eBook Immigrants in American History: Arrival, Adaptation, and Integration, 1st Edition

  • Elliott Robert Barkan
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 159884220X
  • ISBN-13: 9781598842203
  • DDC: 305.9
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 2030 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released April 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
  • Price:  Sign in for price

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Overview

This encyclopedia is a unique collection of entries covering the arrival, adaptation, and integration of immigrants into American culture from the 1500s to 2010.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Advisory Board.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Preface.
1: Migrants to America, to 1870.
2: Introduction: Migrants to America, to 1870.
3: Africans and African Americans, to 1870.
4: Capture and Involuntary Migration.
5: African Acculturation and Community Formation.
6: Types of Employment.
7: Survival under Slavery—Rural and Urban.
8: Creating Community and Culture.
9: African Americans: Free, Slave, and Quasi-Free.
10: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
11: British and British Americans (English, Scots, Scots Irish, and Welsh), to 1870.
12: After the American Revolution.
13: Resumed Migration.
14: Trends in British Immigration to the United States.
15: Settlement Patterns.
16: Migration Patterns.
17: Civil War.
Bibliography.
18: Canadians and Canadian Americans, to 1870.
19: Background to Emigration.
20: Francophone Canadian Migration.
21: Anglophone Canadian Migration.
22: Other Migrations.
23: Migration Experiences.
24: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
25: Chinese and Chinese Americans, to 1870.
26: The U.S.-China Trade and Early Chinese Immigration to America.
27: The International Context for Large-Scale Chinese Immigration.
28: Chinese Immigration during the California Gold Rush.
29: Racial Hostilities and Community Adaptations.
30: Beyond the Mines: In Pursuit of New Economic Opportunities.
31: Chinese-American Communities in 1870.
Bibliography.
32: Danes and Danish Americans, to 1870.
33: The First Danes to Reach North America.
34: The Earliest Danish Immigrants.
35: Some Religious and Political Reasons for Immigration.
36: Heavier Danish Migration and Patterns of Settlement.
Bibliography.
37: Dutch and Dutch Americans, to 1870.
38: Early Colonization, 1609.
39: Age of Revolutions.
40: New Settlements.
41: Dutch-American Diaspora.
42: Acculturation and Ethnic Persistence.
Bibliography.
43: French and French Americans, to 1870.
44: Colonial Empires.
45: The Wars of Independence, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Empire.
46: The First Half of the Nineteenth Century.
47: 1848–1860: Gold Rush and Utopias.
48: The French in the American Civil War.
49: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
50: Germans and German Americans, to 1870.
51: Colonial Period.
52: Era of the American Revolution.
53: Postrevolution Period.
54: Midcentury German Communities.
55: Era of the Civil War.
56: Conclusion: 1870.
Bibliography.
57: Irish Catholics and Irish-Catholic Americans, to 1870.
58: Outlines of Irish Catholic Immigration to 1870.
59: Motives and Migration.
60: Perceptions of the Irish.
61: The Irish Enter American Politics.
62: Irish-Catholic Assimilation.
63: Distribution of Midcentury Irish.
64: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
65: Irish Protestants and Irish-Protestant Americans, to 1870.
66: The Colonial Era: Migration and Settlement.
67: Culture and Community: The Eighteenth Century.
68: From the American Revolution to the Famine.
69: Protestant Irish Influence: Politics and Sectarianism.
70: The Great Famine, to 1870.
71: Protestant Irish Americans in 1870.
Bibliography.
72: Jews and Jewish Americans, to 1870.
73: Sephardic Jewry in the Americas and the Legacy of the Inquisition.
74: Jewish Settlement in the North American Colonies.
75: Jews in the American Revolution and the New Republic.
76: German Jews Become the Majority.
77: Combating Prejudice at Home and Abroad.
78: Making Americanized Jewish Communities.
79: Declining Observance and the Rise of American Reform Judaism.
80: American Jews and the Civil War.
81: Conclusion: Post–Civil War Developments.
Bibliography.
82: Mexicans and Mexican Americans, to 1870.
83: The Spanish Period.
84: The Mexican Period.
85: The Mexican-American War and Its Aftermath.
Bibliography.
86: Norwegians and Norwegian Americans, to 1870.
87: The Background for Early Emigration—Preconditions, 1825–1870.
88: Land-Taking and Americanization.
89: The First Norwegian American Cultural Hearth.
90: Forging the First Norwegian-American Culture.
Bibliography.
91: Poles and Polish Americans, to 1870.
92: The Revolutionary Era.
93: Revolution Spurs Migration.
94: The Beginning of the Economic Migration.
95: The Civil War.
96: The Beginnings of Community Organization.
97: Religious Life.
98: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
99: Spanish and Spanish Americans, to 1870.
100: Immigration, Motives for Immigration, and Composition of Migrant Population, Late Sixteenth Century to 1940.
101: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
102: Swedes and Swedish Americans, to 1870.
103: New Sweden on the Delaware.
104: Migration Patterns.
105: Early Arrivals.
106: Bishop Hill.
107: Swedes in Texas.
108: Rural Destinations.
109: Urban Clusters.
110: Religious Affiliations.
111: Social Clubs.
112: Newspapers.
113: Institutions.
114: Party Affiliation.
115: Swedes in the Civil War.
116: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
117: Swiss and Swiss Americans, to 1870.
118: Military Migrations.
119: Settlement Migrations.
120: In a New Nation.
Bibliography.
121: Immigration From 1870 to 1940.
122: Introduction: Immigration from 1870 to 1940.
123: Second Era, Three Stages of Immigrant Populations, 1870–1940.
124: Arabs and Arab Americans, 1870–1940.
125: Historical Background.
126: Political Conditions, 1870–1940.
127: Migration.
128: Citizenship and Immigration Laws.
129: Women and Family Life.
130: Dearborn/Detroit, Michigan.
131: Religious Life.
132: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
133: Armenians and Armenian Americans, 1870–1940.
134: Migration, Phase 1: The Pioneers, to 1890.
135: Migration, Phase II: Flight, 1890–1899.
136: Migration: First Peak Period, 1899–1917, and Beyond.
137: Occupations and Businesses.
138: Education.
139: Associations, Churches, Armenian Schools—and the Press.
140: Family.
141: Integration and Assimilation.
Bibliography.
142: Asian Indians and Asian-Indian Americans, 1870–1940.
143: Race, Citizenship, and Integration.
144: Land and Labor.
145: Politics, Religion, and Community.
Bibliography.
146: Basques and Basque Americans, 1870–1940.
147: Demographics.
148: Migration Incentives.
149: Settlement.
150: Work.
151: Transnationalism.
152: Basque Community and Culture in the United States.
153: Anti-Immigrant Sentiments and Nativist Laws.
154: The Second Generation.
155: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
156: Bosniaks (Muslims) and Bosniak Americans, 1870–1940.
157: Who Are the Bosniaks?.
158: Quest for Bosnian Identity and Independence.
159: Bosniak Immigration to the United States until 1940.
Bibliography.
160: British (English, Scottish, Scots Irish, Welsh) and British Americans, 1870–1940.
161: Iron and Steel.
162: Mining.
163: Settlement Patterns.
164: The West.
165: Labor Organization.
166: The Twentieth Century.
Bibliography.
167: Canadians (Anglo) and Anglo-Canadian Americans, 1870–1940.
168: Nineteenth-Century Migration Patterns.
169: Who Left and Why?.
170: Social Adjustment in the United States.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Immigration From 1870 to 1940.
2: Latvians and Latvian Americans, 1870–1940.
Bibliography.
3: Lithuanians and Lithuanian Americans, 1870–1940.
4: Causes of Immigration.
5: Arrival, Distribution, and Occupations.
6: Religious Affiliations and Institutions.
7: Lithuanian Nationalism and Political Involvement in the United States, 1870–1940.
8: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
9: Macedonians and Macedonian Americans, to 1940.
10: Who Are the Macedonians?.
11: Immigration and Settlement Patterns until 1940.
12: Organizations of Macedonian Immigrants to the United States until 1940.
13: The Life of Macedonian Immigrants in the United States before 1940.
14: Women, Marriage, and Family.
15: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
16: Mexicans and Mexican Americans, 1870–1940.
17: 1870–1908.
18: 1908–1929.
19: Transnationalism.
20: Migration and Nativism.
21: Americanization and Segregation.
22: Labor and Community.
23: Second Generation and Beyond.
24: 1930–1940.
25: Repatriation.
26: Struggle and Innovation.
27: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
28: Montenegrins and Montenegrin Americans, 1870–1940.
29: Montenegrin Identity.
30: Patterns of Settlement of Montenegrins until 1940.
31: Montenegrin Immigrant Organizations in the United States.
32: Life in the New Homeland.
33: Contacts with the Old Homeland.
Bibliography.
34: Native Hawai'ians, Pacific Islanders, and Pacific-Islander Americans, to 1940.
35: 1790–1870.
36: 1870–1940.
Bibliography.
37: Norwegians and Norwegian Americans, 1870–1940.
38: The Civil War and the Creation of a Norwegian-American Identity.
39: Four Waves of Mass Migration to 1929.
40: In the Agricultural Midwest and Pacific Northwest: Farms and Small Towns.
41: The Small Towns: Rural Business, Religious Education, and the Press.
42: Politics: Forming Rural Governments and Representing a Largely Rural Region.
43: In the Big Cities.
Bibliography.
44: Poles and Polish Americans, 1870–1940.
45: Family and Community Life.
46: Organizational Life.
47: Religious Schism.
48: Employment.
49: Helping the Old Country.
50: Immigration Restriction.
51: The Interwar Period.
52: The Second Generation.
Bibliography.
53: Portuguese and Portuguese Americans, 1870–1940.
54: Areas of Origin.
55: Characteristics of Portuguese Immigrant Communities in the United States.
56: Regional Divisions.
57: Areas of Settlement and Employment Concentrations.
58: Cultural Maintenance.
59: General Trends.
60: Post–World War I Decline in Portuguese Immigration.
61: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
62: Romanians and Romanian Americans, 1870–1940.
63: Migration Waves and Immigrant Characteristics.
64: Settlement, Organizations, and Institutions in the United States.
65: Cultural and Scientific Contributions to the United States.
66: Sociocultural Adaptation and Integration in U.S. Society.
67: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
68: Russians and Russian Americans, 1870–1940.
69: The First Russian Americans.
70: The First Wave: 1870–1914.
71: Between the Wars.
72: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
73: Serbs and Serbian Americans, 1870–1940.
Bibliography.
74: Slovaks and Slovak Americans, 1870–1940.
75: Regarding Czechs and Slovaks.
76: Beginnings of Slovak Migration.
77: Background, Composition, and Migration Patterns.
78: Occupations and Businesses.
79: Institutional, Religious, and Social Life.
80: Political Participation and Cultural Maintenance.
81: With National Origin Quotas in Place.
Bibliography.
82: Slovenes and Slovene Americans, 1870–1940.
83: Slovenes in the United States before 1870.
84: Slovenes in the United States, 1870–1940.
85: Population Trends.
86: Slovenian Women.
87: Slovenian Communities.
88: Slovene Fraternal Benefit Organizations.
89: Ethnic Parishes.
90: Slovene Ethnic Newspapers and Other Periodicals.
91: Political Life.
Bibliography.
92: Spanish and Spanish Americans, 1870–1940.
93: Principal Areas of Settlement.
94: Conclusion: Integration and Assimilation.
Bibliography.
95: Swedes and Swedish Americans, 1870–1940.
96: Rising Swedish Immigration.
97: Reactions to the Emigration in Sweden.
98: Remigration to Sweden.
99: Changing Settlement and Occupational Patterns.
100: Reception of the Swedes in the United States.
101: Swedish-American Cultural Life.
102: Swedish Americans in Politics.
103: Signs of Change.
104: World War I and After.
Bibliography.
105: Swiss and Swiss Americans, 1870–Post 1945.
106: Numerical Presence of Swiss.
107: The Swiss Presence Since 2000.
108: Motives and Contexts of Swiss Emigration.
109: Of the Swiss Religious Presence.
110: Nurturing Swiss National-Ethnic Identity.
111: National Swiss Organizations.
112: Involvement of Swiss in American Life.
Bibliography.
113: Ukrainians and Ukrainian Americans, 1870–1940.
114: Seeking an Ethno-National Identity (First Wave: 1880s to 1914).
115: The Religious Wars.
116: Prewar Enlightenment Efforts.
117: Maintaining Ethno-National Identity (Second Wave, 1920s to 1940).
118: Political Alignments.
119: Postwar Enlightenment Efforts.
120: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
121: West Indians (English-Speaking) and West-Indian Americans, 1870–1940.
122: Population Movement.
123: Geography/Demography.
124: Skills/Employment.
125: Organizations, Institutions, and Expression.
126: Politics: Radicalism.
127: Politics: Mainstream.
128: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
129: Immigration from 1940 to the Present.
130: Introduction: Immigration from 1940 to the Present.
131: Third Era, Three Stages of Immigrant Populations, 1940–Present, Selected Principal Groups.
132: Government Information about Immigrants after 2000.
133: Recent Surveys and Initial Results from the 2010 Census.
134: Africans and African Americans from East Africa, 1940–Present.
135: Historical Background for the Ethiopian/Eritrean Refugee Problem.
136: The Beginning of the Exodus of Ethiopian Refugees.
137: Revolution in Ethiopia: The Beginning of Migration and a Refugee Exodus.
138: American Intervention: The Ethiopian Refugee Resettlement Program.
139: The Profile of Ethiopians and Eritreans in the United States.
140: Somalis in the United States: A Brief Historical Background.
141: The Sudanese in the United States.
142: The North-South Divide in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
143: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
144: Africans and African Americans from West Africa, 1940–Present.
145: The History and Reasons for Emigration from West Africa.
146: The Characteristics of Immigrants.
147: Immigrant Adjustment.
148: The Impact of African Immigration.
Bibliography.
149: Arabs and Arab Americans, 1940–Present.
150: Arab Migration 1940–1965.
151: Arab Migration, 1965–Present.
152: Family and Gender.
153: Arab Women, 1965–Present.
154: Effects of September 11, 2001, on Arab Americans.
155: Image of Arabs in the Media, 1965–Present.
156: American States with the Highest Arab Populations.
157: Famous Arabs in the United States.
Bibliography.
158: Armenians and Armenian Americans, 1940–Present.
159: Armenian Migrations.
160: Number of Armenians in the United States.
161: Population Distribution.
162: Social Changes.
163: Social Changes in the Armenian Family.
164: The Armenian Church.
165: Armenian Schools.
166: Armenian Studies Program.
167: Community Organizations.
168: Prominent Armenian Americans.
Bibliography.
169: Asian Indians and Asian-Indian Americans, 1940–Present.
170: Migration Flows and Patterns of Settlement: 1965–1980s.
171: Migration Flows and Patterns of Settlement: 1980s–Present.
172: Organizational Life.
173: Transnationalism and Diaspora.
174: Race, Ethnicity, and Religious Identification.
175: The Second Generation.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Immigration from 1940 to the Present.
2: Hondurans and Honduran Americans, 1940–Present.
3: Motivations for and Waves of Honduran Migration.
4: Honduran Journeys to the United States.
5: Demographics and Settlement Patterns.
6: Legal Status and Socioeconomic Mobility.
7: Incorporation/Transnational Nature of Honduran Migration.
8: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
9: Hungarians and Hungarian Americans, 1940–Present.
10: World War II.
11: The Decade Following World War II.
12: The Clash of the Expatriates.
13: The Revolution of 1956.
14: Post-1956 Era.
Bibliography.
15: Iranians and Iranian Americans, 1940–Present.
16: The Hostage Crisis and Integration of Iranians in the United States.
17: The 2000 U.S. Census and the Demographic Characteristics of Iranians.
18: Iranian Migrant Women.
19: Iranian Family in Exile.
20: Iranian Immigrants and Ethnic Identity.
21: 9/11 and New Waves of Discrimination against Iranians.
22: Post-9/11: Iranian Immigrants and Politics.
Bibliography.
23: Irish Catholics and Irish-Catholic Americans, 1940–Present.
24: Immigration and Settlement.
25: Irish-American Communal Life.
26: Religion.
27: Politics.
28: Irish Nationalism.
29: Culture and Identity.
30: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
31: Irish Protestants and Irish-Protestant Americans, 1940–Present.
32: Origins, Emigration and the Protestant Irish Today.
33: Population Figures and Religious Subgroups: Unexpected Patterns.
34: Census Questions and Answers.
35: Distribution and Characteristics.
36: Final Observations.
Bibliography.
37: Israelis and Israeli Americans, 1940–Present.
38: Migrants' Motives.
39: Demographic Profile: Population Estimates.
40: Socioeconomic Status.
41: Adjustment and Adaptation.
42: Gender and Community.
43: Communal Patterns.
44: Integration and Impact on U.S. Society and Culture: Community Diversity.
45: Involvement in American-Jewish Life.
46: Return Immigration and Transnational Identity.
47: The Second and Later Generations.
48: Future Prospects.
Bibliography.
49: Italians and Italian Americans, 1940–Present.
50: Emigration in Postwar Italy.
51: Postwar Americanization.
52: Conservatism and Anti-Communism.
53: The Mafia Stereotype.
54: The White Ethnic Revival.
55: Italian Americans Today.
Bibliography.
56: Japanese and Japanese Americans, 1940–Present.
57: Generations of Japanese Americans.
58: Status of Japanese Americans in 1940 and the Alien Registration Act.
59: World War II and Japanese Latin Americans.
60: Executive Order 9066 and the Mass Forced Removal of Japanese Americans.
61: War Relocation Authority Camps and Loyalty Questions.
62: Japanese Americans in the Military.
63: Incarceration, the Supreme Court, and the Closing of the Camps.
64: Significance of Wartime Incarceration to Japanese Americans.
65: Postwar War Brides.
66: Postwar Court Cases and Legislation, 1945–1965.
67: Japanese-American Evacuation Claims Act, 1948.
68: Immigration Act of 1990 and Redress Movement.
69: Educational Attainment and the “Model Minority” Myth.
70: Identities and Cultural Retention.
71: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
72: Jews and Jewish Americans, 1940–Present.
73: World War II.
74: The Displaced Persons (DPs).
75: Holocaust Survivors in the United States.
76: Jews from Eastern Europe.
77: Soviet or Russian-Speaking Jews.
78: Israeli, Central Asian, Iranian, Latin American, South African and Syrian Jews.
Bibliography.
79: Koreans and Korean Americans, 1940–Present.
80: Life Experiences during the Intermediate Period.
81: Korean Immigration during the Second Major Period.
82: Socioeconomic Experience of Korean Americans.
83: Two Pillars of Korean Immigrant Life: Middle-Class Dream and Ethnic Church Participation.
84: Korean Immigrants in the Major Metropolitan Areas.
85: Ethnic Church Affiliation and Participation.
86: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
87: Latvians and Latvian Americans, 1940–Present.
88: Arrival and Settlements.
89: “Exiles,” Not “Immigrants”.
90: Churches and Associations.
91: Maintaining a Cultural Identity.
92: Latvian Identity Via Latvia Publications.
93: The Second Generation.
94: Political Consciousness and Homeland Ties.
Bibliography.
95: Lithuanians and Lithuanian Americans, 1940–Present.
96: Historical Events Leading to Immigration.
97: Arrival, Distribution, and Occupations: Postwar Wave.
98: Societal Affiliations and Organizations.
99: Lithuanian National and Political Involvement in the United States.
100: Arrival, Distribution, and Occupations: Post-Soviet Wave.
101: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
102: Macedonians and Macedonian Americans, 1940–Present.
103: Macedonians in the United States during World War II.
104: Macedonian Americans: Population and Geographic Distribution after 1940.
105: Organizations of Macedonian Americans after 1940.
106: Americanization: Sacred and Secular.
107: Integration: Cultural, Sports, and Political Figures.
108: Transnational Ties of American Macedonians after 1945.
Bibliography.
109: Mexicans and Mexican Americans, 1940–Present.
110: The 1940s–1960s.
111: The 1980s.
112: The 1990s.
113: 2000–Present.
Bibliography.
114: Middle Eastern and North African Immigrants and Middle Eastern and North African Americans 1940–Present.
115: Immigration Patterns.
116: Population and Settlement.
117: Social and Economic Adaptation.
118: Ethnic and Religious Identities.
119: Backlash and Discrimination.
120: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
121: Montenegrins and Montenegrin Americans, 1940–Present.
122: Montenegrin Emigration after 1940 and Settlement Patterns.
123: Montenegrin-American Social Life and Organizations after 1940.
124: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
125: Nicaraguans and Nicaraguan Americans, 1940–Present.
126: Population and Settlement Patterns from the 1940s to the Present.
127: Gradual Arrival: 1940 to 1960.
128: Continuing Migration: 1960s to Late 1970s.
129: Contra/Sandinista War: 1980s.
130: Waves of Nicaraguan Immigration during the Contra/Sandinista War.
131: Battles for Legal Residency: 1990s to Present.
132: Characteristics of Hispanics of Nicaraguan Origin.
133: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
134: Norwegians and Norwegian Americans, 1940–Present.
135: World War II and Ethnic Revival.
136: The Postwar Immigration.
137: The Norwegian-American Community.
138: Making a Living.
139: A Celebratory Ethnicity and Organized Ethnic Life.
140: The Lutefisk Meter.
141: Religious Affiliation.
142: Political Participation.
143: Norwegian Americans and Norway.
Bibliography.
144: Pacific Islanders and Pacific-Islander Americans, 1940–Present.
145: Native Hawai'ians.
146: Samoans.
147: Tongans.
148: Guamanians.
149: Other Micronesians.
Bibliography.
150: Pakistanis and Pakistani Americans, 1940–Present.
151: The Religious, Ethnic, Cultural, and Historical Context of Pakistan.
152: Independence, Violence and Conflicts between Pakistan and India.
153: Pakistani Americans' Immigration History.
154: Pakistani Americans' Demographic, Social and Economic Profile.
155: Integration and Assimilation: Creating Community and an American Identity.
156: Maintaining Connection: Financial, Social, Cultural and Generational.
157: Pakistani American: Older Generation versus Younger Generation.
158: Maintaining Ethno-Cultural and Religious Connections in the United States.
159: Assimilation, Racial Profiling, and Discrimination.
160: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
161: Poles and Polish Americans, 1940–Present.
162: Post-1940 Immigration.
163: Political Life.
164: Educational Life.
165: Economic Life.
166: Religious Life.
167: Social and Cultural Life.
168: Community Life and Ethnic Identity.
Bibliography.
169: Portuguese and Portuguese Americans, 1940–Present.
170: Immigration and Settlement Patterns.
171: Azorean Refugee Act.
172: Immigrant Characteristics: Employment and Education.
173: Citizenship and Political Involvement.
174: Transnational Connections.
175: Ethnic Revitalization.
176: Festivals.
177: Portuguese Institutions.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
1: Issues in U.S. Immigration.
2: Introduction: Issues in U.S. Immigration.
3: Departure from Homelands.
4: Categories of Admission and Deportation.
5: Conditions upon Arrival.
6: International Events and Upheavals.
7: Enclaves of Newcomers.
8: The Impact of Accommodation on Domestic Conditions.
9: 7. The Impact of Accommodation on Livelihoods.
10: 8. Settlements in Various Environments.
11: 9. Religion as a Provider of Key Community Institutions.
12: 10. Encounters on Many Levels: Involving Cultural and Economic Clashes.
13: 11. Impact of Immigration on American Culture and Society.
14: Assimilation of Immigrants Is Rare.
15: Immigrants and Native American Populations.
16: Early Challenges.
17: New Netherlands.
18: Pilgrims.
19: Puritan New England.
20: Virginia.
21: French.
22: Later Colonial Actions.
23: Mormons.
24: Miners.
25: Overland Trail Encounters.
26: Contact and Conflict.
27: Building the Transcontinental Railroads.
28: Immigrant Soldiers and Indians.
29: Individual Experiences.
30: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
31: Indigenous Peoples and Borderlands.
32: Indigenous Peoples' Political Uniqueness.
33: U.S.–Mexican Border.
34: U.S.-Canadian Border.
35: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
36: Borderlands and the American Southwest.
37: Geography.
38: Historical Origins.
39: The Twentieth Century.
40: Borderlanders: The People and Their Culture.
41: Borderlands Problems.
42: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
43: Immigrant Ports of Entry.
44: New York.
45: Baltimore.
46: Boston.
47: Philadelphia.
48: New Orleans.
49: Miami.
50: San Francisco.
51: Honolulu.
52: Los Angeles.
53: Other Ports.
54: Borders.
Bibliography.
55: U.S. Immigration Laws and Policies, 1870–1980.
56: Federal Regulation of Immigration.
57: Exclusion and Restrictions: The Chinese Exclusion Act.
58: Nativism and the “New Immigrants”.
59: Exclusion and Removal.
60: Closing the Golden Door: The Dillingham Commission and the Immigration Acts of 1921, 1924, and 1929.
61: The Great Depression and Immigration.
62: Refugees, Resident Enemy Aliens, and World War II.
63: World War II and the Forced Relocation of Japanese Americans.
64: The Postwar Years: Displaced Persons and Labor Policies.
65: The Bracero Program.
66: America Turns Inward: Cold War Fears and Immigration Policies.
67: The Hungarian Revolution and Cold War Immigration Policies.
68: Cold War Exiles: Cubans, Phase One.
69: Immigration Reform, 1965.
70: Cold-War Exiles: Cubans, Phase Two.
71: Southeast Asian Refugees.
72: Post-1965 Immigration Policies: The Refugee Act of 1980..
73: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
74: U.S. Immigration Policies, 1986–2011.
75: The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
76: The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990.
77: The Immigration Reform Discourse in the Mid-1990s.
78: Proposition 187.
79: The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996.
80: The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.
81: The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
82: Current Debates.
Bibliography.
83: Refugees, Asylees, and Immigrants.
84: Refugees and the United States, 1776–1900.
85: The United States and Refugees, 1900–1933.
86: The United States, World War II, and Refugees.
87: The Early Cold War.
88: Cuba and Haiti.
89: Refugees and Human Rights in the 1970s.
90: A New Refugee Law and the Problem of Asylum.
91: The End of Cold War and Beyond.
92: Refugee Admissions in the Age of the “War on Terror”.
93: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
94: Unauthorized Immigration to the United States.
95: Definitional Issues.
96: Legal Framework.
97: The Early Era.
98: Bracero Program (1942–1964).
99: Immigration and Nationality Acts of 1952 and 1965.
100: Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986).
101: North American Free Trade Agreement (1994).
102: Border Militarization.
103: The Clinton Era.
104: The Post-9/11 Era.
105: Demographic and Socioeconomic Profile of the Undocumented Population.
106: Contemporary Flows.
107: The Rights of Undocumented Workers.
108: State and Local Enforcement of Immigration.
109: Fiscal Effects and Public Debate.
Bibliography.
110: Nativism and Immigrants, Past and Present.
111: Nineteenth-Century Nativist Precedents.
112: World War I and Nativist Responses.
113: Asians, Catholics and Emerging Nativism.
114: Europeans Versus Europeans: Escalating Nativism.
115: Principal Nativist Legislation, 1921–1929.
116: 1930s: Latinos, Jews, and Nativist Resistance.
117: Post–World War II: Measures Challenging Nativism.
118: 1960s–1990s: The Challenge Endures, Part I.
119: 2000s: The Challenge Endures, Part II.
120: Ongoing Issues and Policy Debates.
Bibliography.
121: Immigration and Incorporation of New Americans: Citizenship Prior to 1980.
122: Conceptual and Historical Foundations.
123: Further Conceptual and Policy Foundations: The Nineteenth Century.
124: The Twentieth Century: Citizenship and Americanization.
125: The Military as an Americanizer.
126: The Government as Americanizer.
127: States as Americanizers.
128: Schools as Americanizers.
129: Private Voluntary Organizations as Americanizers.
130: The Media as Americanizers.
131: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
132: Immigration and Incorporation of New Americans: Citizenship Post 1980.
133: Legal Immigration, the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, and the Immigration Act of 1990.
134: The 1996 Welfare Reform Act and Immigrants.
135: Immigration Reform and Deportation-Driven Deterrence.
136: Immigration and the Transition to Citizen.
137: Recent Patterns in Naturalizing.
138: Toward Immigration Reforms in the Twenty-First Century.
Bibliography.
139: Ethnic Groups and Ethnicity.
140: What Is an Ethnic Group?.
141: The Variability of Ethnicity.
142: Additional Distinctions: Racial and Minority Groups.
143: Varieties of Ethnic Groups and Group Relationships.
144: Immigration.
145: Conquest or Coercion.
146: Goals and Relationships with the Larger Society.
147: Assimilation (Acculturation and Integration).
148: Pluralism.
149: American Ethnic Groups: Case Studies—The Dominant Group and the American Creed.
150: Conquered and Coerced Groups: African Americans and Mexican Americans.
151: Ethnic Groups Formed by Immigration: The First Wave (1820s–1920s).
152: Ethnic Groups Formed by Immigration: The Second Wave (1965–Present).
153: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
154: Integration and Assimilation: The Core Concept and Three Contemporary Developments.
155: The Canonical Formulation.
156: Assimilation Abandoned?.
157: Rethinking the Theoretical Legacy.
158: New Directions I: Segmented or Downward Assimilation.
159: New Directions II: Boundaries and the Mainstream.
160: The Transnational Perspective.
161: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
162: Immigrant and Ethnic Experiences in Urban and Metropolitan America.
163: The Commercial City and the Immigrant (c. 1625 to 1865).
164: Occupations and Urban Self-Employment.
165: Churches, Schools, and Politics.
166: Immigrant Cities in the Industrial Age (c. 1865 to 1945).
167: The Postindustrial Metropolitan Mosaic (c. 1945 to Present).
168: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
169: Immigration and Settlement Patterns.
170: Contemporary Theories on Immigrant Residential Attainment.
171: Regional, State, and Metropolitan Trends in Immigrant Settlement.
172: Immigrant Settlement in American Neighborhoods: Assimilation or Stratification?.
173: Immigrant Residential Attainment in the Contemporary Period.
174: Conclusion.
Bibliography.
175: Urbanization and Immigrants in America.
176: Colonial and Postcolonial Urban Centers.
177: Civil War Era.
178: Post Civil War to 1920.
179: Urban Machines: Political and Labor.
180: Urban West, Urban South.
181: World War II and the Postwar Era: Reforms and Refugees.
182: Twenty-First Century.
183: Conclusion.