Higher Education

Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context: Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics, 1st Edition

  • Vincent Barry Bakersfield College, Emeritus
  • ISBN-10: 0495814083  |  ISBN-13: 9780495814085
  • 464 Pages
  • © 2012 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $65.25
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About

Overview

BIOETHICS IN A CULTURAL CONTEXT--PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, HISTORY, POLITICS presents a unique, philosophical approach to modern bioethics. Rather than simply setting up debates about contemporary issues, this book helps students understand that many of today’s bioethical controversies are tied to profound underlying questions fundamental as: "When does life begin and end?" "What is a human being or person?" "What is life's purpose?" "What is the ideal society?" The text is comprehensive and accessible, featuring a wide range of content that is crisply presented and clearly explained. A multitude of interesting examples and cases provides ample opportunity for discussion, debate, and research.

Features and Benefits

  • Seventy-four end-of-chapter, real-life Cases and Controversies, of suitable length for classroom use, set up Questions for Analysis that prepare students for in-class discussion or independent research, while stimulating self-examination and critical analysis.
  • Fifty-four in-chapter inserts called Bioethics across Cultures sensitize students to how different cultures and religions work to resolve complex bioethical issues.
  • A wealth of popular and public examples makes the narrative topical and compelling so as to maintain a high level of student interest.
  • A focus on religion, politics, and history puts unfamiliar content into familiar contexts for enhanced student learning.
  • Extensive documentation includes many online resources for further student reading.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION: BIOETHICS, SCHIAVO, AND CULTURAL POLITICS BIOETHICS ETHICS.
Normative Ethics. Metaethics.
MAKING SENSE OF MORAL CONFLICT.
Issues. Adversaries.
ABOUT THIS BOOK CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Reproductive Flashpoints. Refusal Legislation. Canada’s Terri Sciavo.
REFERENCES.
Part I: SACRED AND SECULAR FOUNDATIONS.
INTRODUCTION: TWO ENDURING TRADITIONS.
1. Medieval Religion and Enlightenment Science Welcome to "Technopia" the Medieval Church Augustine and Aquinas the Authority of the Bible.
THE BIBLICAL ACCOUNT OF CREATION.
Human Nature. The Relationship and the Covenant.
THE PROBLEM OF EVIL.
The Augustinian Theodicy.
THE DOCTRINES OF THE FALL AND DEPRAVITY MORAL FAILURE AND ILLNESS.
Bi-level Conception of Sin.
MEDICINE AND THE SUPERNATURAL.
Illness as Salvific.
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT AND LAW.
ENLIGHTENMENT SCIENCE.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD.
Rene Descartes. The Emergent Scientific Medicine.
MECHANISM.
IMPLICATIONS FOR RELIGION.
Deism. Anthropic Mechanism. Personhood as Consciousness. The Problem of Evil.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
What Doctors Think about Religion and Health. Faith Flags: Office Proselytizing. Criticism of Science and Its Method. The Life and Death of Jane Tomlinson.
REFERENCES.
2. Religious and Secular Ethics.
DIVINE COMMAND THEORY.
Scriptural Basis. Natural Law. The Doctrine of Double Effect.
SECULAR NATURAL LAW.
John Locke. Legal and Moral Rights. Social Contract Theory.
KANT’S THOUGHT AND ETHICS.
Philosophy’s "Copernican Revolution." God, Morality, and the Problem of Evil. Moral Choice. The Categorical Imperative. Social Interests. Moral Rights.
UTILITARIANISM.
Utility Principle. Moral Rights and The Harm Principle. Social Interests. Preference Satisfaction.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Jodie and Mary Twin Tragedy. Life vs. Law. Crossing the Border To Sell Blood. Is Vaccinating Part of the Social Contract?
REFERENCES.
Part II: ORIGINS AND CONTEXT OF BIOETHICS.
INTRODUCTION: TRIUMPH OF SECULARISM.
3. The Birth of Bioethics.
THE EMERGENT PATIENT CONSCIOUSNESS.
THE NEW FRONTIER OF MEDICINE.
Advances in Reproductive Technologies. New Technology and Treatments. Scientific Research.
COURT DECISIONS.
Law at the Beginning of Life. Law at the End of Life.
THE PIONEERS.
The Theologians. The Philosophers. Points of Difference.
COMMON GROUND.
Utility and Autonomy. Faith in Rationality. A National Religious Identity.
THE "JEFFERSONIAN COMPROMISE."
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Tuskegee Study. The Death of Karen Ann Quinlan. Surrogate Mother Elizabeth Kane.
REFERENCES.
4. The Basic Principles of Bioethics.
HIPPOCRATIC PATERNALISM.
THE BELMONT PRINCIPLES.
AUTONOMY.
Religious and Secular Appeal. Implied Moral Requirements: Freedom and Protection. Moral Limits.
NONMALEFICENCE.
BENEFICENCE.
JUSTICE.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Drugs, Devices, and Disclosure. Medical Workers Involved in C.I.A. Interrogations. The Steven Jobs Liver Transplant.
REFERENCES.
5. Applications.
A PATIENT’S BILL OF RIGHTS.
TRUTHTELLING.
INFORMED CONSENT.
Deliberation. Voluntariness. Kinds of Informed Consent.
PARTICIPATION IN MEDICAL RESEARCH.
ADVANCE DIRECTIVES.
PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALITY.
DNA: The Genetic Fingerprint.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Merenstein Case of Informed Consent. Jaffee v. Redmond (1996): Safeguarding Patient Communication. Jesse Gelsinger: The First Gene Therapy Death.
REFERENCES.
6. Beyond Principilism I: Patient Autonomy under Attack
FEELING BETRAYED BY PRINCIPILISM.
AUTONOMY AS IMPOVERISHING BIOETHICS.
AUTONOMY AS DISALLOWING CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION.
AUTONOMY AS OVERRIDING PROFESSIONAL JUDGMENT.
SUGGESTED OFF-SETTING PRINCIPLES.
The Ecological Principle. The Vital Institution Principle. The Theonomy Principle. The Participated Theonomy Principle.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
When Plan B Doesn’t Work. Guarded about Gardasil. Benitez v. North Coast Women’s Care Medical Group.
REFERENCES.
7. Beyond Principilism II: Alternative Perspectives.
THEORY OF VIRTUE.
FEMINIST ETHICS OF CARE.
Justice. Care. The Emergence of Feminist Bioethics.
EXISTENTIAL AND SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS OF ILLNESS.
NARRATIVES.
Narrative Theology and Ethics.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES
Forever Small: The Ashley Treatment: Dax Cowart: Burn Victim Wants To Die. Gatekeepers Without Empathy.
REFERENCES.
Part III: ISSUES AT THE BEGINNING OF LIFE.
INTRODUCTION: HEADLINES IN REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE.
REFERENCES.
8. Conceptual Issues in Abortion and Reproductive Technology.
BANNING ABORTION IN SOUTH DAKOTA.
DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE OF HUMAN LIFE.
First Trimester. Second Trimester. Third Trimester.
THE ONTOLOGICAL STATUS OF THE UNBORN.
The Meaning of Human Life. The Meaning of Personhood.
WHEN THE ONTOLOGICAL STATUS IS ATTAINED.
Hominization and Ensoulment.
THE MORAL STATUS OF THE UNBORN.
Religious Views. Secular Views.
SCIENTIFIC VIEWS ABOUT WHEN LIFE BEGINS.
Genetic. Embryological. Neurological. Additional Views.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Language of Embryology. Is Commander Data a Person? Fetal Life and Personhood?
REFERENCES.
9. The Abortion Debate I: The Lead-up to Roe.
THE MURDER OF DR. GEORGE TILLER.
A BRIEF HISTORY.
LIFE MATTERS MOST: THE CONSERVATIVE RELIGIOUS VIEW.
Religious Natural Law and The Principle of Double Effect. Scriptural Teachings.
THE MOBILIZATION OF PRO-CHOICE CONSCIOUSNESS.
PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSES OF ABORTION.
RELIGIOUS SOCIAL TEACHING AND ACTIVISM.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Sherri Finkbine and the Thalidomide Tragedy. Griswold v Connecticut (1965). The Pre-Roe "Bad Old Days."
REFERENCES.
10. The Abortion Debate II: Roe and Beyond.
CHOICE MATTERS MOST: THE ROE DECISION.
The Religious Liberty Principle. Privacy.
ROE AND CULTURAL CONFLICT.
Current Religious Sentiment.
CHOICE UNDER ATTACK.
The "Culture of Life." The Creation of the "Fetal Citizen."
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Gonzales v. Carhart (2007). The South Dakota Script. Redefining Pregnancy.
REFERENCES.
11. The Assisted Reproduction Debate I: Principled Considerations.
TEST TUBE BABIES.
ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNOLOGY.
Surrogacy. Ethical Debates.
RIGHTS.
Procreative Liberty. Life.
RESPECT FOR HUMAN LIFE.
UNITY OF MARRIAGE, SEX, AND REPRODUCTION.
Religious Views. Secular Views.
GENDER LIBERATION AND SELF-DETERMINATION.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Dahl v. Angle: Who "Owns" Frozen Embryos? What To Do with Frozen Embryos? Love, Sex, and Marriage.
REFERENCES.
12. The Assisted Reproduction Debate II: Empirical Considerations.
THE COMMERCE OF REPRODUCTION.
QUESTIONS OF LINEAGE.
Religious Considerations. Legal Considerations.
THE MEANING OF FAMILY AND THE WELL-BEING OF OFFSPRING.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Baby M: First Surrogacy. Jacob v. Shultz-Jacob: Three Adults with Parental Rights. Wanted: A Few Good Sperm for Choice Mothers.
REFERENCES.
13. The Prenatal Testing Debate I: Embryo Screening.
THE BOY IN THE PLASTIC BUBBLE.
MEDICAL USES OF PRE-IMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS.
Having Healthy Children. Creating Compatible Donors. Generating Embryonic Stem Cells.
THE ETHICAL DEBATE.
Embryo Creation and Destruction. Trait Selection.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act. The Genetic Matchmaker. Growing a Baby with a Disorder.
REFERENCES.
14. The Pre-Natal Testing Debate II: Sex Selection.
PROPER USE OF TECHNOLOGY.
PRE- VS POST-CONCEPTION TECHNOLOGY.
SEXISM.
SEX RATIOS IN LOCAL POPULATIONS.
COMMODIFICATION OF REPRODUCTION.
CONSUMER EUGENICS.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Genetic Risks: To Disclose or Not To Disclose? Made-to-order Babies. Slouching Toward Gattaca?
REFERENCES.
15. The Stem Cell Debate I: Background and Terminology.
LOOSENING THE STEM CELL BINDS.
EMBRYONIC AND NON-EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
DIFFERENTIATION.
LINES.
OBTAINING STEM CELLS.
Preimplantation or Spare Embryos. Created Embryos.
CLONING.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Pernkopf Anatomy. Irreconcilable Differences. The Missyplicity Project.
16. The Stem Cell Debate II: The Ethics of the Science.
PERSONAL ETHICS.
RESEARCH ETHICS.
Destruction of the Early Embryo. Spare vs. Created Embryos. Alternatives to Embryo Destruction.
SOCIAL ETHICS.
Disruption of Traditional Understanding. Threats to Social Justice.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Cloning and Cultural Conflict. NIH ESC Guidelines. Frozen Embryos: The Personal Decision Behind the Public Controversy.
REFERENCES.
Part IV: ISSUES AT THE END OF LIFE.
INTRODUCTION: JACK’S BACK.
REFERENCES.
17. Definition and Criteria of Death.
DCD AND THE DEATH OF RUBEN NAVARRO.
TRADITIONAL HEART-LUNG DEFINITION.
WHOLE-BRAIN DEFINITION.
Challenges to the Whole-Brain Formulation.
THE BIOLOGICAL vs. PSYCHO-SOCIAL DEBATE: ORGANISMS vs. PERSONS.
Death of an Organism: A Biological Perspective. Death of the Person: A Psychosocial Perspective.
LINGERING QUESTIONS ABOUT BRAIN DEATH.
Definition or Permission? Help or Harm? Event or Process?
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Terry Wallis: The Man Who Woke Up After Nineteen Years. Baby Theresa. In the conservatorship of Wendland.
REFERENCES.
18. Conceptual Issues in Suicide and Euthanasia.
THE ASSISTED DEATH OF PIERGIORGIO WELBY.
SUICIDE: THE PROBLEM OF DEFINITION.
Self-Sacrificial Deaths. Coerced Deaths.
EUTHANASIA.
DEFINITION: NARROW AND BROAD INTERPRETATIONS.
KILLING vs. ALLOWING TO DIE.
VOLUNTARY AND NONVOLUNTARY DECISIONS.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Pope John Paul II: Life-Sustaining Treatments and Vegetative State. The Boston Declaration on Assisted Dying. Barney Clark’s Key.
REFERENCES.
19. Suicide in the West: A Brief History.
THE SUICIDE OF ISADORE MILLSTONE.
SUICIDE AS AN OFFENSE TO GOD, NEIGHBOR, SELF: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE.
SUICIDE AS A RATIONAL ACT: THE STOICS.
SUICIDE AS A SINFUL ACT: AUGUSTINE AND AQUINAS.
SUICIDE AS A BENEFIT TO SELF AND OTHERS: HUME.
On Suicide.
SUICIDE AS A VIOLATION OF MORAL RESPONSIBILITY: KANT.
The Argument from Free Will. The Argument from Human Nature. The Argument from Autonomy. The Argument from Divine Will.
SUICIDE AS A SOCIAL UTILITY: BENTHAM AND MILL.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The "Rational" Suicide of Carolyn Heilbrun. Final Exit Network. The Suicide of Garrett Hardin.
REFERENCES.
20. The Assisted Death Debate I: Individual Morality.
THE ASSISTED DEATH OF VELMA HOWARD.
PRINCIPLES.
Utility/Happiness. Respect for Persons. Divine Command.
VIRTUE.
Roles and Professions. Feminist Ethics.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Coup de Grace. Hurricane Katrina: Mercy Killing When Disaster Strikes. Does Responsible Care Include Assisted Dying?
REFERENCES.
21. The Assisted Death Debate II: Social Policy and Law.
THE FINAL CAMPAIGN OF BOOTH GARDNER.
INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS.
Human Rights. Welfare Rights.
EQUALITY.
Disparate Impact.
THE GENERAL WELFARE.
State Paternalism. Self-Regarding vs. Other Regarding Virtues and Vices. The Case for Indirect Harm. The Case against Indirect Harm.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act. Dying and the War on Drugs. Baxter v. Montana. The "Euthanasia Underground."
REFERENCES.
22. Rationing Health Care at the End of Life.
THE DEATH OF BARBARA WAGNER.
RATIONING.
THE HIGH COST OF END-OF-LIFE CARE.
ARGUMENTS FOR AGE-BASED RATIONING.
ARGUMENTS AGAINST AGE-BASED RATIONING.
RATIONING BY MEDICAL FUTILITY.
ARGUMENTS FOR A JUDGMENT OF FUTILITY.
Professionalism. Responsible Stewardship.
ARGUMENTS AGAINST A JUDGMENT OF FUTILITY.
No Consensus about the Definition of Futility. Uncertain Prognoses/Mistaken Diagnoses. Social Contract.
CONCLUSIONS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Case of Helga Wanglie. Gilgunn-Massachusetts General Hospital. The Death of Toddler Emilio Gonzales.
REFERENCES.
CONCLUSION BIOETHICS, RELIGION, AND LIBERAL DEMOCRACY.
RELIGIOUS VS. SECULAR BIOETHICS.
LIBERAL DEMOCRACY AND ITS PRECONDITIONS.
Human Beings as Capable of Self-Government. Separation of Theology from Politics.
RETHINKING THE "JEFFERSONIAN COMPROMISE."
Unprovable First Principles. Double Standard. No Common Ground for Dialogue.
RELIGON IN PUBLIC BIOETHICS.
CASES AND CONTROVERSIES.
The Battle Over Bioethics.
REFERENCES.
BIOETHICS ACROSS CULTURES.
INTRODUCTION.
Religion and HIV/AIDS in Africa.
CHAPTER 1.
Islam’s View of the Body and Suffering.
Buddhism, Health, and Disease.
Islamic Science.
CHAPTER 2.
Spain Extends Rights to Apes.
Bentham in Bhutan.
CHAPTER 3.
Globalization of Clinical Research.
Africa Still Waiting for "The Sanitary Revolution."
CHAPTER 4.
Cross-Cultural Care.
Transcultural Human Rights.
Traditional Medicine for the Hmong.
CHAPTER 5.
East Asian Autonomy.
A Japanese Woman with Aggressive Leukemia.
A Slow Dying in Nigeria.
Baseball’s Genetic Testing in Latin America.
CHAPTER 6.
Unmarried and Pregnant in Saudi Arabia.
Egyptian Doctor’s Honesty Backfires.
CHAPTER 7.
Global Violence Against Women.
Buddhist Virtue.
Bioethics in the 21st Century.
CHAPTER 8.
Buddhism, Personhood, and Abortion.
Islamic Understanding of Fetal Development.
Jewish Beliefs About Personhood.
CHAPTER 9.
A Young Muslim Woman with a Complicated Pregnancy.
Abortions in Kenya.
Early Induction in Ontario.
CHAPTER 10.
Abortion Around the World.
Outrage in Brazil.
Mexico Legislates Personhood.
CHAPTER 11.
Sunni and Shiva View of Reproductive Technology.
ARTs and Women in India.
CHAPTER 12.
Wombs for Rent in India.
Dead Men To Father Children in Israel and England.
CHAPTER 13.
Biotechnology in China.
Eugenics Around the World.
CHAPTER 14.
Chinese Bias for Baby Boys.
Clinics’ Pitch to Indian Émigrés.
CHAPTER 15.
Japanese Create Fatherless Mouse with Three Mothers.
ESC Research in Iran.
CHAPTER 16.
Embryonic Cell Research Worldwide.
Human-Animal Hybrid in Britain.
CHAPTER 17.
Japan’s Organ Transplantation Law.
A Cross-Cultural Perspective of Brain Death.
CHAPTER 18.
"Compassionate Murder" in Canada.
Suicide Tourists.
CHAPTER 19.
Field of Tears in South Korea.
Al-Qaida and Suicide Terrorism.
CHAPTER 20.
The Groningen Protocol.
Englaro Case Tears Italy Apart.
CHAPTER 21.
World Legal Opinion on Assisted Death.
YouTube Plea from Australia.
CHAPTER 22.
QALY in the UK.
CONCLUSION.
Cross-Cultural, International Bioethics.

Learning Resource Bundles

Choose the textbook packaged with the resources that best meet your course and student needs. Contact your Learning Consultant for more information.

Bundle: Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context: Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics + Global Bioethics Watch Printed Access Card

ISBN-10: 1133903436  | ISBN-13: 9781133903437

List Price = $86.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $65.25

This Bundle Includes:

  • Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context: Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics
    List Price = $86.95  | CengageBrain Price = $86.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $65.25
  • Global Bioethics Watch, 1 term (6 months) Printed Access Card
    List Price = $24.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $18.00


Printed Text + Global Bioethics Watch Instant Access Code

ISBN-10:  1133903428 | ISBN-13:  9781133903420

List Price = $86.95  | CengageBrain Price = $86.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $65.25

This Bundle Includes:

  • Cengage Advantage Books: Bioethics in a Cultural Context: Philosophy, Religion, History, Politics
    List Price = $86.95  | CengageBrain Price = $86.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $65.25
  • Global Bioethics Watch Instant Access Code
    List Price = $24.00  | CengageBrain Price = $24.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $24.00


Efficacy and Outcomes

Reviews

"BCW is a well researched, balanced text on bioethics that targets nearly all of the key issues and provides a firm foundation for our students."- Kem Barfield, Three Rivers Community College

— Kem Barfield

"I think this book is one of the best and fairest and most insightful texts on bioethics on the market."- Paul Boling, Bryan College

— Paul Boling

Meet the Author

Author Bio

Vincent Barry

Vincent Barry is Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Bakersfield College, having taught there for thirty-four years as well as being a highly successful philosophy textbook author.