Higher Education

Looking at Languages: A Workbook in Elementary Linguistics, 6th Edition

  • Paul R. Frommer University of Southern California
  • Edward Finegan University of Southern California
  • ISBN-10: 1285463587  |  ISBN-13: 9781285463582
  • 400 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2012, 2008, 2004
  • © 2015 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $89.75

About

Overview

This hands-on workbook gives students practice in analyzing 30 natural languages from Akan and Arabic to Welsh and Yiddish, plus constructed languages like Klingon and Na’vi. In addition, audio files on the accompanying website allow students to hear much of the foreign language data pronounced by native speakers. Exercises progress in level of challenge and are divided into English and non-English sections, while sample exercises and solutions in phonology and morphology give students additional practice. An answer key with extended discussions and pedagogical suggestions is available. Although developed to accompany Finegan’s LANGUAGE: ITS STRUCTURE AND USE, it is an ideal companion to any linguistics textbook.

Features and Benefits

  • Ten chapters of exercises in key areas—morphology, phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, register, dialect, writing, and historical and comparative linguistics—provide students with numerous practice opportunities.
  • Solved and annotated problems in the Morphology and Phonology chapters provide students with complete solutions, as well as useful hints for attacking similar problems.
  • “Key Terms and Symbols” at the beginning of every chapter suggest the glossary terms students might want to review in preparation for completing the exercises.
  • Exercises within chapters are divided into those based on English and those based on other languages, providing you with maximum flexibility for meeting the needs of different students and classes.
  • A valuable Language Index appendix details where all the exercises in a particular language can be found. Languages covered include familiar ones, such as Spanish, Chinese, and Arabic, and less familiar ones, such as Akan, Lakota, and Wichita. Also included are exercises using data from constructed languages like Klingon and Na'vi.
  • Audio files for many of the foreign language exercises are available on the website. These files are linked to words, phrases, and sentences in various exercises and allow students to hear the data pronounced by native speakers, bringing the printed page to life and adding clarity and understanding.
  • While this workbook is designed specifically to accompany Finegan, LANGUAGE: ITS STRUCTURE AND USE, it can also be used with other introduction to linguistics texts or on its own as a practice manual.

Table of Contents

1. MORPHOLOGY.
Key Terms and Symbols. SOLVED PROBLEM—MORPHEMES: Hungarian Morpheme Identification.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. LEXICAL CATEGORIES: Lexical Categories in English. LEXICAL CATEGORIES: Stress and Lexical Categories in English. MORPHEMES: Types of English Morphemes.
MORPHEMES: Derivational Prefixes and Suffixes. ORGANIZATION OF MORPHEMES: Constituency and Word-Formation Rules in English. ORGANIZATION OF MORPHEMES: Constituency and Word-Formation Rules in English 2. INCREASING VOCABULARY: Morphological Processes in English. INCREASING VOCABULARY: English Past-Tense Productivity Experiment.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. MORPHEMES: Spanish versus Hebrew Gender and Number. MORPHEMES: Malay/Indonesian Morpheme Identification. MORPHEMES: Persian Morpheme Identification 1. MORPHEMES: Persian Morpheme Identification 2. INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: Latin Declensions. INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: Lakota Verbs . INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: Na’vi Verbs.
2. PHONETICS.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. SOUNDS AND SPELLINGS: English Consonants. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION: Reading Practice 1. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION: Reading Practice 2—English Homophones. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION: Reading Practice 3—Film and Play Names. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION: Reading Practice 4. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION: Writing Practice. ENGLISH WORDS MISTRANSCRIBED. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Identifying C/V, Describing C.
EXERCISES IN GENERAL PHONETICS. DESCRIBING SOUNDS: Communicating about Pronunciation. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Classification and Experimentation. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Classification Practice 2.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Hawaiian C/V Inventory. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Wichita C/V Inventory. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Biblical Hebrew Consonant Inventory. CONSONANTS AND VOWELS: Sound Symbolism in Lakota.
3. PHONOLOGY.
Key Terms and Symbols. SOLVED PROBLEM—PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: [ç] and [x] in Irish and German.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: Modern English [k] and [kh]. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: A Phonological Rule of Old English. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE: Constraints on Consonant Clusters in English. MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Articles in English. MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: A Negative Prefix in English. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CASUAL ENGLISH PRONUNCIATIONS.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CASUAL ENGLISH PRONUNCIATIONS 2. PHONOLOGICAL INTERFERENCE IN NON-NATIVE PRONUNCIATIONS
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: Spanish [ɾ] and [r̃]. PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: Spanish [s] and [z]. PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: Hindi and Japanese. PHONEMES AND ALLOPHONES: [t], [ț], and [θ] in Biblical Hebrew and Standard Arabic. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Tokyo Japanese. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Italian [s] and [z]. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: A Phonological Rule of Russian. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Cuban Spanish and “R-Less” English. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Mandarin Tone Change of pù and ȉ. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Voiceless Vowels in Japanese. PHONOLOGICAL RULES: Tones in Akan. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE: Japanese versus English. SYLLABLE STRUCTURE: Mandarin Chinese. STRESS: Icelandic, Swahili, Modern Greek, and Standard Arabic. MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Articles in French and Arabic. MORPH-OLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Malay/Indonesian Morphophonemics. MORPHOLOGY/ PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: A Derived Verb Stem in Arabic. MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Articles and Pronouns in Modern Greek (or “The Girl or the Sailor?”). MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: The Definite Article in Welsh. MORPHOLOGY/ PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Vowel Harmony in Turkish. MORPHOLOGY/PHONOLOGY INTERACTION: Na’vi Plurals.
4. SYNTAX.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. CONSTITUENCY AND TREE DIAGRAMS: English Constituent Structure. CONSTITUENCY AND TREE DIAGRAMS: English Sentence Trees . CONSTITUENCY AND TREE DIAGRAMS: Structural Ambiguity in English. GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS: English. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: English Passives. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: English Relative Clauses. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: English Question Formation with Modals. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: Constraints on Information Questions in English. SENTENCE TYPES: English Clauses.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. CONSTITUENCY AND TREE DIAGRAMS: Spanish, Japanese, and English. PHRASE STRUCTURE RULES: Articles, Demonstratives, and Possessives in English, Italian, and Greek. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: French Interrogatives. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: Chinese Noun Modifiers and Relative Clauses. SYNTACTIC OPERATIONS: Case Marking and Relative Clauses in German. WORD ORDER: Yiddish and Turkish. WORD ORDER: Aspects of Klingon.
5. SEMANTICS.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. TYPES OF MEANING: Referential, Social, and Affective. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: English Lexical Semantics. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: True Synonymy and the Rarity Thereof. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: English Metaphors 1. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: English Metaphors 2. FUNCTION WORDS AND CATEGORIES OF MEANING: Deictic Expressions. FUNCTION WORDS AND CATEGORIES OF MEANING: Definiteness, Referentiality, and Specificity. SEMANTIC ROLES AND SENTENCE SEMANTICS: Semantic Roles in Headlines. ONLINE AND PRINTED DICTIONARIES.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: Classifiers in Malay/Indonesian. LEXICAL SEMANTICS: Adjective Classes in Persian.
6. PRAGMATICS.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION STRUCTURE: Old Information and New Information. CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION STRUCTURE: Definiteness and
Indefiniteness; Old and New Information. PRAGMATIC CATEGORIES AND SYNTAX: Agentless Passives in English. SPEECH ACTS: Categorizing Speech Acts in English. SPEECH ACTS: Sentence Implication. THE COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE: The Gricean Maxims in American English. VIOLATING THE COOPERATIVE PRINCIPLE: Indirectness.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. PRAGMATIC CATEGORIES AND SYNTAX: Sentence-Final ba in Mandarin Chinese. PRAGMATIC CATEGORIES AND SYNTAX: The shì … de Construction in Chinese.
7. REGISTER.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. HOW REGISTERS ARE MARKED: Pronunciation of -ing in New York City. HOW REGISTERS ARE MARKED: Lexical Domains and Informality. SLANG. HOW REGISTERS ARE MARKED: Recipe Register. HOW REGISTERS ARE MARKED: The Syntax and Lexicon of Personal Ads. COMPARING NATURAL AND LITERARY CONVERSATION.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. COMPARING REGISTERS: Formal and Colloquial Registers in Persian.
8. DIALECT.
Key Terms and Symbols. REGIONAL AND SOCIAL DIALECTS: English Dialect Identification. REGIONAL DIALECTS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: Isoglosses. REGIONAL DIALECTS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: DARE 1. REGIONAL DIALECTS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: DARE 2. REGIONAL DIALECTS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: Vowel Shifts in North American English. ETHNIC VARIETIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: Chicano English. ETHNIC VARIETIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: African-American English. ETHNIC VARIETIES OF AMERICAN ENGLISH: A Resolution on Ebonics.
9. WRITING.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH.FUNCTIONS OF SPEAKING AND WRITING: English Notices. SYSTEMS OF SPEAKING AND WRITING: Eighteenth-Century Written versus Spoken English. WRITING SYSTEMS: Indeterminacy and Ambiguity in English Spelling.
EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. WRITING SYSTEMS: Italian Spelling. WRITING SYSTEMS: Modern Greek. WRITING SYSTEMS: Modern Hebrew. WRITING SYSTEMS: Persian. WRITING SYSTEMS: Korean Hangul. WRITING SYSTEMS: Japanese Hiragana. WRITING SYSTEMS: Chinese Characters. EVOLUTION OF WRITING SYSTEMS: Malay/Indonesian.
10. HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS.
Key Terms and Symbols.
EXERCISES BASED ON ENGLISH. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ENGLISH: A Text Across Time. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT IN ENGLISH: Lexical Change from Shakespeare to Modern English. FREQUENCY VARIATION IN ENGLISH VOCABULARY. EXERCISES BASED ON OTHER LANGUAGES. LANGUAGE COMPARISON: Classification of Lexical Similarities. PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE: Greek. PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE: Persian. PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE: Comparative Romance 1. PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE: Comparative Romance 2. PHONOLOGICAL CHANGE: Borrowed Items. RECONSTRUCTION: Proto-Semitic Consonants. RECONSTRUCTION: The Spiiktumi Family.
APPENDIXES. Glossary. The Pinyin Transcription System for Mandarin Chinese. Transcription of Semitic Consonants. Language Index. Bibliography.

What's New

  • New exercises focus on questions of language in the digital world, including speech recognition software, Google N-grams, and online vs. paper dictionaries.
  • Exercises from previous editions have been updated and revised.

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Meet the Author

Author Bio

Paul R. Frommer

Paul R. Frommer (BA, mathematics, University of Rochester; MA and PhD, linguistics, USC) lived and taught in Malaysia and Iran. The former director of USC’s Center for Management Communication, where he taught Advanced Writing for Business and Cross-cultural Business Communication for Non-native Speakers, he created the Na’vi language for James Cameron’s film “Avatar” and is currently working with a worldwide community of enthusiasts to expand the language. He also developed Barsoomian, the Martian language for the Disney film “John Carter.”

Edward Finegan

Edward Finegan (MA and PhD, Ohio University) specializes in sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, forensic linguistics, and the history and structure of the English language. He served as chair of the Department of Linguistics at USC and currently serves as director of USC's Center for Excellence in Teaching. President of the International Association of Forensic Linguists, Finegan is editor of DICTIONARIES: THE JOURNAL OF THE DICTIONARY SOCIETY OF NORTH AMERICA and has been Liberal Arts Fellow in Law and Linguistics, Harvard University; Visiting Professor at University of Zurich; and Visiting Scholar at University of Helsinki. He also served as Director of American Language Institute/National Iranian Radio and Television [1975-1976 in peaceful times]. He is the recipient of many teaching awards and honors.