eBook Physics Explained: The Britannica Guide to Heat, Force, and Motion, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615303804
  • ISBN-13: 9781615303809
  • DDC: 536.7
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 392 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released April 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

Many of the world's most common processes and interactions are governed by the laws of thermodynamics and mechanics. While the transfer, release, or absorption of heat often accompany chemical reactions or seem inherent to mechanical systems, they are also familiar to anyone who has ever spent time outdoors on a warm day or touched a hot plate. Likewise, any physical body—large or small, solid or fluid—is subject to a wide range of forces that trigger motion. This detailed compendium explores the foundations and laws of both thermodynamics and mechanics as well as the lives of those individuals who helped advance these fundamental areas of physics.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: Thermodynamics: The Laws of Energy and Work.
2: Thermodynamic States.
3: Thermodynamic Equilibrium.
4: Temperature.
5: Work and Energy.
6: Total Internal Energy.
7: The First Law of Thermodynamics.
8: Heat Engines.
9: Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes.
10: The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
11: Entropy.
12: Efficiency Limits.
13: Entropy and Heat Death.
14: Entropy and the Arrow of Time.
15: Open Systems.
16: Thermodynamic Potentials.
17: Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Reactions.
18: Enthalpy and the Heat of Reaction.
19: Thermodynamics: Systems at Work.
20: Work of Expansion and Contraction.
21: Equations of State.
22: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat.
23: Heat Capacity and Internal Energy.
24: Entropy as an Exact Differential.
25: The Clausius-Clapeyron Equation.
26: The Laws of Force and Motion.
27: Origins and Foundations.
28: Units and Dimensions.
29: Vectors.
30: Newton's Laws of Motion and Equilibrium.
31: The Laws of Particle Motion.
32: Motion of a Particle in One Dimension.
33: Uniform Motion.
34: Falling Bodies and Uniformly Accelerated Motion.
35: Simple Harmonic Oscillations.
36: Damped and Forced Oscillations.
37: Motion of a Particle in Two or More Dimensions.
38: Projectile Motion.
39: Motion of a Pendulum.
40: Circular Motion.
41: Circular Orbits.
42: Angular Momentum and Torque.
43: Motion of a Group of Particles.
44: Centre of Mass.
45: Conservation of Momentum.
46: Collisions.
47: Relative Motion.
48: Coupled Oscillators.
49: Rigid Bodies.
50: Statics.
51: Rotation about a Fixed Axis.
52: Rotation about a Moving Axis.
53: Centrifugal Force.
54: Coriolis Force.
55: Spinning Tops and Gyroscopes.
56: Analytic Approaches.
57: Configuration Space.
58: The Principle of Virtual Work.
59: Lagrange's and Hamilton's Equations.
60: Solids.
61: History.
62: Concepts of Stress, Strain, and Elasticity.
63: Beams, Columns, Plates, and Shells.
64: The General Theory of Elasticity.
65: Waves.
66: Stress Concentrations and Fracture.
67: Dislocations.
68: Continuum Plasticity Theory.
69: Viscoelasticity.
70: Computational Mechanics.
71: Stress and Strain.
72: Linear and Angular Momentum Principles: Stress and Equations of Motion.
73: Stress.
74: Equations of Motion.
75: Principal Stresses.
76: Strain.
77: Strain-Displacement Relations.
78: Small-Strain Tensor.
79: Finite Deformation and Strain Tensors.
80: Stress-Strain Relations.
81: Linear Elastic Isotropic Solid.
82: Thermal Strains.
83: Anisotropy.
84: Thermodynamic Considerations.
85: Finite Elastic Deformations.
86: Inelastic Response.
87: Problems Involving Elastic Response.
88: Equations of Motion of Linear Elastic Bodies.
89: Body Wave Solutions.
90: Linear Elastic Beam.
91: Free Vibrations.
92: Buckling.
93: Liquids at Rest.
94: Basic Properties of Fluids.
95: Hydrostatics.
96: Differential Manometers.
97: Archimedes' Principle.
98: Surface Tension of Liquids.
99: Liquids in Motion.
100: Bernoulli's Law.
101: Waves on Shallow Water.
102: Compressible Flow in Gases.
103: Viscosity.
104: Stresses in Laminar Motion.
105: Bulk Viscosity.
106: Measurement of Shear Viscosity.
107: Navier-Stokes Equation.
108: Potential Flow.
109: Potential Flow with Circulation: Vortex Lines.
110: Waves on Deep Water.
111: Boundary Layers and Separation.
112: Drag.
113: Lift.
114: Turbulence.
115: Convection.
116: Gravity: The Force of Attraction.
117: Development of Gravitational Theory.
118: Early Concepts.
119: Newton's Law of Gravity.
120: Potential Theory.
121: Acceleration Around Earth, the Moon, and Other Planets.
122: Variations Due to Location and Time.
123: Measurements of g.
124: Gravimetric Surveys and Geophysics.
125: The Moon and the Planets.
126: Gravity: The Universe.
127: Field Theories of Gravitation.
128: Gravitational Fields and the Theory of General Relativity.
129: The Paths of Particles and Light.
130: Gravitational Radiation.
131: Some Astronomical Aspects of Gravitation.
132: Experimental Study of Gravitation.
133: The Inverse Square Law.
134: The Principle of Equivalence.
135: The Constant of Gravitation.
136: The Variation of the Constant of Gravitation with Time.
137: Fundamental Character of G.
138: Conclusion.
139: Biographies.
140: Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann.
141: Sadi Carnot.
142: Henry Cavendish.
143: Rudolf Clausius.
144: Gustave-Gaspard Coriolis.
145: Galileo.
146: Sophie Germain.
147: J. Willard Gibbs.
148: Sir William Rowan Hamilton.
149: Hermann von Helmholtz.
150: Robert Hooke.
151: William Thomson, Baron Kelvin.
152: Johannes Kepler.
153: Joseph-Louis Lagrange.
154: Horace Lamb.
155: James Clerk Maxwell.
156: Isaac Newton.
157: Ludwig Prandtl.
158: William John Macquorn Rankine.
159: Benjamin Thompson.
Glossary.
Bibliography.
Index.