Cengage Learning

Higher Education

Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Humans: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 11th Edition

  • Barry Lewis University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  • Robert Jurmain Professor Emeritus, San Jose State University
  • Lynn Kilgore University of Colorado, Boulder
  • ISBN-10: 1111831777  |  ISBN-13: 9781111831776
  • 512 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2010, 2007, 2002
  • © 2013 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $103.50
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UNDERSTANDING HUMANS: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND ARCHAEOLOGY shows students how anthropologists and archaeologists go about their work as they study human evolution, living nonhuman primates, human adaptation and variation, the origin and dispersal of modern humans, food production, the first civilizations of the Old and New Worlds, and so much more. Using a biocultural approach, the text balances the presentation of physical anthropology with archaeology and concludes with a new chapter that ties together the material on human biological and cultural adaptation by focusing on lessons learned from our species evolution such as the impact of humans on the environment. Students will also benefit from the new chapter opening learning objectives, "At a Glance" sections that summarize key concepts, and end-of-chapter "Critical Thinking Questions" that help students better understand the material and study more effectively for exams.

Features and Benefits

  • Now an Advantage book, this edition builds on the prior edition and is even more streamlined with 16 Chapters that now includes one succinct chapter on "The Rise of Civilizations" (Chapter 15) and a new "Conclusion" (Chapter 16).
  • Fossils are presented in chronological order for easier student comprehension of the interpretation of human evolution. More examples throughout the text help students better understand the work of practicing physical anthropologists and archaeologists, including more material on the contributions of archaeology to the understanding of human evolution and adaptation.
  • "Digging Deeper" boxes and "Cutting Edge Research" essays have now been moved to the companion website for more functionality, with key material being retained and integrated into the text.
  • The book provides balanced coverage of physical anthropology and archaeology, including methods; human evolution; living nonhuman primates; human adaptation and variation; the origin and dispersal of modern humans; food production; and the first civilizations of the Old and New Worlds.
  • The strong pedagogical program has been enhanced in this edition with re-drawn maps and line drawings, and superior new photographs while the "At A Glance" quick reviews, "Most Significant Fossils (or sites) Found in This Chapter," and the running glossary continue to help students better understand and focus on the key concepts.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction to Anthropology.
2. Heredity and Evolution.
3. The Development of Evolutionary Theory.
4. Modern Human Variation and Adaptation.
5. Macroevolution: Processes of Vertebrate and Mammalian Evolution.
6. An Overview of the Primates.
7. Primate Behavior.
8. Understanding the Past: Archaeological and Paleoanthropological Methods.
9. Hominin Origins.
10. The First Dispersal of the Genus Homo: Homo erectus and Contemporaries.
11. Premodern Humans.
12. The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans.
13. Early Holocene Hunters and Gatherers.
14. Food Production.
15. The First Civilizations.
16. Conclusion.

What's New

  • NEW Streamlined with a thorough editing to simplify explanations, add more headings to better define and focus on shorter segments of the text, add a more conversational tone, and present a stronger articulation of the biocultural approach that tells the story of where we came from, where we are going, and how we know this.
  • NEW Chapter-opening student learning objectives help students understand what they are expected to learn.
  • NEW The Chapter Summary is now in bullet format for easier access.
  • NEW Closing chapter that ties together the material on human biological and cultural adaptations by focusing on lessons learned from our species evolution such as the impact of humans on the environment.
  • NEW Art and map programs completely redrawn and many new photos enhance student understanding of the concepts.
  • NEW Chapters on genetics have been trimmed and more material included on the mechanisms of evolution and examples of Natural Selection in Action.
  • New Chapter 1 now has a new beginning that makes the case for the relevance of the study of biocultural evolution to modern everyday life.
  • NEW Chapter 5 includes a new section on "What are Fossils and How Do They Form?" supported by a new photo display.
  • NEW Chapters on primates include more material on social organization and a new section on primate archaeology.
  • NEW In Chapter 8 the distinction between paleoanthropology and archaeology has been clarified and 5 new photos added; the section on dating methods has also been updated ant tightened, with the section on flourine dating deleted and replaced largely by methods of comparable accuracy and greater general applicability.
  • NEW Chapter 9 includes a reorganization of the first half of the chapter, so that major topics come in a different (and more easily understood) order. New material on A. sediba is included, as well as a revised discussion of the earliest appearance of the genus Homo.
  • NEW Chapters on paleoanthropology include a new transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Holocene, more material and photos on Paleolithic tool traditions, a new Appendix on "Forensic Anthropology: Sexing and Aging the Skeleton," and an expanded section on the history of race and modern examples.
  • NEW Chapter 10 includes recalibrations of crucial dating for
  • NEW Chapters 11 & 12 have major changes deriving primarily from new molecular evidence and new fossil and archaeological evidence provide new interpretations of early culture. These new data reinforce the origins of modern humans in Africa (12) as well as the earlier dispersal of Neandertals and the interbreeding of Neandertals and modern humans (11).
  • NEW Chapter 11 features new archaeological interpretations of the first use of fire in Europe (2011) and new material on the Chatelperronian stone tool industry and re-interpretations of the cultural relationship of Neandertals and modern humans. DNA data from several Neandertals at the El Sidron site in N. Spain show that this group was closely related and might well have had a patrilocal social organization (2011).
  • NEW The new molecular evidence showing Neandertal/modern human interbreeding requires a completely different emphasis in Chapter 12. Instead of emphasizing the major difference between the Multiregional and Complete Replacement Models, suggesting that a Partial Replacement Model best explained modern human origins, the text now deemphasizes the Multiregional and Complete Replacement Models (as neither are correct) and discusses how the newest data show that some interbreeding did take place and furthermore, that Neandertal genetic influence can still be seen today in modern human populations distributed widely outside of Africa. New archaeological finds from Flores and new interpretations of H. Floresiensis show this species dispersed to Indonesia very early and were even more "primitive" (i.e. less derived) than previously thought and shows considerable resemblances to early Homo.
  • NEW In Chapter 12 very major topic relating to archaeological material has been completely updated, including 19 new references. For example, new archaeological finds from two crucial cave sites in South Africa show advanced manufacture of microliths and tool modification using fire at the earlier site (165,000 ya), and evidence of hafted tools and possible use of snares to catch small animals at the later site (
  • NEW In Chapter 13 the archaeological examples of Old and New World human adaptations to the end of the last Ice Age have been updated and the discussion of competing theories for the earliest entry of humans into the New World tightened up and shortened. All maps and At A Glance features have also been updated.
  • NEW Chapter 14 has expanded coverage of Africa and East Asia, and there is an expanded discussion of interpretations based on plant microfossil and DNA analyses of animal remains because they offer important new insights on the origins of domestication. All maps, features and tables have been updated and there are 3 new photos.
  • NEW Chapter 15 features an updated section "Why did Civilizations Form" and updated archaeological examples of Old and New World early civilizations, including shorter sections on Mesopotamia and Peru and an expanded section on early Chinese civilizations. The section on biocultural consequences of domestication has been moved to the new Chapter 16, and all maps, features and tables have been updated and there are 3 new photos.
  • NEW Chapter 16 is an entirely new chapter that seeks to heighten student awareness of the consequences of human biocultural evolution. The chapter returns to the claim made in Chapter 1 about the relevance of the study of biocultural evolution to modern everyday life and discusses the changing human impacts on other living things and the Earth by first addressing the impact of the earliest hominins to the end of the Ice Age, then the earliest farmers and cities, and finally the impacts of the Industrial Revolution to the present.

Learning Resource Bundles

Choose the textbook packaged with the resources that best meet your course and student needs. Contact your Learning Consultant for more information.

Bundle: Text + Custom Enrichment Module: Forensics Anthropology Module, A Brief Review, 9th

ISBN-10: 1285042646  | ISBN-13: 9781285042640

List Price = $139.95  | CengageBrain Price = $139.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $103.51

This Bundle Includes:

  • Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Humans: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology
    List Price = $139.95  | CengageBrain Price = $139.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $103.50
  • Forensics Anthropology Module, A Brief Review, 9th
    List Price = $52.95  | CengageBrain Price = $52.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $39.00

Bundle:Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Humans: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology, 11th + National Geographic Learning Reader: Archaeology (with Printed Access Card)

ISBN-10:  1285157931 | ISBN-13:  9781285157931

List Price = $146.95  | CengageBrain Price = $146.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $108.50

This Bundle Includes:

  • National Geographic Learning Reader: Archaeology
    List Price = $30.95  | CengageBrain Price = $30.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $23.00
  • Cengage Advantage Books: Understanding Humans: An Introduction to Physical Anthropology and Archaeology
    List Price = $139.95  | CengageBrain Price = $139.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $103.50


All supplements have been updated in coordination with the main title. Select the main title's "About" tab, then select "What's New" for updates specific to title's edition.

For more information about these supplements, or to obtain them, contact your Learning Consultant.

Instructor Supplements

Online Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank  (ISBN-10: 1133043666 | ISBN-13: 9781133043669)

The Instructor’s Manual offers a rich selection of materials to assist you in preparing for class, including test questions correlated to the text.

Online PowerPoint®  (ISBN-10: 1133601294 | ISBN-13: 9781133601296)

ExamView®  (ISBN-10: 1285172906 | ISBN-13: 9781285172903)

Visual Anthropology VHS  (ISBN-10: 0534566510 | ISBN-13: 9780534566517)

Bring engaging anthropology concepts to life with this dynamic 60-minute video from Documentary Educational Resources and Wadsworth Publishing. Video clips highlight key scenes from more than 30 new and classic anthropological films that serve as effective lecture launchers.

Hominid Fossils CD-ROM: An Interactive Atlas  (ISBN-10: 0534638414 | ISBN-13: 9780534638412)

This interactive atlas includes over 75 key fossils that are important for a clear understanding of human evolution. The QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) "object" movie format for each fossil will enable students to have a near-authentic experience of working with these important finds by allowing them to rotate the fossil 360 degrees. Unlike some virtual-reality media, QTVR objects are made using actual photographs of the real objects and thus better preserve details of color and texture. The fossils used include high-quality research casts and real fossils. The organization of the atlas is non-linear, with three levels and multiple paths, enabling students to start with a particular fossil and work their way up to see how the fossil fits into the map of human evolution in terms of geography, time, and evolution. The CD-ROM offers students an inviting, authentic learning environment and contains a dynamic quizzing feature that will allow students to test their knowledge of fossil and species identification, as well as provide more detailed information about the fossil record.

List Price = $197.95  | CengageBrain Price = $197.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $146.50

Classic and Contemporary Readings in Physical Anthropology  (ISBN-10: 0495510149 | ISBN-13: 9780495510147)

This new reader edited by Mark K. Sandford presents students with classic and contemporary articles on key issues dealing with the nature of science, evolution and heredity, primate behavior, human evolution, and modern human variation.

List Price = $43.95  | CengageBrain Price = $43.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $32.50

AIDS in Africa DVD  (ISBN-10: 0495171832 | ISBN-13: 9780495171836)

Expand your students’ global perspective of HIV/AIDS with this award-winning documentary series focused on controlling HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. Films focus on caregivers in the faith community; how young people share messages of hope through song and dance; the relationship of HIV/AIDS to gender, poverty, stigma, education, and justice; and the story of two HIV-positive women helping others.

Lab Manual and Workbook for Physical Anthropology  (ISBN-10: 0495810851 | ISBN-13: 9780495810858)

Now in full color, Diane France’s lab manual balances the study of human osteology, forensic anthropology, anthropometry, primates, human evolution, and genetics with a new chapter on growth & development, more material on disease and more on the anomalies of the human skeleton caused by disease and mechanical stress. Redundant and complex exercises have been pulled and the art program has been greatly enhanced with color images that include scales and orientation information. Exercises now contain thumbnail images of the related images for easy reference. In addition to providing hands-on lab assignments that help students apply physical anthropology perspectives and techniques to real situations, the Lab Manual provides a wealth of solid information and photographs that support the identification and observation problems that help make the concepts of physical anthropology easier to understand. This edition has been thoroughly reviewed, error-checked, revised and updated for complete accuracy and more balanced coverage of topic material. Diane France brings full color visuals, a new chapter on Growth & Development, a unique chapter on Forensic Anthropology and an online Instructor’s Manual that includes answers to the exercises contained in the lab manual, to make this manual even easier to integrate into your course.

List Price = $144.95  | CengageBrain Price = $144.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $107.50

Virtual Laboratories for Physical Anthropology CD-ROM, Version 4.0  (ISBN-10: 049500992X | ISBN-13: 9780495009924)

Through the use of video segments, interactive exercises, quizzes, 3-D animations, sound, and digital images, students can actively participate in 12 labs on their terms—at home, in the library, or at any time! Recent fossil discoveries are included, as well as exercises in behavior and archaeology, and critical-thinking and problem-solving activities. When you order Virtual Laboratories on the web-based CengageNOW platform, a powerful course management component allows you to reorder the labs, move content within the labs, utilize the pre-lab and post-lab tests for each lab, and track how much time students spend on each lab. Virtual Laboratories includes Web links, outstanding fossil images, exercises, a notebook feature, and a post-lab self-quiz. Virtual Laboratories is also available on CD (with a portion of the features and functionality of the online version).

List Price = $209.95  | CengageBrain Price = $209.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $155.75

Physical Anthropology Lab Manual  (ISBN-10: 0840032838 | ISBN-13: 9780840032836)

Kappelman’s PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY LAB MANUAL offers a focused sampling of laboratory exercises that range across the breadth of the discipline, from examples of heredity and evolution to primate behavior, the fossil record of apes and early humans, and questions about human biology that are linked to environmental change. Exercises are designed with a succinct focus on particular problems, and the labs follow a fixed format with the introduction of a problem followed by the collection of data that are in turn used to test and evaluate the hypothesis. Students who complete the labs will greatly expand their knowledge of physical anthropology.

List Price = $81.95  | CengageBrain Price = $81.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $60.75

Student Supplements

Basic Genetics for Physical Anthropology CD-ROM, Version 2.0  (ISBN-10: 0495598313 | ISBN-13: 9780495598312)

Expanding on basic biological concepts covered in the text, this interactive CD focuses on biological inheritance (genes, DNA sequencing, etc.) and applications of that to modern human populations at the molecular level (human variation & adaptation, i.e., to disease, diet, growth & development) -- giving you a better understanding of text material. Interactive animations and simulations bring these important concepts to life, while quizzes and interactive flashcards help you make the most of your study time.

List Price = $103.95  | CengageBrain Price = $103.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $77.00

Meet the Author

Author Bio

Barry Lewis

Barry Lewis received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he is currently a Professor Emeritus of Anthropology. During his 27-year tenure as a professor at the University of Illinois, he taught courses on introductory archaeology, quantitative methods in archaeology, geographic information systems, and social science research methods. He has published extensively on his research concerning late prehistoric Native American towns and villages in the southeastern United States. His recent research centers on the archaeology and history of early modern kingdoms and chiefdoms in South India.

Robert Jurmain

Robert Jurmain received an A.B. in Anthropology from UCLA and a Ph.D. in Biological Anthropology from Harvard. He taught at San Jose State University from 1975 to 2004 and is now Professor Emeritus. During his teaching career, he taught courses in all major branches of physical anthropology, including osteology and human evolution, with the greatest concentration in general education teaching for introductory students. His research interests are skeletal biology of humans and non-human primates, paleopathology, and paleoanthropology. In addition to his three textbooks, which together have appeared in 30 editions, he is the author of STORIES FROM THE SKELETON: BEHAVIORAL RECONSTRUCTION IN HUMAN OSTEOLOGY (1999, Gordon Breach Publishers), as well as numerous articles in research journals.

Lynn Kilgore

Lynn Kilgore earned her Ph.D. from the University of Colorado, Boulder, where she now holds an affiliate faculty position. Her primary research interests are osteology and paleopathology. She has taught numerous undergraduate and graduate courses in human osteology, primate behavior, human heredity and evolution, and general physical anthropology. Her research focuses on developmental defects as well as on disease and trauma in human and great ape skeletons.