eBook Physics Explained: The Britannica Guide to Light and Sound, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 161530374X
  • ISBN-13: 9781615303748
  • DDC: 534
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 367 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released April 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

Audio and visual cues facilitate some of our most powerful sensory experiences and embed themselves deeply into our memories and subconscious. Sound and light waves interact with our ears and eyes—our biological interpreters—creating a textural experience and relationship with the world around us. This well-researched volume explores the science behind acoustics and optics and the broad application they have to everything from listening to music and watching television to ultrasonic and laser technologies that are crucial to the medical field.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: Sound.
2: Plane Waves.
3: Wavelength, Period, and Frequency.
4: Amplitude and Intensity.
5: The Decibel Scale.
6: The Speed of Sound.
7: Circular and Spherical Waves.
8: Attenuation.
9: Diffraction.
10: Refraction.
11: Reflection.
12: Impedance.
13: Interference.
14: The Doppler Effect.
15: Sonic Booms.
16: Standing Waves.
17: In Stretched Strings.
18: In Air Columns.
19: In Solid Rods.
20: In Nonharmonic Systems.
21: Steady-State Waves and Spectral Analysis.
22: The Sound Spectrograph.
23: Generation by Musical Instruments.
24: The Human Voice.
25: Noise.
26: Hearing.
27: Dynamic Range of the Ear.
28: The Ear as Spectrum Analyzer.
29: Binaural Perception.
30: Environmental Noise.
31: Acoustics.
32: Early Experimentation.
33: Modern Advances.
34: Amplifying, Recording, and Reproducing.
35: Architectural Acoustics.
36: Reverberation Time.
37: Acoustic Criteria.
38: Acoustic Problems.
39: Beyond Human Hearing.
40: Ultrasonics.
41: Transducers.
42: Applications in Research.
43: Ranging and Navigating.
44: The Doppler Effect.
45: Materials Testing.
46: High-Intensity Applications.
47: Chemical and Electrical Uses.
48: Medical Applications.
49: Infrasonics.
50: Light.
51: Theories of Light through History.
52: Ray Theories in the Ancient World.
53: Early Particle and Wave Theories.
54: Geometrical Optics: Light as Rays.
55: Light Rays.
56: Reflection and Refraction.
57: Total Internal Reflection.
58: Dispersion.
59: Light as a Wave.
60: Characteristics of Waves.
61: Interference.
62: Diffraction.
63: Diffraction Effects.
64: The Doppler Effect.
65: Light as Electromagnetic Radiation.
66: Electric and Magnetic Fields.
67: Maxwell's Equations.
68: Electromagnetic Waves and the Electromagnetic Spectrum.
69: The Speed of Light.
70: Polarization.
71: Energy Transport.
72: Quantum Theory of Light.
73: Blackbody Radiation.
74: Photons.
75: Quantum Mechanics.
76: Emission and Absorption Processes.
77: Quantum Electrodynamics.
78: Electromagnetic Radiation.
79: General Considerations.
80: Occurrence and Importance.
81: The Electromagnetic Spectrum.
82: Generation of Electromagnetic Radiation.
83: Properties and Behaviour.
84: Cosmic Background Electromagnetic Radiation.
85: Effect of Gravitation.
86: The Greenhouse Effect of the Atmosphere.
87: Forms of Electromagnetic Radiation.
88: Radio Waves.
89: Microwaves.
90: Infrared Radiation.
91: Visible Radiation.
92: Ultraviolet Radiation.
93: X-Rays.
94: Gamma Rays.
95: Lasers.
96: History.
97: Fundamental Principles.
98: Energy Levels and Stimulated Emissions.
99: Laser Elements.
100: Laser Beam Characteristics.
101: Types of Lasers.
102: Laser Applications.
103: Transmission and Processing of Information.
104: Precise Delivery of Energy.
105: Alignment, Measurement, and Imaging.
106: Optics.
107: Geometrical Optics.
108: The Optical Image.
109: Historical Background.
110: Ray-Tracing Methods.
111: Paraxial, or First-Order, Imagery.
112: Optical Systems.
113: Lens Aberrations.
114: Image Brightness.
115: Optics and Information Theory.
116: General Observations.
117: Image Formation.
118: Partially Coherent Light.
119: Optical Processing.
120: Holography.
121: Nonlinear Optics.
122: Biographies.
123: Sir George Biddell Airy.
124: Erasmus Bartholin.
125: Nikolay G. Basov.
126: Sir David Brewster.
127: Arthur Holly Compton.
128: Christian Doppler.
129: Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau.
130: Harvey Fletcher.
131: Jean Foucault.
132: Augustin-Jean Fresnel.
133: Dennis Gabor.
134: Hermann von Helmholtz.
135: Christiaan Huygens.
136: Edwin Herbert Land.
137: Hans Lippershey.
138: Theodore H. Maiman.
139: Étienne-Louis Malus.
140: A.A. Michelson.
141: Sir Isaac Newton.
142: Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Prokhorov.
143: John William Strutt, 3rd Lord Rayleigh.
144: Ole Rømer.
145: Wilhelm Röntgen.
146: Arthur L. Schawlow.
147: Willebrord van Roijen Snell.
148: Charles Townes.
149: Thomas Young.
Conclusion.
Glossary.
Bibliography.
Index.