eBook Encyclopedia of Environmental Change, 1st Edition

  • John A. Matthews
  • Published By: SAGE
  • ISBN-10: 1446264882
  • ISBN-13: 9781446264881
  • DDC: 363.703
  • Grade Level Range: College Freshman - College Senior
  • 1496 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2014 | Published/Released December 2014
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2014
  • Price:  Sign in for price

About

Overview

Accessibly written by a team of international authors, the Encyclopedia of Environmental Change provides a gateway to the complex facts, concepts, techniques, methodology and philosophy of environmental change. This three-volume set illustrates and examines topics within this dynamic and rapidly changing interdisciplinary field.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Other Frontmatter.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
List of Entries.
About the Editor-in-Chief.
About the Editorial Board.
Editorial Division of Responsibilities.
Contributors.
Preface.
How to Use This Encyclopedia.
1: A.
2: Aa.
3: Abduction.
4: Abiotic.
5: Ablation.
6: Ablation Zone.
7: Above-Ground Productivity.
8: Abrasion.
9: Abrupt Climatic Change.
10: Abscissa.
11: Absolute Counting.
12: Absolute Sea Level.
13: Absolute Temperature.
14: Absorption.
15: Absorption Spectrum.
16: Abstraction.
17: Abyssal.
18: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Dating.
19: Accessory Mineral.
20: Acclimatisation.
21: Accommodation Space.
22: Accordant Summits.
23: Accretion.
24: Accretionary Complex.
25: Acculturation.
26: Accumulated Temperature.
27: Accumulation Area Ratio (AAR).
28: Accumulation Rate.
29: Accumulation Zone.
30: Accuracy.
31: Acid.
32: Acid Deposition.
33: Acid Mine Drainage.
34: Acid Precipitation.
35: Acid Rain.
36: Acid Soils.
37: Acid Sulfate Soils.
38: Acidification.
39: Acidity.
40: Acidity Record of Volcanic Eruptions.
41: Acrisols.
42: Acrotelm.
43: Activation Function.
44: Active Continental Margin.
45: Active Layer.
46: Active Volcano.
47: Actualism.
48: Adaptation.
49: Adaptation of People.
50: Adaptionist Approach.
51: Adaptive Capacity.
52: Adaptive Cycle.
53: Adaptive Management.
54: Adaptive Radiation.
55: Adhesion.
56: Adiabatic Processes.
57: Adjacency.
58: Adsorption.
59: Advection.
60: Aeolation.
61: Aeolian.
62: Aeolian Sediments.
63: Aeolian Zone.
64: Aeolianite.
65: Aerial Photography.
66: Aerobic.
67: Aerobiology.
68: Aerology/Aeronomy.
69: Aerosols.
70: Aesthetic Degradation.
71: Aesthetics.
72: Aestivation.
73: Afforestation.
74: Afforestation: Ecological Impacts.
75: Afforestation: Impacts on Hydrology and Geomorphology.
76: African Humid Period.
77: Afro-Alpine Zone.
78: After Present (AP).
79: Aftershock.
80: Age.
81: Age Calibration.
82: Age-Depth Models.
83: Aggradation.
84: Aggregate Stability.
85: Aggregation.
86: Aggressive Water.
87: Agrarian Civilisation.
88: Agricultural Abandonment.
89: Agricultural History.
90: Agricultural Impact on Climate.
91: Agricultural Impact on Geomorphology.
92: Agricultural Impact on Soils.
93: Agricultural Intensification.
94: Agricultural Origins.
95: Agricultural Revolution.
96: Agricultural Waste.
97: Agriculture.
98: Agrochemicals/Agrichemicals.
99: Agroclimatology/Agrometeorology.
100: Agrodiversity.
101: Agro-Ecological Zone.
102: Agro-ecology.
103: Agro-ecosystem.
104: Agroforestry.
105: Agronomy.
106: Aids.
107: Air Capture (AC).
108: Air Mass.
109: Air Pollution.
110: Air Quality.
111: Air Subsidence.
112: Air Temperature.
113: Airborne Remote Sensing.
114: Airfall.
115: Airflow Types.
116: Airshed.
117: Alas.
118: Albedo.
119: Albeluvisols.
120: Algae/Algal Analysis.
121: Algal Bloom.
122: Algorithm.
123: Alien Species.
124: Alisols.
125: Alkali.
126: Alkaline Soils.
127: Alkalinity.
128: Alkalisation.
129: Alkenones.
130: Allele.
131: Allelopathy.
132: Allergen.
133: Allerød Interstadial.
134: Allochthonous.
135: Allocyclic Change.
136: Allogenic Change.
137: Alluvial Architecture.
138: Alluvial Deposits.
139: Alluvial Fan.
140: Alluvial Fill.
141: Alluvial Soils.
142: Alluvial Stratigraphy.
143: Alluviation.
144: Alluvium.
145: Along-Track Direction.
146: Alp.
147: Alpine Zone.
148: Alternative Energy.
149: Alternative Stable States.
150: Alternative Technology.
151: Altimetry.
152: Altitudinal Zonation.
153: Aluminium (AL).
154: Amber.
155: Amendments.
156: Amensalism.
157: Americium-241 Dating.
158: Amino Acid Dating.
159: Amorphous.
160: Amplitude.
161: Anabranching.
162: Anaerobic.
163: Analogue Method.
164: Analogue Model.
165: Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).
166: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).
167: Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH).
168: Ancient Woodland.
169: Andosols.
170: Angiosperms.
171: Angle of Repose.
172: Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetisation (ARM).
173: Animal Diseases.
174: Animal Remains.
175: Annotation.
176: Annual.
177: Annual Mean Air Temperature.
178: Annual Moraines.
179: Annual Variability.
180: Annually Laminated Sediment.
181: Annually Resolved Record.
182: Annular Mode.
183: Anomalies.
184: Anoxia/Anoxic.
185: Antagonism.
186: Antarctic.
187: Antarctic Convergence.
Title Page.
Contents.
1: Ga.
2: Gabion.
3: Gaia Hypothesis.
4: Gallery Forest.
5: Game Management.
6: Gamma Correction.
7: Gamma Ray Attenuation Porosity Evaluator (GRAPE).
8: Gap Analysis.
9: Garden.
10: Gas Hydrates.
11: Gauss-Gilbert Geomagnetic Boundary.
12: Gaussian Filter.
13: Gaussian Model.
14: Gauss-Matuyama Geomagnetic Boundary.
15: Gelifluction.
16: Gelifraction/Gelivation.
17: Gene.
18: Gene Pool.
19: Genecology.
20: General Circulation Models (GCMs).
21: General Circulation of the Atmosphere.
22: General System(S) Theory (GST).
23: Generalised Additive Models (GAM).
24: Generalised Linear Models (GLM).
25: Genetic Algorithms.
26: Genetic Drift.
27: Genetic Engineering.
28: Genetic Fitness.
29: Genetic Pollution.
30: Genetically Modified (GM) Foods.
31: Genetically Modified Organism (GMO).
32: Genetics.
33: Genome.
34: Genotype.
35: Gentrification.
36: Geo-archaeology.
37: Geobotany.
38: Geochemical Proxies.
39: Geochemistry.
40: Geochronology.
41: Geocryology.
42: Geodesy.
43: Geodiversity.
44: Geodynamics.
45: Geo-ecology.
46: Geo-ecosphere.
47: Geo-ecosystem.
48: Geo-edaphics.
49: Geo-engineering.
50: Geofact.
51: Geoglyph.
52: Geographical Information System (GIS).
53: Geographical Sciences.
54: Geography.
55: Geohazard.
56: Geoheritage.
57: Geoid.
58: Geoidal Eustasy.
59: Geo-indicator.
60: Geological Conservation (Geoconservation).
61: Geological Controls on Environmental Change.
62: Geological Evidence of Environmental Change.
63: Geological Record.
64: Geological Record of Environmental Change.
65: Geological Structures.
66: Geological Time.
67: Geological Timescale.
68: Geology.
69: Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal.
70: Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale (GPTS).
71: Geomagnetism.
72: Geomatics.
73: Geomedicine.
74: Geometric Transformation.
75: Geomorphology.
76: Geomorphology and Environmental Change.
77: Geomorphometry.
78: Geophysical Surveying.
79: Geophysics.
80: Geophyte.
81: Georeferencing.
82: Geoscience.
83: Geosol.
84: Geosphere.
85: Geostrophic Current.
86: Geostrophic Wind.
87: Geosyncline.
88: Geothermal.
89: Geotourism.
90: Gerlach Trough.
91: Ghijben-Herzberg Principle.
92: Gibber.
93: Gibbsite.
94: Gigantism.
95: Gilbert-Type Delta.
96: Gilgai.
97: Glacial.
98: Glacial Deposition.
99: Glacial Episode.
100: Glacial Erosion.
101: Glacial Lake.
102: Glacial Landforms.
103: Glacial Maximum.
104: Glacial Protection Concept.
105: Glacial Sediments.
106: Glacial Theory.
107: Glacial-Interglacial Cycle.
108: Glaciation.
109: Glaciation Threshold.
110: Glaciel.
111: Glacier.
112: Glacier Foreland.
113: Glacier Milk.
114: Glacier Modelling.
115: Glacier Surge.
116: Glacier Thermal Regime.
117: Glacier Variations.
118: Glacierisation.
119: Glaciers and Environmental Change.
120: Glacio-Aeolian Processes.
121: Glaciochemistry.
122: Glacio-eustasy.
123: Glaciofluvial.
124: Glaciofluvial Landforms.
125: Glaciofluvial Sediments.
126: Glacio-isostasy.
127: Glacio-Isostatic Rebound.
128: Glaciolacustrine Deposits.
129: Glaciological Volcanic Index (GVI).
130: Glaciology.
131: Glaciomarine Deposits.
132: Glaciomarine Hypothesis.
133: Glacioseismotectonics.
134: Glaciotectonics.
135: Glacis.
136: Gleying.
137: Gleysols.
138: Global Capitalism.
139: Global Change.
140: Global Cooling.
141: Global Dimming.
142: Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
143: Global Environmental Change.
144: Global Mean Surface Air Temperature.
145: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
146: Global Positioning System (GPS).
147: Global Warming.
148: Global Warming Impacts.
149: Globalisation.
150: Glow Curve.
151: Gondwana.
152: Gorge.
153: Graben.
154: Grade (of Particles).
155: Grade Concept.
156: Graded Bedding.
157: Gradient Analysis.
158: Gradualism.
159: Grain.
160: Grain Size.
161: Graminoid.
162: Granular Disintegration.
163: Granule.
164: Graphic Log.
165: Graphical User Interface (GUI).
166: Grass Cuticle Analysis.
167: Grasses and Grasslands.
168: Graticule.
169: Gravel.
170: Gravel-Bed River.
171: Gravity Anomaly.
172: Grazing.
173: Grazing History.
174: Grazing: Impacts on Ecosystems.
175: (The) Great Acceleration.
176: (The) Great Migration.
177: Green Belts.
178: Green Economy.
179: Green Lists.
180: Green Manure.
181: Green Politics.
182: Green Revolution.
183: Greenhouse Condition.
184: Greenhouse Effect.
185: Greenhouse Gases.
186: Greenhouse-Gas Forcing.
187: Greening of Society.
188: Greenland Ice-Core Chronology.
189: Greenstone Belt.
190: Greigite.
191: Grentzhorizont.
192: Grey-Scale Analysis.
193: Greywacke.
194: Grèzes Litées.
195: Grid.
196: Grid Cell.
197: Grit.
198: Gross Primary Productivity (GPP).
Title Page.
Contents.
1: R Software.
2: Radar.
3: Radar Remote-Sensing Instruments.
4: Radiance.
5: Radiant Temperature.
6: Radiation.
7: Radiation Balance.
8: Radiative Transfer Theory.
9: Radioactive Fallout.
10: Radioactive Waste.
11: Radioactivity.
12: Radiocarbon Dating.
13: Radiolaria.
14: Radioluminescence Dating.
15: Radiometer.
16: Radiometric Dating.
17: Radionuclide.
18: Radiosonde.
19: Radon Emanation.
20: Rain Flushing.
21: Rain Forest.
22: Rain Shadow.
23: Raindrop Impact.
24: Rainfall Simulator.
25: Raised Mire/Bog.
26: Raised Shorelines.
27: Rampa.
28: Random.
29: Range.
30: Range Adjustment.
31: Range Management.
32: Rangeland.
33: Ranker.
34: Rapid Environmental Change.
35: Rapid-Onset Hazards.
36: Rare Species.
37: Rarefaction Analysis.
38: Raster.
39: Rates of Environmental Change.
40: Rationalism.
41: Reaction Time.
42: Reactivation Surface.
43: Re-aeration.
44: Realism.
45: Reconnaissance Survey.
46: Recreation.
47: Recurrence Surface.
48: Recycling.
49: Red Beds.
50: Red Data Books.
51: Redeposition.
52: Reduction.
53: Reductionism.
54: Redundancy Analysis.
55: Reef.
56: Reference Area.
57: Reference Standard.
58: Reflectance.
59: Reforestation.
60: Refuge Theory in Temperate Regions.
61: Refuge Theory in the Tropics.
62: Refugium.
63: Regelation.
64: Regeneration.
65: Regeneration Complex.
66: Regional Climatic Change.
67: Regional Climatic Models (RCMS).
68: Regionalism.
69: Regionally Important Geological and Geomorphological Sites (RIGS).
70: Regolith.
71: Regosols.
72: Regression, Marine.
73: Regression Analysis.
74: Rehabilitation.
75: Rejuvenation.
76: Relational Database.
77: Relative Age.
78: Relative Density.
79: Relative Sea Level.
80: Relative-Age Dating.
81: Relaxation.
82: Relaxation Time.
83: Relict.
84: Relief.
85: Religious Beliefs.
86: Remediation.
87: Remote Sensing.
88: Renaissance.
89: Rendzina.
90: Renewable Energy.
91: Renewable Resources.
92: Repeat Photography.
93: Replication.
94: Reproducibility.
95: Rescue Archaeology.
96: Research.
97: Research Design.
98: Reserves.
99: Reservoir Effect.
100: Reservoirs: Environmental Effects.
101: Residence Time.
102: Residual.
103: Residual Deposit/Landform.
104: Residual Strength.
105: Residue.
106: Resilience.
107: Resilience Framework.
108: Resistance.
109: Resolution, in Palaeoenvironmental Reconstruction.
110: Resolution, in Remote Sensing.
111: Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS).
112: Resource.
113: Respiration.
114: Response Function.
115: Response Time.
116: Restoration.
117: Resurgence.
118: Retrodiction.
119: Retrogressive Succession.
120: Return Period.
121: Reverse Weathering.
122: Revetment.
123: Rheology.
124: Rheotrophic Mire.
125: Rhexistasy.
126: Rhizocretion.
127: Rhizopod Analysis.
128: Rhizosphere.
129: Rhythmite.
130: Ria.
131: Rickets.
132: Ridge and Furrow.
133: Rift Valley.
134: Rill.
135: Rip Current.
136: Riparian.
137: Ripple.
138: Riprap.
139: Risk.
140: Risk Assessment.
141: Risk Management.
142: River Basin Management.
143: River Capture.
144: River Discharge Variations.
145: River Diversion.
146: River Lake.
147: River Regime.
148: River Restoration.
149: River Terrace.
150: Roche Moutonnée.
151: Rock Creep.
152: Rock Cycle.
153: Rock Flour.
154: Rock Glacier.
155: Rock Mass Strength.
156: Rock Platform.
157: Rock Stream.
158: Rock Varnish.
159: Rockeval.
160: Rockfall.
161: Rockshelter.
162: Rock-Varnish Microlamination (VML) Dating.
163: Rodent Midden.
164: Rodinia.
165: Rogation Index.
166: Rogen Moraines.
167: Roman Period.
168: Roundness.
169: R-selection.
170: Rubification (Rubefaction).
171: Rudaceous.
172: Ruderal.
173: Rudite.
174: Ruminant.
175: Runoff.
176: Runoff Coefficient.
177: Runoff Processes.
178: Runout Distance.
179: Rural Decline.
180: Rural Development.
181: R-Value, in Pollen Calibration.
182: Saalian.
183: Sabkha.
184: Sackung.
185: Safe Operating Space.
186: Saffir-Simpson Scale.
187: Saharan Dust.
188: Sahel.
189: Salcrete.
190: Saline Lakes.
191: Saline Water.
192: Salinisation.
193: Salinity.
194: Salt.
195: Salt Caves.
196: Salt Dome.
197: Salt Weathering.
198: Saltation.