eBook African American Electorate: A Statistical History, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1452234388
  • ISBN-13: 9781452234380
  • DDC: 324.973008
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 936 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released October 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
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About

Overview

How have African Americans voted over time? What types of candidates and issues have been effective in drawing people to vote? These are just two of the questions that The AFRICAN AMERICAN ELECTORATE: A STATISTICAL HISTORY attempts to answer by bringing together all of the extant, fugitive and recently discovered registration data on African-American voters from Colonial America to the present. This pioneering work also traces the history of the laws dealing with enfranchisement and disenfranchisement of African Americans and provides the election return data for African-American candidates in national and sub-national elections over this same time span.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Dedication.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Brief Contents.
Detailed Contents.
Preface: The Genesis of This Work in the Journeys of Its Authors.
Introduction.
1: The State of African American Election Data.
2: The African American Electorate in Colonial and Revolutionary America.
3: Election Data: From National and State Collections to the Commercial and Scholarly Sources.
4: Finding Historical Election Data for African American Candidates: Monroe N. Work, W. E. B. DuBois, and Ralph Bunche.
5: The State of African American Election Data: A Summary.
6: Conclusion on the State of African American Election Data.
7: Notes.
8: The Literature on the African American Electorate.
9: The Separation Phenomenon in the Reporting of Election Return Data.
10: Examining the Suffrage Literature.
11: The Registration, Turnout, and Voting Data Literature.
12: The Balance of Power Theory Literature.
13: Conclusions on the Literature Concerning the African American Electorate.
14: Notes.
15: The African American Electorate in the Colonial Era, 1610–1773.
16: The Demography of African Americans in Colonial America.
17: Potential African American Voters in Colonial America.
18: Conclusions on the African American Electorate in the Colonial Era.
19: Notes.
20: The African American Electorate in the Revolutionary Era, 1774–1789.
21: The Demography of African Americans in Revolutionary America.
22: Potential African American Voters in Revolutionary America.
23: County-Level Election Data in the Revolutionary Era.
24: Conclusions on the African American Electorate in the Revolutionary Period.
25: Notes.
26: The Electoral Context in Antebellum America, 1788–1861: The Impact of the Three-Fifths Clause.
27: The Demography of African Americans in Antebellum America.
28: Longitudinal Analysis of the Three-Fifths Clause.
29: Summary and Conclusions on the Impact of the Three-Fifths Clause.
30: Notes.
31: The African American Electorate in Antebellum and Civil War America, 1788–1867.
32: Potential African American Voters in Antebellum and Civil War America.
33: African American Partisanship in State Elections, 1788–1866.
34: African American Voting in Federal Elections, 1788–1866.
35: Summary and Conclusions on the African American Electorate in Antebellum and Civil War America.
36: Notes.
37: The Reversal of African American Suffrage Rights Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment, 1788–1870.
38: The Politics of Total Reversals: Denial of Suffrage Rights in Eight States During the Antebellum and Civil War Eras.
39: The Politics of Partial Reversals: The Abridgement of Suffrage Rights in New York and Rhode Island.
40: The Politics of Reversal: Granting Suffrage Rights in Louisiana: 1838–1860.
41: Summary and Conclusions on the Reversals of African American Suffrage Rights.
42: Notes.
43: Suffrage Referenda Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment, 1846–1870.
44: The Nature and Scope of the Statewide Referenda, 1846–1870.
45: States with Multiple Statewide Referenda for Suffrage Rights, 1846–1870.
46: States with Single Statewide Referenda for Suffrage Rights, 1862–1868.
47: The Failure of Suffrage Rights Referenda in Federal Territories After the Civil War, 1865–1868: Congress Steps In.
48: Summary and Conclusions on African American Suffrage Referenda Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
49: Notes.
50: Voting Behavior of the African American Electorate Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment, 1788–1870.
51: The Evidentiary Sources for Inferences about African American Voting and Partisan Behavior Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
52: The Number and Percentage of States Allowing Popular and African American Voting Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
53: African American Partisanship and Voting Behavior in Presidential Elections Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
54: Summary and Conclusions on African American Partisanship Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
55: Notes.
56: The First African American Nominees and Public Office Holders, 1776–1870.
57: African American Delegates at the National Conventions of the Anti-Slavery Political Parties.
58: The Anti-Slavery Parties and African American Presidential Nominees.
59: African American Candidates for Local and State Offices: Before and Immediately After the Civil War.
60: Summary and Conclusions on African American Elected Officials Prior to the Fifteenth Amendment.
61: Notes.
62: The National Equal Rights League: An African American Suffrage Organization During and After the Civil War.
63: The Rise of African American Political Agency: Individual and Small Group Protests.
64: The Birth and Evolution of the National Convention Movement: The Forerunner of the National Equal Rights League.
65: The Rise and Evolution of the National Equal Rights League, 1864–1865.
66: The NERL, Congress, and the Elective Franchise for Southern Freedmen: The Four Military Reconstruction Acts of 1867.
67: Summary and Conclusions on the National Equal Rights League.
68: Notes.
69: The Civil War Election and the African American Soldiers' Vote, 1864.
70: The Partisan and Political Debates Over Soldiers Voting.
71: The Demography and Deployment of African American Soldiers in the Civil War.
72: African American Soldiers' Field Voting Behavior in the 1864 Presidential Election.
73: Summary and Conclusions on the African American Soldiers' Vote.
74: Notes.
75: African American Voter Registration and Turnout in 1867 Southern State Elections: The First, Second, Third, and Fourth Military Reconstruction Acts.
76: The Four Military Reconstruction Acts: An Overview.
77: The Sources of Political Antagonism and Tension: Southern States Legislatures' Votes on the Fourteenth Amendment.
78: State Constitutional Conventions in the South: Voter Registration in 1867 and Delegates.
79: The Relationship between the Initial Freedmen Voters and the Number of Freedmen Elected as Delegates to the State Constitutional Conventions, 1867–1868.
80: The First African American Federal Registrars: The Case of Georgia.
81: Summary and Conclusions on African American Voters of 1867.
82: Notes.
83: African American Voting Behavior in the First Presidential and Congressional Elections After the Abolition of Slavery in the South, 1868 and 1872.
84: The African American 1868 Presidential Vote in Seven Southern States.
85: The African American 1872 Presidential Vote in the Eleven Southern States.
86: The Democratic Presidential Vote in the African American and White Majority Counties in 1868 and 1872.
87: The Comparative Portrait of Party Voting in the 1868 and 1872 Presidential Elections.
88: The African American Congressional Vote in the 1868, 1869, 1870, and 1872 Elections.
89: Summary and Conclusions on African American Voting Behavior in 1868 and 1872.
90: Notes.
91: African American Voting Behavior in the First Presidential and Congressional Elections After the Abolition of Slavery in the Border, Midwest, and Far West States, 1868 and 1872.
92: The African American Presidential Vote in the Border States, 1868 and 1872.
93: A Comparative Regional Portrait of the African American Voter in the Southern and Border State Regions.
94: The African American Vote and Partisanship in the Midwest and Far West: The Historical Evidence.
95: Summary and Conclusions on African American Voting in 1868 and 1872 Outside the South.
96: Notes.
97: African American Voting Behavior in Subsequent Elections through Disenfranchisement, 1868–1920.
98: The 1876 Presidential Vote of African Americans in the South and the Border States.
99: The Voting Behavior of African Americans in Presidential Elections from 1868–1920 in the Southern and Border States.
100: County-Level Analysis for 1868–1920 Southern and Border States Elections.
101: Summary and Conclusions Concerning African American Voting from 1868–1920.
102: Notes.
103: African American Voting and Non-Voting Behavior in the Era of Disenfranchisement (1888–1908) and Beyond.
104: The Literature on the Redemption Movement: A New Linkage to the Era of Disenfranchisement.
105: The Era of Disenfranchisement: Elimination of Freedmen Voting Rights.
106: Maintaining the Era of Disenfranchisement: The White Primaries and Run-Off Primaries in the South.
107: Rare Data in Georgia, North Carolina, and Oklahoma.
108: Summary and Conclusions on the Era of Disenfranchisement.
109: Notes.
110: The Lodge Bill and Beyond: Proposed Federal Supervision of Federal Elections in the South, 1861–1921.
111: Political Parties, Congress, and the Legislation Before the Lodge Bill.
112: Republicans, Democrats, and the Politics of Enforcement of Suffrage Rights.
113: The Republican Party's Lodge Bill: The Failure to Pass the New Enforcement Act.
114: The Senate Popular Election Bill and the Women's Suffrage Bill: The Republican Party's New Political Opportunities.
115: Summary and Conclusions on the Lodge Bill and Beyond.
116: Notes.
117: African American Voters and Electoral Empowerment in the North, 1876–1944: A Mobilizer of the Re-Enfranchisement Drive in the South.
118: The 1876 Chicago, Illinois, Electoral Symbol for African American Electoral Empowerment: North and South.
119: Beyond Illinois: Pioneer African American Multistate Legislative Empowerment in the North: An Additional Mobilizer.
120: Beyond State Legislative Empowerment—Pioneer African American Congressional Empowerment in the North: A New Mobilizer.
121: The Roots and Rising of the Northern African American Electorate in Presidential Elections: Another Mobilizer.
122: Summary and Conclusions on African American Voters and Electoral Empowerment in the North.
123: Notes.
124: The Enfranchisement of African American Women, 1669–1921.
125: Long Before the Women Suffrage Movement: Free Women of Color Voting in Colonial, Revolutionary, and Antebellum America.
126: The Struggle for the Re-Acquisition of Voting Rights for African American Women.
127: The Nineteenth Amendment: African American Women Suffrage Granted and Restricted in the South.
128: Summary and Conclusions on the Enfranchisement of African American Women.
129: Notes.
130: The Electoral Revolt of African American Voters in 1920–1921 and Beyond.
131: Motives and Strategies for African American Satellite Parties.
132: The Roots and Rising of the Black and Tan Republicans.
133: The African American Electoral Revolt in the 1920 Elections: State and National Elections.
134: The Longitudinal Voting Behavior of the Black and Tan Republicans: Mississippi and South Carolina.
135: Summary and Conclusions on the Electoral Revolt of the Black and Tan Republicans.
136: Notes.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: African American Registration and Voting in the South, 1920–1944.
2: Legal Battles for African American Voting Rights.
3: African American Voters in the Urban Areas of the South, 1920–1940s.
4: Changing the Rules: The Elimination of the Poll Tax by Southern States.
5: Federal Elimination of the Poll Tax: Causes and Effects.
6: Summary and Conclusions on African American Registration and Voting, 1920–1944.
7: Notes.
8: African American Registration and Voting in the South, 1944–1965.
9: The Legal Stages in Dismantling the Democratic Party's White Primary on the Road to Re-Enfranchisement.
10: The African American Electorate Before the 1965 Voting Rights Act: An Empirical Overview and Case Study Portrait.
11: African American Voting Behavior in the 1952 and 1956 Presidential Elections.
12: The Rise of Federal Election Statistics on African American Voters, 1959, 1961, 1963, and 1965.
13: Using the Commission on Civil Rights Reports to Analyze the V. O. Key Thesis.
14: Conclusions on African American Registration and Voting in the South, 1944–1965.
15: Notes.
16: Rare African American Registration and Voting Data: Episodic Events from the 1920s–1964.
17: The Nature and Types of African American Electoral Events, 1915–1964.
18: The Socio-Demographic Characteristics of African American Voters: Registrants in Savannah, Georgia: 1915–1916, 1920–1921, and 1924–1926.
19: African American Farmers' Voting Behavior in the Carolinas' Cotton and Tobacco Referenda, 1938–1946.
20: The African American Statewide Candidates in Louisiana's 1952 and 1956 Elections.
21: The Mississippi “Freedom Elections” for Governor, Congress, and the Presidency, 1963 and 1964.
22: Rare Data in a Border State: West Virginia.
23: Summary and Conclusions on Rare African American Registration and Voting Data.
24: Notes.
25: The 1965 Voting Rights Act, Expansions and Renewals, 1970, 1975, 1982, 1992, and 2006.
26: The Rise of the Voting Rights Issue to National Prominence.
27: The Legislative Voting Behavior of Southern Members of Congress on Voting Rights Acts, 1957–2006.
28: Assessing the 1965 Voting Rights Act: Reports of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
29: The Long-Term Impact of the 1965 Voting Rights Act: The Fourth Report, 1981.
30: The Major Literature on the 1965 Voting Rights Act and Renewals.
31: Summary and Conclusions on the Voting Rights Act and Its Renewals.
32: Notes.
33: Felon and Ex-Felon Disenfranchisement: The Newest Technique of Vote Dilution and Candidate Diminution.
34: The Historical Genesis of African American Felon Disenfranchisement: The Slave and Black Codes.
35: Before Mass Incarceration: Segregation as a Criminalization System.
36: African American Felons and Ex-Felons During Mass Incarceration.
37: National Coalition on Black Voter Participation (NCBVP) Report.
38: Summary and Conclusions on Felon Disenfranchisement.
39: Notes.
40: African American Voting Rights in a Historic Presidential Election: The 2008 Election of President Barack Obama.
41: Invoking the Voting Rights Act in the 2008 Presidential Election: The Role of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights.
42: U.S. Senator Barack Obama, the 1965 Voting Rights Act, and Other Voting Rights Legislation.
43: Demography and the 2008 Election: State- and Individual-Level Results.
44: The Long-Term Influence of Disenfranchisement on the 2008 Obama Presidential Election.
45: The Short-Term Influence of Disenfranchisement on the 2008 Obama Presidential Election.
46: Summary and Conclusions on the 2008 Obama Election.
47: Notes.
48: Summary and Conclusions.
49: King's Voting Rights Activism and Policy Agenda: An Additional Perspective on the Relationship between Civil and Voting Rights.
50: The Origins of Voting Rights Activists and Activism as Variables in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
51: Geography (Political Context) as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
52: The Origin of Opponents and Opposition as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
53: The Origin of Party Competition as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
54: The Origins of Public Sentiment and Mass Public Opinion as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
55: The Origins of States and Localities as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
56: The Courts and Liberal Jurisprudence as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
57: African American Election Data as a Variable in the Struggle for African American Suffrage Rights.
58: Conclusion of The African American Electorate: A Statistical History.
59: Notes.
Appendices - Part I.
Appendices - Part II.
Appendices - Part III.
Appendices - Part IV.
Appendices - Part V.
Cumulative Bibliography.
Copyright Acknowledgments.
Index.