eBook Turning Points in History: The Britannica Guide to Theories and Ideas That Changed the Modern World, 1st Edition

  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1615300635
  • ISBN-13: 9781615300631
  • DDC: 901
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - 12th Grade
  • 304 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2010 | Published/Released March 2012
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2010
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About

Overview

There was a time when people assumed that the world was flat. Once an alternate theory was proposed, however, that conceit was challenged and, eventually, disproved. In short, theories and ideas can be potent agents of change—none more so than those that are extensively detailed in this book.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Introduction.
1: The Biological Sciences.
2: The Origin of Life.
3: The Death of Spontaneous Generation.
4: The Origin of Primordial Life.
5: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek.
6: Cell Theory.
7: The Problem of the Origin of Cells.
8: The Protoplasm Concept.
9: The Contribution of Other Sciences.
10: Marcello Malpighi.
11: Germ Theory.
12: Discoveries in Clinical Medicine and Anesthesia.
13: Advances at the End of the Century.
14: Louis Pasteur.
15: Genetics.
16: Ancient Theories of Pangenesis and Blood in Heredity.
17: Preformation and Natural Selection.
18: The Work of Mendel.
19: How the Gene Idea Became Reality.
20: The Discovery of Linked Genes.
21: Early Molecular Genetics.
22: DNA and the Genetic Code.
23: Recombinant DNA Technology and the Polymerase Chain Reaction.
24: Gregor Mendel.
25: Evolution.
26: The Work of Charles Darwin.
27: The Darwinian Aftermath.
28: The Synthetic Theory.
29: Molecular Biology and Earth Sciences.
30: Charles Darwin.
31: Ecology.
32: Charles Elton.
33: Mathematics and the Physical Sciences.
34: Arabic Numerals.
35: Al-Khwārizmī.
36: The Calculus.
37: The Precalculus Period.
38: Newton and Leibniz.
39: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.
40: The Atomic Theory.
41: John Dalton.
42: The Roots of Astronomy.
43: The Scientific Revolution.
44: A Preponderance of Theories.
45: Nicolaus Copernicus.
46: Gravitational Theory.
47: Sir Isaac Newton.
48: Special Relativity.
49: Light and the Ether.
50: Einstein's Gedankenexperiments.
51: Starting Points and Postulates.
52: Relativistic Space and Time.
53: Cosmic Speed Limit.
54: E = mc2.
55: Albert Einstein.
56: General Relativity.
57: Principle of Equivalence.
58: Curved Space-Time and Geometric Gravitation.
59: Quantum Mechanics.
60: Planck's Radiation Law.
61: Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect.
62: Bohr's Theory of the Atom.
63: Scattering of X-rays.
64: Broglie's Wave Hypothesis.
65: String Theory.
66: The Expanding Universe: The Big Bang Theory.
67: The Evolution of Stars and the Formation of Chemical Elements.
68: Solar-System Astronomy.
69: George Gamow.
70: Plate Tectonics.
71: Alfred Wegener and the Concept of Continental Drift.
72: Isostasy.
73: Driving Forces.
74: Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis.
75: Paleomagnetism, Polar Wandering, and Continental Drift.
76: Gestation and Birth of Plate Tectonic Theory.
77: Determination of Plate Thickness.
78: Plate-Driving Mechanisms and the Role of the Mantle.
79: Alfred Wegener.
80: Geologic Time.
81: Knowledge of Landforms and of Land-Sea Relations.
82: Paleontology and Stratigraphy.
83: William Smith and Faunal Succession.
84: Charles Lyell and Uniformitarianism.
85: Louis Agassiz and the Ice Age.
86: Geologic Time and the Age of the Earth.
87: William Smith.
88: The Arts.
89: Perspective.
90: Filippo Brunelleschi.
91: Abstract Art.
92: Maurice Denis.
93: Impressionism.
94: Claude Monet.
95: Expressionism.
96: The Visual Arts.
97: Literature and Drama.
98: Other Arts.
99: Oskar Kokoschka.
100: Cubism.
101: Origins of the Style.
102: The First Phase.
103: The Second Phase: Analytical Cubism.
104: The Third Phase: Synthetic Cubism.
105: Georges Braque.
106: Modernism.
107: Modernism in Literature.
108: Ezra Pound.
109: Modernism in Other Arts and Architecture.
110: Harmony.
111: The Roots of Harmony.
112: Harmony Before the Common Practice Period.
113: Classical Western Harmony.
114: Jean-Philippe Rameau.
115: Montage.
116: Sergey Eisenstein.
117: Theory of Architecture.
118: Distinction between the History and Theory of Architecture.
119: Distinction between the Theory of Architecture and the Theory of Art.
120: Functionalism.
121: The Art of Building.
122: “Commodity, Firmness, and Delight”: The Ultimate Synthesis.
123: Vitruvius.
124: Green Architecture.
125: The Rise of Eco-Awareness.
126: Green Design Takes Root.
127: The Principles of Building Green.
128: The Challenges to Architecture.
129: Renzo Piano and the California Academy of Sciences.
130: Urban Planning.
131: The Development of Urban Planning.
132: Urban Form.
133: The Scope of Planning.
134: Jane Jacobs.
135: The Social Sciences, Philosophy, and Religion.
136: Mass Production.
137: The Industrial Revolution and Early Developments.
138: Pioneers of Mass Production Methods.
139: Manufacturing Pioneers.
140: The Assembly Line.
141: Theories of Child Development.
142: Psychoanalytic Theories.
143: Piaget's Theory.
144: Learning Theory.
145: Jean Piaget.
146: Psychoanalytic Theory.
147: Screen Memories.
148: The Interpretation of Dreams.
149: Further Theoretical Development.
150: Sigmund Freud.
151: Human Rights.
152: Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
153: Conscience.
154: George Fox.
155: Sin.
156: John Calvin.
157: Soul.
158: Augustine.
159: The Problem of Evil.
160: The Problem.
161: Theistic Responses.
162: Hannah Arendt.
163: Just War.
164: Jihad.
165: Natural Law.
166: Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
167: Punishment.
168: Theories and Objectives of Punishment.
169: Punishment in Islamic Law.
170: Punishment in Asian Societies.
171: Cesare Beccaria.
172: Utopia.
173: Sir Thomas More.
174: Monotheism.
175: Amarna Style.
176: Politics and the Law.
177: Neutrality.
178: Hague Conventions.
179: Due Process.
180: Democracy.
181: History.
182: Contemporary Democratic Systems.
183: Equal Protection.
184: Bush V. Gore.
185: International Law.
186: Definition and Scope.
187: Historical Development.
188: International Law and Municipal Law.
189: Jeremy Bentham.
190: Social Contract.
191: Thomas Hobbes.
192: Absolutism.
193: Louis XIV.
194: Nationalism.