eBook African American Eras Library: Segregation to Civil Rights Times, 1st Edition

  • Series Name: African American Eras Library Series
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  • ISBN-10: 1414437056
  • ISBN-13: 9781414437057
  • DDC: 973.049607
  • Grade Level Range: 6th Grade - 10th Grade
  • eBook
  • Original Copyright 2011 | Published/Released November 2010
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2011
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About

Overview

For a student friendly reference on African American history and culture, refer to the new UXL family patterned after Gale's award-winning American Decades series. African American Eras sets are interdisciplinary sources for middle and high school students as well as teachers, librarians, and the general patron who want the single source convenience provided by the Decades-style subject chapters covering arts, medicine and health, education, religion, government and politics, law, trade and more.

Each four-volume set covers a different era of importance to African American culture, and each chapter covers the events, lifestyles, social history, and key figures unique to that time. Included will be the eyewitness accounts and primary documents that make even long ago history so personal.

This product is part of:

Series

African American Eras Library Series

For a student friendly reference on African American history and culture, refer to the UXL family patterned after Gale’s award-winning AMERICAN DECADES series. AFRICAN AMERICAN ERAS are interdisciplinary sources for middle and high school students as well as teachers, librarians, and the general patron who want the single source convenience provided by the Decades-style subject chapters covering arts, medicine and health, education, religion, government and politics, law, trade and more. Each covers a different era of importance to African American culture, and each chapter covers the events, lifestyles, social history, and key figures unique to that time. Included will be the eyewitness accounts and primary documents that make even long ago history so personal.

Features and Benefits

  • Covering the approximate time period of 1865 through 1965, this image-rich four-volume set offers 13 chapters ranging from Activism and Reform to Science and Technology – all as the topics relate to the African American experience.
  • Age-appropriate entries include such topics as: 1963 March on Washington, African American Authors after the Civil War, African American Community Protests "Amos 'n Andy" Radio and Television Show, Booker T. Washington and the Atlanta Compromise, Founding of Tuskegee Institute, Identification and Research on Sickle Cell Anemia, Rise of Black Theater, Rise of the Nation of Islam, Sharecropping System in the Reconstruction South, Biographies of Ida B. Wells, Dorothy Dandridge, Gordon Parks, Juanita Stout, Carter G. Woodson, Marcus Garvey and many more.

Alternate Formats

  • Casebound Edition

    ISBN-10: 1414435967 | ISBN-13: 9781414435961

Table of Contents

Part I: ACTIVISM AND REFORM.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
W.E.B. Du Bois 1868-1963 Civil rights activist. Medgar Wiley Evers 1925-1963 Civil rights activist -- He was murdered on June 12, 1963 by Byron De La Beckwith, a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Martin Luther King Jr. 1929-1968 Civil rights activist, Baptist minister. Thurgood Marshall 1908-1993 Lawyer -- best remembered for the victory in Brown v. Board of Education. First African American to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court. Malcolm X 1925-1965 Black Muslim minister and a one-time spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Rosa Parks 1913-2005 Civil rights activist.
Topics in the News.
Booker T. Washington and the "Atlanta Compromise" 1890. Responding to Legal Segregation after the Civil War 1865-. The Niagara Movement and the Founding of the NAACP 1900-1915. The Rise of the Nation of Islam 1930s-1950s. A Decade of Civil Rights Demonstrations [Include Greensboro] 1955-1965. Martin Luther King Jr. and the Philosophy of Nonviolent Civil Disobedience 1955-1968. Rosa Parks and the Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955. The 1963 March on Washington 1963. Malcolm X and Black Nationalism 1960s. Activist Ida B. Wells begins her anti-lynching campaign 1892. National Association of Colored Women is formed in Washington, D.C. 1896.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part II: THE ARTS (INCLUDES SUCH TOPICS AS DRAMA, LITERATURE, MUSIC, PAINTING & SCULPTURE, AND PERFORMING ARTS).
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Louis Armstrong 1901-1971 Jazz musician, Trumpet player, Singer. Josephine Baker 1906-1975 Singer, Dancer, Actress, Civil Rights activist. James Arthur Baldwin 1924-1987 Writer. Janet Collins 1917-2003 Painter (artist), Ballet dancer, Choreographer, Teacher. Langston Hughes 1902-1967 Novelist, Poet, Playwright. Paul Robeson 1898-1976 Actor, Civil Rights activist, Singer. Henry Ossawa Tanner 1859-1937 Painter (artist), Photographer. James Van Der Zee 1886-1983 Photographer. Zora Neale Hurston 1891-1960 Author. Scott Joplin 1867?-1917 Musician and Composer. Jacob Lawrence 1917-2000 Painter (consider separate entry here in addition to one on murals below).
Topics in the News.
Drama.
The Rise of the Black Theater: From Minstrelsy to Musicals 1865-1920s. Black Life on Stage: From Porgy and Bess (1935) to A Raisin in the Sun 1930s-1960.
Literature.
African American Authors after the Civil War 1865-1920. The Harlem Renaissance (include Alain Locke here) 1920s. Novels of Protest: Richard Wright''s Native Son (1940), Ralph Ellison''s Invisible Man (1952), James Baldwin''s Go Tell it on the Mountain (1953). Gwendolyn Brooks: First African American to win the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry 1950.
Music.
First Tour of the Fisk Jubilee Singers 1870. The African American National Anthem: "Lift Ev''ry Voice and Sing" 1900. African Americans in Classical Music: William Grant Still, Leontyne Price. Blues (include W.C. Handy, Robert Johnson, Bessie Smith, and Ma Rainey) 1910s-1930s. Jazz (include Duke Ellington and Billie Holliday) 1920s-1930s. Popular (include the Ink Spots, and Harry Belafonte) 1940s-1960s. Bebop 1940s. Rhythm and Blues 1945-1965. Soul and Motown 1950s-1960s.
Painting and Sculpture.
The Mural Tradition: Charles Alston, John Biggers, Jacob Lawrence, and Charles White 1940s-1950s.
Performing Arts.
African American Dance Traditions: The Cakewalk, The Charleston, the Lindy Hop, Tap, Jitterbug, Swing 1890s-1940s. Alvin Ailey and Modern Black Dance 1930s.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part III: BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY (INCLUDES SUCH TOPICS AS AGRICULTURE, BUSINESS & COMMERCE, EMPLOYMENT, AND INDUSTRY.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
George Washington Carver 1865?-1943 Agricultural chemist, Botanist, Educator, Researcher. Annie Turnbo Malone 1869-1957 Business executive. A''Lelia (or Leila) Walker 1885-1931 Businessperson. C. J. Walker 1867-1919 Businessperson. Frederick McKinley Jones 1893-1961 Inventor/Transportation Pioneer (here instead of tech b/c his inventions revolutionized food transport). Ophelia DeVore 1921- Fashion Model, Agency Director.
Topics in the News
The Sharecropping System in the Reconstruction South 1860s-1930s. African American Women and Domestic Employment 1860s-1960s. Founding of Tuskegee Institute: A Training Center for Industrial Arts 1881. Formation of the National Negro Business League 1900. Black-Owned Businesses Emerge Under Segregation 1880s-1960s. Conflicting Goals for Employment: The Atlanta Compromise vs. The Talented Tenth 1890-1910. Organization of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters 1925. African American Laborers and the Automobile Industry 1910s-1965. African American Women Laborers and the World War II Industrial Effort 1940s.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part IV: COMMUNICATION AND MEDIA (INCLUDES SUCH TOPICS AS FILM, TELEVISION, RADIO, AND NEWSPAPERS & MAGAZINES).
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Ida B. Wells 1862-1931 Journalist and editor. Dorothy Dandridge 1922?-1965 Actress, Singer. Ossie Davis 1917-2005 Actor, Director, Producer, Writer. Ruby Dee 1924- Actress, Civil Rights activist, Writer. Timothy Thomas Fortune 1856-1928 Editor. Sam Lacy 1903-2003 Sports writer, Journalist, Newspaper editor. Hattie McDaniel 1898-1952 Actress, Entertainer. Gordon Parks 1912-2006 Photographer, Movie director, Writer, Composer. George S. Schuyler 1895-1977 Writer, Journalist, Newspaper editor, Playwright.
Topics in the News
W.E.B. DuBois founds The Crisis, magazine of the NAACP 1910. Oscar Micheaux forms independent film company 1919. Duke Ellington is one of the first Black performers to have a network radio show of his own 1920s. Bill "Bojangles" Robinson Performs With Shirley Temple on Screen 1930s. Jack L. Cooper''s Chicago Radio Shows 1930s-1940s. Marian Anderson gives a concert at the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, seen by 75,000 and heard by millions via radio 1939. Lena Horne wins major studio film contract 1940s. Founding of Ebony and Jet Magazines 1940s-1950s. Louis E. Lomax becomes the first African American newscaster 1958. The Chicago Defender: A Newspaper of Protest 1900s-1960s. African American Community Protests Against Amos ''N'' Andy Radio and Television Show 1930s-1950s. The Nat King Cole Show Makes It Television Debut 1956. Sidney Poitier becomes first African American to win an Oscar for a lead role 1964.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part V: DEMOGRAPHICS.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts 1809-1876 American-born President of Liberia. Marcus Garvey 1887-1940 Publisher, Pan-Africanist. Benjamin "Pap" Singleton 1809-1892 Black Nationalist, Back-to-Africa Proponent. James Theodore Holly 1829-1911 Proponent of Emigration to Haiti. Gordon Parks 1912-2006 Photographer, Writer, Musician, Director. E. Franklin Frazier 1894-1962 Sociologist, Educator. Charles S. Johnson 1893-1956 Sociologist, Educator, College President. Carter G. Woodson 1875-1950 Scholar, Writer, Historian of Migration. Alain Leroy Locke 1886-1954 Writer, Educator, Developed Concept of "The New Negro".
Topics in the News.
Exodusters Leave the South for Kansas 1870s-1880s. African Americans Found Over 100 All-Black Towns 1865-1920. World War II Brings Swift Migration to Western Cities 1940s. Great Migration To North Opens New Opportunities 1916-1930. Economic Hardship Brings Wave of Caribbean Immigration 1880-1920. Moving to the Suburbs: The Integration of Levittown, Pennsylvania 1957. The Back to Africa Movement 1820s-1920s. Marcus Garvey and the UNIA 1920s.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part VI: EDUCATION.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Benjamin Griffith Brawley 1882-1939 Educator, Author. Septima Clark 1898-1987 Educator, Civil Rights activist. Juliette Derricotte 1897-1931 Educator. Benjamin Mays 1894-1984 Educator, Theologian, Civil rights activist, Writer. Kelly Miller 1863-1939 Mathematician, Sociologist, Writer, Journalist. Willa B. Player 1909-2003 Educator. Booker T. Washington 1856?-1915 Educator, Activist, Writer. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson 1890-1976 Educator, First African American President of Howard University. Kenneth Clark, Mamie Clark 1914-2005, 1917- 1983 Psychologists and Educational Researchers.
Topics in the News.
Founding of the Freedman''s Bureau 1865. Establishment of Howard University 1867. Founding of Spelman College (first college for African American women) 1881. The Second Morrill Act and the Establishment of Black Land Grant Colleges 1890. Anna Julia Cooper Publishes A Voice From the South (about the duty of educated African American women) 1892. The First Negro History Week: The Forerunner of Black History Month 1926. The Founding of the United Negro College Fund 1944. Founding of the National Pan-Hellenic Council: "The Divine Nine" (Historically African American Fraternities and Sororities) 1930. The Little Rock Nine and other famous moments in school integrations 1957. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas: Segregation is ruled unequal and unconstitutional 1954. W.E.B. Du Bois becomes the first African American to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard University 1895. James Meredith Enters the University of Mississippi 1962.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part VII: GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Edward Brooke 1919- Lawyer, Legislator, Consultant. Mary McLeod Bethune 1875-1955 Educator, Civil Rights Leader. Fannie Lou Hamer 1917-1977 Civil Rights Activist; Leader of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Oliver Stanton de Priest 1871-1951 First African-American Congressman Since Reconstruction (1928). Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. 1908-1972 New York City Councilman, US Congressman. Ebenezer D. Bassett 1833- 1908 First African American diplomat (to Haiti). Hiram Rhodes Revels 1827-1901 First African American US Senator (1870-71). Adam Clayton Powell Jr., 1908-1972 Legislator, Activist, Minister.
Topics in the News.
Post-Civil War Legislation: Amendments 13-15 1860s and ''70s. Federal Government Tangles with Southern States over Segregation 1960s. President Theodore Roosevelt Invites Booker T. Washington to the White House 1901. Freedman''s Bureau Offers Education, Confiscated Lands 1865-1870.
Political Trends.
African American Republicans Dominate Many State Legislatures 1860s-1870s. Communist Party Seeks Black Voters 1930s. Most African Americans Now Democrats 1936.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part VIII: HEALTH AND MEDICINE.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Paul Bertau Cornely 1906-2002 Physician. Charles Richard Drew 1904-1950 Scientist, Surgeon. Effie O''Neal Ellis 1913-1994 Physician. William Augustus Hinton 1883-1959 Physician, Educator, Writer. Milous J. Reese 1904-2005 Chiropractor, Acupuncturist, Herbologist. Vivien Theodore Thomas 1910-1985 Surgical research technician. Daniel Hale Williams 1856-1931 Physician, Surgeon, Hospital administrator.
Topics in the News.
Mary Eliza Mahoney becomes the first African American professional nurse 1879. Dr. Solomon Carter Fuller becomes a pioneer in Alzheimer''s disease research and the nation''s first black psychiatrist 1904. Opening of Provident Hospital 1893. Founding of Freedman''s Hospital 1862. Identification of and Research on Sickle Cell Anemia 1900-1950s. Establishment of African American Medical Schools: Howard University (1868) and Mehary Medical College (1876) 1860s and 70s. Outrage at Medical Discrimination: The NAACP Protests the Death of Juliette Derricotte and Jim Crow Hospitals 1931. Separate but Equal Hospitals: The Hill-Burton Act 1946. The Tuskeegee Syphilis Study 1933-1972. African American Women and Forced Sterilization 1900s-1960s. Drew resigns from Red Cross over blood segregation 1941.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part XI: LAW AND JUSTICE.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Jane M. Bolin 1908-2007 Judge. Margaret Austin Haywood 1912-2004 Lawyer, Judge. Irvin C. Mollison 1898-1962 Lawyer, Judge. Louis L. Redding 1901-1998 Lawyer. Juanita Stout 1919-1998 Judge. Spottswood W. Robinson III 1916-1998 Judge, Lawyer, Educator. Charles Houston 1895-1950 Lawyer.
Topics in the News.
Legislation. Marriages of Ex-Slaves Legally Recognized after Emancipation 1860s. XII Amendment Bans Slavery 1865. XIV Amendment Equal Protection Before the Law 1868. XV Amendment Guarantees Right to Vote 1870. Jim Crow Laws 1876-1965. Black Codes 1865-1767. Civil Rights Act of 1866 1866. Civil Rights Act of 1964 1964. Voting Rights Act of 1965 1965. Major Court Cases. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896. Buchanan v. Warley 1917. Gaines v. Canada 1938. Morgan v. Virginia 1946. Brown v. Board of Education 1954. Heart of Atlanta v. United States 1964. Vigilantes and Lynchings Ku Klux Klan Organized 1866. Lynching Era Claims over 2,000 Lives 1880-1930. Ida B. Wells-Barnett Crusades Against Lynching 1880-1930. Emmet Till Murdered in Money, Mississippi 1955. Three Civil Rights workers found dead in Mississippi 1963.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part X: MILITARY
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Eugene Bullard 1894-1961 Aviator. Henry Johnson 1897-1929 First US Soldier Award Croix de Guerre, France''s Highest Military Honor. Dorie Miller 1919-1943 Hero at Pearl Harbor. Charity Adams Earley 1918-2002 First African American woman commissioned in the Women''s Auxiliary Army Corps. Henry O. Flipper 1856-1940 Engineer, Army officer, Translator, Writer. Benjamin O. Davis Sr. 1877-1970 First African American Brigadier General in U.S. Armed Forces. Benjamin O. Davis Jr. 1912-2002 First African American Brigadier General in U.S. Air Force. Charles Young 1864-1922 Military leader, Cartographer, Legislator, Educator.
Topics in the News.
Buffalo Soldiers Earn Respect in Indian Wars 1866-1891. All-Black 10th Cavalry Plays Pivotal Role at Battle of San Juan Hill 1898. Brownsville Affair Ends With Dishonorable Discharge of Entire Battalion 1906-1908. Houston Mutiny of 1917 Results in Nineteen Executions 1917. Tuskegee Veterans Hospital Opens 1923. African Americans Demand Fair Employment in War Effort 1941. Tuskegee Airmen Battle Nazis and Stereotypes 1941-1946. President Truman Integrates the Armed Forces 1948.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part XI: POPULAR CULTURE (INCLUDES SUCH TOPICS AS FASHION, FOOD & DRINK, POPULAR MUSIC, AND SPORTS).
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Jack Johnson 1878-1946 Black boxer who won world heavyweight title in 1908. Alice Coachman 1923- Track and field athlete, Educator, Coach. Althea Gibson 1927-2003 Tennis player. Edna Lewis 1916-2006 Chef. Joe Louis 1914-1981 Boxer (Sports). Jesse Owens 1913-1980 Olympic athlete, Businessperson. Leroy Robert "Satchel" Paige 1906-1982 Baseball player. Jackie Robinson 1919-1972 Baseball player. Ann Lowe 1898-1981 Fashion designer (did Jackie O''s wedding dress). Charles L. Sifford 1922- Golfer. Sylvia Woods 1926- Owner of Sylvia''s, world-famous Harlem restaurant opened in 1962.
Topics in the News.
Hair Fashions: Straightening and Conking (famous scene in late 1940s from Autobiography of Malcolm X) 1865-1965. First Olympic Gold Medal for an African American: John Baxter Taylor 1908. Integration of Major League Baseball and the National Football League 1940s. Zoot Suits Become Popular and Controversial 1940s. Boxer Jack Johnson Defeats "the Great White Hope," James Jeffries 1910. Harlem Globetrotters Formed 1927. Singer and Activist Paul Robeson''s Passport is Revoked, College Football Hall of Fame Membership Revoked 1950. Spotlight on Race: Olympics in Berlin 1936. African American jockeys win major races in Reconstruction era 1870s-1890s. Popularity of Soul Food -- from early 1900s to present 1900-present.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part XII: RELIGION.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Ralph D. Abernathy 1926-1990 Minister, Civil Rights leader. Father Divine 1879?-1965 Activist. Benjamin L. Hooks 1925- Lawyer, Minister. Florence Spearing Randolph 1866-1951 Evangelist. Reverdy Cassius Ransom 1861-1959 Religious leader, Civil Rights activist. Leon Howard Sullivan 1922-2001 Minister, Civil Rights activist, Founder (originator). Howard Thurman 1900-1981 Theologian. Elijah Muhammad 1897-1975 Minister, Leader of Nation of Islam. William Joseph Seymour 1870-1922 Minister, Leader of Pentecostal Movement.
Topics in the News.
The Flourishing of African American Churches in the Reconstruction South 1865-1880. Formation of the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church 1870. African American Women and Spiritual Equality (Include Sarah Ann Hughes, the Temperance Movement, Julia A.J. Foote) 1885. R.H. Boyd Establishes Religious Publishing House in Nashville 1896. African American Missionaries in Africa: The Efforts of Daniel Payne and Henry McNeal Turner 1890s. Azusua Street Revival, Los Angeles 1906-1915. Gospel Music Becomes Part of Church Liturgy 1900s-1920s. Sweet Daddy Grace Opens First Pentecostal United House of Prayer 1919. Founding of the Nation of Islam 1930. Ministers as Politicians and Activists: From Social Gospel to Civil Rights 1865-1965.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.
Part XIII: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
Chronology.
Overview.
Headline Makers.
Harold Amos 1919-2003 Microbiologist. George Washington Carver 1864-1943 Botanical researcher, Educator, Inventor. Emmett W. Chappelle 1925- Biochemist. Kenneth Clark 1914-2005 Psychologist. Jewel Plumber Cobb 1924- Cell biologist. Elmer Samuel Imes 1883-1941 Physicist. Ernest E. Just 1883-1941 Biologist. Garrett A. Morgan 1877-1963 Inventor. Harold Dadforth West 1904-1974 Biochemist. Lewis Howard Latimer 1848-1928 Inventor. Matthew Henson 1866-1965 Explorer. Bessie Coleman 1892-1926 Aviator. David Blackwell b.1919 Mathematician.
Topics in the News.
Obstacles to Education and Professional Advancement in the Late 19th Century: Or, more specifically, The Case of Edward Bouchet, first African American to earn a doctorate in U.S. (Ph.D. in Physics), in 1876 1865-1900. African American Inventors and the Railroad Transportation Industry 1860-1900. The End of Slavery Brings Patents and Recognition for African American Inventors 1865-1900. Tuskegee Institute Establishes an Agriculture Experiment Station (way of touching on Booker T. Washington and George Washington Carver''s achievements in this area) 1897. Aviation Pioneers (Include Bessie Coleman, James Herman Banning, Willa Brown, Perry Young) 1920s-1950s. The Apollo Missions Begin: The Role of African Americans (Vance Marchbanks, Robert Shurney, O.S. Williams, and George Carruthers) 1961. Tuskegee Institute opens school of veterinary medicine 1945. Development of Science and Engineering Academic Programs at Historically Black Colleges (Howard 1907-1910) 1900-1965.
Primary Sources.
Research and Activity Ideas.
For More Information.