eBook Events That Formed the Modern World: From the European Renaissance through the War on Terror, 1st Edition

  • Frank W. Thackeray
  • John E. Findlings
  • Published By:
  • ISBN-10: 1598849026
  • ISBN-13: 9781598849028
  • DDC: 909.08
  • Grade Level Range: 9th Grade - College Senior
  • 1859 Pages | eBook
  • Original Copyright 2012 | Published/Released April 2013
  • This publication's content originally published in print form: 2012
  • Price:  Sign in for price

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Overview

This comprehensive five-volume set contains readable essays that describe and interpret the most important global events since the European Renaissance, some accompanied by related document excerpts and primary source materials.

Table of Contents

Front Cover.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
Acknowledgments.
Preface.
1: The Reconquista, c. 711–1492.
2: Introduction.
3: Interpretive Essay.
4: Abd Al-Rahman III (c. 889–961).
5: Alfonso XI, King of Castile (1312–1350).
6: Almoravids.
7: El Cid (Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar) (1043–1099).
8: Ferdinand V, King of Aragon (1452–1516).
9: Granada, Siege of (1491–1492).
10: Isabella I, Queen of Castile (1451–1504).
11: James I, King of Aragon (1208–1276).
12: Document: “A Letter to an Old Crusader” (Twelfth Century).
13: The Renaissance, c. 1300–1630.
14: Introduction.
15: Interpretive Essay.
16: Erasmus, Desiderius (c. 1469–1536).
17: Medici, Lorenzo de’ (1449–1492).
18: Raphael (1483–1520).
19: Document: Petrarch’s Letter to Cicero (c. 1345).
20: Document: Excerpt from Baldassare Castiglione’s the Book of the Courtier (1528).
21: The Hundred Years’ War, 1337–1453.
22: Introduction.
23: Interpretive Essay.
24: Battle of the Herrings (1429).
25: Combat of the Thirty (1351).
26: Flanders.
27: French Civil War (Fifteenth Century).
28: Great Company.
29: Guesclin, Bertrand du (c. 1320–1380).
30: Pâtis.
31: Document: Excerpts from The Chronicles of Jean Froissart (c. 1388).
32: The Black Death, 1347–1351.
33: Introduction.
34: Interpretive Essay.
35: Flagellants.
36: Islamic Medicine and the Plague.
37: Document: “On the Plague” from Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron.
38: The Ming Dynasty Comes to Power, 1368–1431.
39: Introduction.
40: Interpretive Essay.
41: Hongwu Emperor (1328–1398).
42: Khan, Kublai (1215–1294).
43: Ming Dynasty.
44: Mongol Conquest of China (Thirteenth Century).
45: Voyages of Zheng He (Fifteenth Century).
46: Yongle Emperor (1360–1424).
47: Document: Excerpts from Marco Polo’s Account of His Travels (c. 1300).
48: The Age of European Expansion Begins, c. 1450–c. 1525.
49: Introduction.
50: Interpretive Essay.
51: Cabot, John (c. 1450–c. 1498).
52: Henry the Navigator (1394–1460).
53: Magellan, Ferdinand (1480–1521).
54: Document: Treaty of Tordesillas (1494).
55: The Development of Movable Type, c. 1450.
56: Introduction.
57: Interpretive Essay.
58: Bible, English.
59: Caxton, William (c. 1422–1491).
60: Communications Revolution of the Fifteenth Century.
61: Gutenberg, Johannes (c. 1390s–1468).
62: Gutenberg Bible.
63: Document: Excerpt from the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies by Nicolaus Copernicus (1543).
64: The Fall of Constantinople, 1453.
65: Introduction.
66: Interpretive Essay.
67: Battle of Manzikert (1071).
68: Constantine XI Palaeologus (1405–1453).
69: Mehmet II (1432–1481).
70: Michael VIII Palaeologus (c. 1224–1282).
71: Seljuk Turks.
72: Siege of Nicopolis (1396).
73: Vlad III, the Impaler (1431–1476).
74: The Conquest of the New World, 1492–c. 1550.
75: Introduction.
76: Interpretive Essay.
77: Atahualpa (c. 1500–1533).
78: Battle of Cajamarca (1532).
79: La Malinche (c. 1501–c. 1530/1552).
80: Siege of Tenochtitlán (1521).
81: Document: Bernal Díaz Del Castillo’s Description of Tenochtitlán from His the True History of the Conquest of New Spain (1568).
82: Document: A Description of Inca Fashions: Garcilaso de la Vega’s Comentarios Reales de los Incas (1609).
83: The Protestant Reformation, c. 1517–1648.
84: Introduction.
85: Interpretive Essay.
86: Calvinism.
87: Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648).
88: Ulrich Zwingli (1484–1531).
89: Document: Martin Luther’s 95 theses (1517).
90: The Catholic, or Counter-, Reformation, 1534–1563.
91: Introduction.
92: Interpretive Essay.
93: Julius III, Pope (1487–1555).
94: Loyola, Ignatius (1491–1556).
95: Paul III, Pope (1468–1549).
96: Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
97: Teresa of Ávila (1515–1582).
98: Document: Pope Paul III’s Encyclical against Exploitation of the Indians (1537).
99: Document: Decrees of the Council of Trent.
100: The Spanish Armada, 1588.
101: Introduction.
102: Interpretive Essay.
103: Battle of Gravelines (1588).
104: Cádiz Raid (1587).
105: Dutch Revolt (1566–1648).
106: Elizabeth I, Queen of England (1533–1603).
107: Farnese, Alessandro, Duke of Parma (1545–1592).
108: Howard, Charles, Earl of Nottingham (1536–1624).
109: Philip II, King of Spain (1527–1598).
110: Document: Queen Elizabeth I’S Speech to Her Army at Tilbury Camp (1588).
111: Document: Reports of the Destruction of Spanish Vessels along the Irish Coast (1588).
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and People.
Appendix B: Timeline.
Appendix C: Ruling Houses and Dynasties.
About the Editors and Contributors.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
1: The End of the Mediterranean’s Dominance, 1571–1669.
2: Introduction.
3: Interpretive Essay.
4: Battle of Lepanto (1571).
5: Justinian I, Byzantine Emperor (c. 483–565).
6: Knights Hospitaller.
7: Selim II, Ottoman Sultan (1524–1574).
8: Venice and the Crusades.
9: Document: Pope Urban II’S Call for a Crusade (1095).
10: The Time of Troubles, 1598–1618.
11: Introduction.
12: Interpretive Essay.
13: Dmitry III, Tsar of Russia (d. 1606).
14: Godunov, Boris, Tsar of Russia (1552–1605).
15: Ivan III, Grand Prince of Muscovy (1440–1505).
16: Ivan IV, “the Terrible,” Tsar of Russia (1530–1584).
17: Michael Romanov, Tsar of Russia (1596–1645).
18: Vasily III, Grand Prince of Muscovy (1479–1533).
19: Vasily IV, Tsar of Russia (1552–c. 1612).
20: England Enters Asia, 1599–1698.
21: Introduction.
22: Interpretive Essay.
23: Amangkurat I, Sultan of Mataram (d. 1677).
24: Amboina Massacre (1623).
25: Baffin, William (c. 1584–1622).
26: British East India Company.
27: Drake, Sir Francis (c. 1541–1596).
28: Dutch East India Company.
29: French East India Company.
30: The Establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, 1603.
31: Introduction.
32: Interpretive Essay.
33: Hideyoshi, Toyotomi (1536–1598).
34: Nobunaga, Oda (1534–1582).
35: Hidetada, Tokugawa (1579–1632).
36: Ieyasu, Tokugawa (1543–1616).
37: Document: William Adams’ Letter Describing His Voyage to Asia (c. 1600).
38: The Founding of Jamestown, 1607.
39: Introduction.
40: Interpretive Essay.
41: Pocahontas (c. 1595–1617).
42: Powhatan Confederacy.
43: Raleigh, Sir Walter (1552–1618).
44: Virginia Company.
45: Document: Virginia Company Charter (1606).
46: The Thirty Years’ War, 1618–1648.
47: Introduction.
48: Interpretive Essay.
49: Battle of White Mountain (1620).
50: Christian IV, King of Denmark (1577–1648).
51: Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor (1578–1637).
52: Frederick V, King of Bohemia (1596–1632).
53: Gustavus II Adolfus, King of Sweden (1594–1632).
54: Wallenstein, Albrecht von (1583–1634).
55: Louis XIV and the Grand Monarchy, 1643–1715.
56: Introduction.
57: Interpretive Essay.
58: Anne of Austria, Queen of France (1601–1666).
59: Colbert, Jean-Baptiste (1619–1683).
60: Fronde (1648–1653).
61: Lully, Jean-Baptiste (1632–1687).
62: Versailles.
63: Document: Louis XIV’s Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685).
64: The Manchu Conquest, 1644.
65: Introduction.
66: Interpretive Essay.
67: Dorgon (1612–1650).
68: Li Zicheng (1605–1645).
69: Nurhachi (1559–1626).
70: Document: Ming Officials Report on the Jesuit Order (1644).
71: The Scientific Revolution, c. 1650.
72: Introduction.
73: Interpretive Essay.
74: Brahe, Tycho (1546–1601).
75: Copernicus, Nicolaus (1473–1543).
76: Galilei, Galileo (1564–1642).
77: Vesalius, Andreas (1514–1564).
78: The Golden Age of Mughal Power, c. 1650.
79: Introduction.
80: Interpretive Essay.
81: Akbar, Mughal Emperor of India (1542–1605).
82: Aurangzeb, Mughal Emperor of India (1618–1707).
83: Babur, Mughal Emperor of India (1483–1530).
84: Jahangir, Mughal Emperor of India (1569–1627).
85: Mumtaz Mahal, Mughal Empress of India (1593–1631).
86: Document: Sir Thomas Roe’s Description of Muslim Cuisine (Seventeenth Century).
87: The Siege of Vienna, 1683.
88: Introduction.
89: Interpretive Essay.
90: Battle of Mohács (1526).
91: Janissaries.
92: Jan III Sobieski, King of Poland (1629–1696).
93: Mehmed Köprülü (1575–1661).
94: Mehmed IV, Ottoman Sultan (1642–1693).
95: Kara Mustafa Pasha (1634–1683).
96: Süleyman I, Ottoman Sultan (1494–1566).
97: The Glorious Revolution, 1688–1689.
98: Introduction.
99: Interpretive Essay.
100: James II, King of England and Scotland (1633–1701).
101: Whig Party.
102: William III, King of England and Scotland (1650–1702).
103: Document: Toleration Act (1689).
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and People.
Appendix B: Timeline.
Appendix C: Ruling Houses and Dynasties.
About the Editors and Contributors.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
1: Peter the Great Reforms Russia, 1689–1725.
2: Introduction.
3: Interpretive Essay.
4: Battle of Poltava (1709).
5: Catherine I, Tsarina of Russia (c. 1684–1727).
6: Charles XII, King of Sweden (1682–1718).
7: Great Northern War (1700–1721).
8: Ivan V, Tsar of Russia (1666–1696).
9: Old Believers.
10: Streltsy.
11: Theodore III, Tsar of Russia (1661–1682).
12: Document: Peter the Great’s Table of Ranks (1722).
13: The War of the Spanish Succession, 1701–1714.
14: Introduction.
15: Interpretive Essay.
16: Anne, Queen of Great Britain (1665–1714).
17: Battle of Blenheim (1704).
18: Churchill, John, Duke of Marlborough (1650–1722).
19: Eugene of Savoy (1663–1736).
20: Philip V, King of Spain (1683–1746).
21: Document: Treaty of Utrecht (1713–1714).
22: The First British Empire, 1701–1763.
23: Introduction.
24: Interpretive Essay.
25: British Board of Trade.
26: Clive, Robert (1725–1774).
27: Walpole, Robert (1676–1745).
28: Document: Albany Plan of Union (1754).
29: Document: Robert Clive’s Letter on the Battle of Plassey (1757).
30: The War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years’ War, 1740–1763.
31: Introduction.
32: Interpretive Essay.
33: Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685–1740).
34: Louis XV, King of France (1710–1774).
35: Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress (1717–1780).
36: Pitt, William (1708–1778).
37: Wolfe, James (1727–1759).
38: Document: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748).
39: The Enlightenment, c. 1750.
40: Introduction.
41: Interpretive Essay.
42: Diderot, Denis (1713–1784).
43: Hume, David (1711–1776).
44: Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (1689–1755).
45: Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778).
46: Voltaire (1694–1778).
47: Document: Voltaire’s Philosophical Letters (1778).
48: The Agricultural Revolution, c. 1750.
49: Introduction.
50: Interpretive Essay.
51: Agricultural Revolution in Europe.
52: Tull, Jethro (1674–1741).
53: Document: Arthur Young on Poverty in Eighteenth-Century France (1792).
54: The American Revolution, 1763–1783.
55: Introduction.
56: Interpretive Essay.
57: Adams, Abigail (1744–1818).
58: Frederick, Lord North (1732–1792).
59: Document: Samuel Adams’ The Rights of Colonists (1772).
60: Document: Charlotte Town Resolves (1775).
61: Document: Abigail Adams’ Letter Desiring Her Husband to “Remember the Ladies” (1776).
62: The Opening of the South Pacific, 1760–1790.
63: Introduction.
64: Interpretive Essay.
65: Bounty Mutiny (1789).
66: Cook, James (1728–1779).
67: Kamehameha I of Hawaii (c. 1758–1819).
68: Kamehameha III of Hawaii (1814–1854).
69: Maori.
70: Document: Treaty of Waitangi (1840).
71: The Industrial Revolution, c. 1760s–1780s.
72: Introduction.
73: Interpretive Essay.
74: Arkwright, Richard (1732–1792).
75: Boulton, Matthew (1728–1809).
76: Cort, Henry (1740–1800).
77: Darby, Abraham (1678–1717).
78: Newcomen, Thomas (1663–1729).
79: Watt, James (1736–1819).
80: Document: Leeds Woolen Workers’ Petition (1786).
81: Document: Factory Act (1833).
82: Adam Smith, Edmund Burke, and the Foundation of Modern Conservatism, 1776–1796.
83: Introduction.
84: Interpretive Essay.
85: British Conservative Party.
86: Burke, Edmund (1729–1797).
87: Free Trade.
88: Smith, Adam (1723–1790).
89: Document: Excerpt on Apprentices from Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776).
90: Document: Edmund Burke’s Speech on the Execution of Marie Antoinette (1793).
91: The Atlantic Slave Trade, c. 1730s–1807.
92: Introduction.
93: Interpretive Essay.
94: African Slave Trade.
95: Mbande, Nzinga (c. 1582–c. 1663).
96: Wilberforce, William (1759–1833).
97: Document: John Barbot’s Description of Slaving in Africa (1732).
98: Document: African Slave Trade Memorandum (1839).
99: Document: British Instructions for Negotiating with African Chiefs (1844).
100: The French Revolution, 1789–1799.
101: Introduction.
102: Interpretive Essay.
103: Louis XVI, King of France (1754–1793).
104: Marat, Jean-Paul (1743–1793).
105: Marie Antoinette (1755–1793).
106: Maximilien-François-Marie-Isidore Robespierre (1758–1794).
107: Document: Thomas Paine’s The Rights of Man (1792).
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and People.
Appendix B: Timeline.
Appendix C: Ruling Houses and Dynasties.
About the Editors and Contributors.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
1: The Napoleonic Era, 1799–1815.
2: Introduction.
3: Interpretive Essay.
4: Battle of Trafalgar (1805).
5: Hundred Days Campaign (1815).
6: Peninsular War (1807–1814).
7: Wellesley, Arthur, Duke of Wellington (1769–1852).
8: Document: Napoleon’s Concordat with the Catholic Church (1801).
9: Document: Napoleonic Code (1803).
10: The Latin American Wars of Independence, 1808–1826.
11: Introduction.
12: Interpretive Essay.
13: Battle of Chacabuco (1817).
14: Bolívar, Simón (1783–1830).
15: Cochrane, Thomas (1775–1860).
16: O’Higgins, Bernardo (1778–1842).
17: San Martín, José de (1778–1850).
18: Sucre, Antonio José de (1795–1830).
19: Document: Simón Bolívar’s Speech Proposing a Government for Gran Colombia (1819).
20: The Congress of Vienna and the Age of Metternich, 1815–1848.
21: Introduction.
22: Interpretive Essay.
23: Alexander I, Tsar of Russia (1777–1825).
24: Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh (1769–1822).
25: Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773–1859).
26: Talleyrand, Charles Maurice de (1754–1838).
27: Document: Carlsbad Decrees (1819).
28: The Reform Bill of 1832.
29: Introduction.
30: Interpretive Essay.
31: Charles Grey, Earl Grey (1764–1845).
32: Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850).
33: Russell, Lord John (1792–1878).
34: William IV, King of Great Britain (1765–1837).
35: Document: Tamworth Manifesto (1834).
36: The Revolutions of 1848.
37: Introduction.
38: Interpretive Essay.
39: Frederick William IV, King of Prussia (1795–1861).
40: French Second Republic (1848–1852).
41: Kossuth, Louis (1802–1894).
42: Louis-Philippe, King of France (1773–1850).
43: Pius IX, Pope (1792–1878).
44: Document: Alphonse de Lamartine’s Account of the Revolution of 1848 in France (1849).
45: The Crystal Palace Exhibition, 1851.
46: Introduction.
47: Interpretive Essay.
48: Albert, Prince (1819–1861).
49: Morris, William (1834–1896).
50: Victoria, Queen of Great Britain (1819–1901).
51: Document: Excerpt from Horace Greeley’s the Crystal Palace and Its Lessons (1851).
52: Darwin’s Revolution, 1859.
53: Introduction.
54: Interpretive Essay.
55: Darwin, Charles (1809–1882).
56: Mendel, Johann Gregor (1822–1884).
57: Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903).
58: Document: Excerpt from Charles Darwin’s the Descent of Man (1871).
59: The Emancipation of the Russian Serfs, 1861.
60: Introduction.
61: Interpretive Essay.
62: Alexander II, Tsar of Russia (1818–1881).
63: Alexander III, Tsar of Russia (1845–1894).
64: Crimean War (1854–1856).
65: Miliutin, Dmitri (1816–1912).
66: Nicholas I, Tsar of Russia (1796–1855).
67: The Meiji Restoration, 1868.
68: Introduction.
69: Interpretive Essay.
70: Fukuzawa, Yukichi (1835–1901).
71: Itagaki, Taisuke (1837–1919).
72: Ito, Hirobumi (1841–1909).
73: Meiji, Emperor (1852–1912).
74: Umeko, Tsuda (1864–1929).
75: Yoshinobu, Tokugawa (1827–1913).
76: The Unification of Germany, 1871.
77: Introduction.
78: Interpretive Essay.
79: Bismarck, Otto von (1815–1898).
80: Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871).
81: Napoleon III, Emperor of France (1808–1873).
82: North German Confederation (1866–1870).
83: Prussia.
84: Wilhelm I, Emperor of Germany (1797–1888).
85: Document: Wilhelm I’s Proclamation Declaring the German Empire (1871).
86: Document: Excerpt from the Memoirs of Otto von Bismarck (1899).
87: Marxism and the Rise of Socialism, 1848–1883.
88: Introduction.
89: Interpretive Essay.
90: Engels, Friedrich (1820–1895).
91: First International.
92: German Social Democratic Party.
93: Marx, Karl (1818–1883).
94: Document: Excerpt from Eduard Bernstein’s Evolutionary Socialism (1899).
95: Imperialism, 1870–1900.
96: Introduction.
97: Interpretive Essay.
98: Boer War (1899–1902).
99: Fashoda Crisis (1898).
100: Ferry, Jules (1832–1893).
101: Kipling, Rudyard (1865–1936).
102: Leopold II, King of the Belgians (1835–1909).
103: Rhodes, Cecil (1853–1902).
104: Document: Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” (1899).
105: Document: Excerpt from John A. Hobson’s Imperialism (1902).
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and People.
Appendix B: Timeline.
Appendix C: Population of Selected Countries (in Millions).
Appendix D: Countries Colonized During the “Imperial Scramble” (1870–1914).
About the Editors and Contributors.
Half Title Page.
Title Page.
Copyright Page.
Contents.
1: The Chinese Revolution, 1911–1949.
2: Introduction.
3: Interpretive Essay.
4: Kai-Shek, Chiang (1887–1975).
5: Mao Zedong (1893–1976).
6: Yat-Sen, Sun (1866–1925).
7: Zhou Enlai (1898–1976).
8: Document: Excerpt from Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong (1964).
9: World War I, 1914–1918.
10: Introduction.
11: Interpretive Essay.
12: Battle of Amiens (1918).
13: Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria (1863–1914).
14: Joffre, Joseph (1852–1931).
15: Lawrence, T. E. (1888–1935).
16: Ludendorff, Erich (1865–1937).
17: Document: Schlieffen Plan (1905).
18: Document: Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points (1918).
19: The Russian Revolution, 1917–1921.
20: Introduction.
21: Interpretive Essay.
22: Kerensky, Aleksandr (1881–1970).
23: Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich (1870–1924).
24: Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia (1868–1918).
25: Rasputin, Grigori (1871–1916).
26: Document: Nicholas II’s Abdication Proclamation (1917).
27: Document: Lenin’s Declaration of the Rights of the Toiling and Exploited Peoples (1918).
28: The Rise of Fascism, 1919–1945.
29: Introduction.
30: Interpretive Essay.
31: Chamberlain, Neville (1869–1940).
32: Franco, Francisco (1892–1975).
33: Mosley, Sir Oswald (1896–1980).
34: Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945).
35: Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).
36: Document: Mussolini’s Definition of Fascism (1932).
37: Document: Munich Pact (1938).
38: The Great Depression, 1929–C. 1939.
39: Introduction.
40: Interpretive Essay.
41: Credit-Anstalt Failure (1931).
42: Guthrie, Woody (1912–1967).
43: Hoover, Herbert (1874–1964).
44: Roosevelt, Franklin D. (1882–1945).
45: Stock Market Crash (1929).
46: Document: John Maynard Keynes’s “The Economic Consequences of the Peace” (1919).
47: World War II, 1939–1945.
48: Introduction.
49: Interpretive Essay.
50: Churchill, Winston (1874–1965).
51: Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945).
52: Stalin, Joseph (1879–1953).
53: Document: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact (1939).
54: The End of Colonialism, c. 1945–Present.
55: Introduction.
56: Interpretive Essay.
57: Bandung Conference (1955).
58: Fanon, Frantz (1925–1961).
59: Gandhi, Mohandas (1869–1948).
60: Minh, Ho Chi (1890–1969).
61: Mau Mau Revolt (1950s).
62: Nkrumah, Kwame (1909–1972).
63: Document: Excerpt from Kwame Nkrumah’s I Speak of Freedom (1961).
64: The Cold War, c. 1946–1991.
65: Introduction.
66: Interpretive Essay.
67: Kennedy, John F. (1917–1963).
68: Khrushchev, Nikita (1894–1971).
69: Document: Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech (1946).
70: Document: Marshall Plan (1947).
71: Document: Fidel Castro’s Second Declaration of Havana (1962).
72: European Unification, c. 1947–Present.
73: Introduction.
74: Interpretive Essay.
75: Adenauer, Konrad (1876–1967).
76: Gaulle, Charles de (1890–1970).
77: Monnet, Jean (1888–1979).
78: Schuman, Robert (1886–1963).
79: Thatcher, Margaret (1925–).
80: Document: Elysée Treaty (1963).
81: The Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1948–Present.
82: Introduction.
83: Interpretive Essay.
84: Begin, Menachem (1913–1992).
85: Dahlan, Muhammad (1961–).
86: Eshkol, Levi (1895–1969).
87: Nasser, Gamal Abdel (1918–1970).
88: Rantisi, Abd al-Aziz (1947–2004).
89: Yom Kippur War (1973).
90: Document: Camp David Peace Treaty (1979).
91: Computers and the Age of Hi-Tech, 1976–Present.
92: Introduction.
93: Interpretive Essay.
94: Apple Computer.
95: Berners-Lee, Tim (1955–).
96: Gates, Bill (1955–).
97: Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (1815–1852).
98: Turing, Alan (1912–1954).
99: China’s Rise to Global Importance, 1978–Present.
100: Introduction.
101: Interpretive Essay.
102: Deng Xiaoping (1904–1997).
103: Hu Yaobang (1915–1989).
104: Jiang Zemin (1926–).
105: Li Peng (1928–).
106: Zhao Ziyang (1919–2005).
107: Document: “The Truth about the Beijing Turmoil” (1990).
108: The Collapse of the Soviet Union, 1985–1991.
109: Introduction.
110: Interpretive Essay.
111: Andropov, Yuri (1914–1984).
112: Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931–).
113: Governors Island Meeting (1988).
114: Putin, Vladimir (1952–).
115: Soviet Coup of 1991.
116: Yeltsin, Boris (1931–2007).
117: Document: Boris Yeltsin’s Speech Following a Hard-Line Revolt (1993).
118: September 11 and the War on Terror, 2001–Present.
119: Introduction.
120: Interpretive Essay.
121: Al-Qaeda.
122: Bin Laden, Osama (1957–2011).
123: Bush, George W. (1946–).
124: Iraq War (2003).
125: al-Zarqawi, Abu Musab (1966–2006).
126: Document: President Barack Obama Announces the Death of Osama bin Laden (2011).
Appendix A: Glossary of Terms and People.
Appendix B: Timeline.
Appendix C: Population of Selected Countries (in Millions).
Appendix D: Member States of the United Nations.
Appendix E: Member States of the European Union.
Appendix F: Member States of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
About the Editors and Contributors.
Index.