of Pollen Studies.
82: Plant Macrofossil Records.
83: Arctic Eurasia.
84: Arctic North America.
85: Greenland.
86: Holocene North America.
87: Late Glacial Multidisciplinary Studies.
88: Pollen Analysis, Principles.
89: Pollen Methods and Studies.
90: Use of Pollen as Climate Proxies.
91: Reconstructing Past Biodiversity Development.
92: Numerical Analysis Methods.
93: Databases and Their Application.
94: Surface Samples and Trapping.
95: Stand-Scale Palynology.
96: Changing Plant Distributions and Abundances.
97: The Biome Approach to Reconstructing Past Vegetation.
98: POLLSCAPE Model: Simulation Approach for Pollen Representation of Vegetation and Land Cover.
99: Archaeological Applications.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Pollen Records, Last Interglacial of Europe.
2: Pollen Records, Late Pleistocene.
3: Africa.
4: Australasia.
5: Northern Asia.
6: Northern North America.
7: South America.
8: Middle and Late Pleistocene in Southern Europe.
9: Western North America.
10: Pollen Records, Postglacial.
11: Africa.
12: Australia and New Zealand.
13: Northeastern North America.
14: Northwestern North America.
15: Southeastern North America.
16: Southwestern North America.
17: South America.
18: Northern Asia.
19: Northern Europe.
20: Southern Europe.
21: Quaternary Stratigraphy.
22: Overview.
23: Continental Biostratigraphy.
24: Chronostratigraphy.
25: Climatostratigraphy.
26: Lithostratigraphy.
27: Morphostratigraphy/Allostratigraphy.
28: Pedostratigraphy.
29: Sequence Stratigraphy.
30: Tephrochronology.
31: Radiocarbon Dating.
32: Conventional Method.
33: AMS Radiocarbon Dating.
34: Sources of Error.
35: Variations in Atmospheric 14C.
36: Causes of Temporal 14C Variations.
37: Calibration of the 14C Record.
38: Charcoal.
39: 14C of Plant Macrofossils.
40: Sea Level Studies.
41: Overview.
42: Geomorphological Indicators.
43: Sedimentary Indicators of Relative Sea-Level Changes – High Energy.
44: Sedimentary Indicators of Relative Sea-Level Changes – Low Energy.
45: Coral Records of Relative Sea-Level Changes.
46: Microfossil-Based Reconstructions of Holocene Relative Sea-Level Change.
47: Eustatic Sea-Level Changes – Glacial–Interglacial Cycles.
48: Eustatic Sea-Level Changes Since the Last Glacial Maximum.
49: Isostasy: Glaciation-Induced Sea-Level Change.
50: Use of Cave Data in Sea-Level Reconstructions.
51: Sea-Levels, Late Quaternary.
52: Late Quaternary Relative Sea-Level Changes in High Latitudes.
53: Late Quaternary Sea-Level Changes in Greenland.
54: Late Quaternary Relative Sea-Level Changes at Mid-Latitudes.
55: Late Quaternary Relative Sea-Level Changes in the Tropics.
56: Tectonics and Relative Sea-Level Change.
57: Use of Quaternary Proxies in Forensic Science.
58: Use of Geology in Forensic Science: Search to Locate Burials.
59: Soils and Sediment.
60: The Use of Macroscopic Plant Remains in Forensic Science.
61: Insects.
62: Analytical Techniques in Forensic Palynology.
63: U-Series Dating.
64: Varved Lake Sediments.
65: Varved Marine Sediments.
66: Vertebrate Overview.
67: Vertebrate Records.
68: Early Pleistocene.
69: Early and Middle Pleistocene of Northern Eurasia.
70: Mid-Pleistocene of Africa.
71: Mid-Pleistocene of Australia.
72: Mid-Pleistocene of Europe.
73: Mid-Pleistocene of North America.
74: Mid-Pleistocene of Southern Asia.
75: Late Pleistocene of Africa.
76: Late Pleistocene of North America.
77: Late Pleistocene of South America.
78: Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia.
79: Late Pleistocene Megafaunal Extinctions.
80: Late Pleistocene Mummified Mammals.
81: Vertebrate Studies.
82: Ancient DNA.
83: Speciation and Evolutionary Trends in Quaternary Vertebrates.
84: Dwarfing and Gigantism in Quaternary Vertebrates.
85: Interactions with Hominids.
Index.