Part I: AN INTRODUCTION TO ARGUMENT.
What is an Argument?
Why Write Arguments?
1. The Purposes of Argument.
Arguments to Assert. Arguments to Inquire. Arguments to Dominate. Arguments to Negotiate and Reconcile.
2. Strategies for Argument.
Logical Arguments. Reasoning Deductively. Reasoning Inductively. The Syllogism. The Enthymeme. Cultural Differences in Logical Arguments. The Toulmin Model of Argumentation. Understanding Claims and Warrants. Evaluating Claims and Warrants. Fallacies. Appealing to Pity. Appealing to Prejudice. Appealing to Tradition. Arguing by Analogy. Attacking the Character of Opponents. Attributing False Causes. Attributing Guilt by Association. Begging the Question. Equivocating. Ignoring the Question. Jumping to Conclusions. Opposing a Straw Man. Presenting a False Dilemma. Reasoning That Does Not Follow. Sliding Down a Slippery Slope. Emotional Arguments. Character-Based Arguments.
3. The Contexts of Argument.
The Rhetorical Situation. Analyzing Your Audience. Imagining Your Audience. Cultural Context. Understanding Culture. Considering Culture in Argument. Considering Gender. Considering Age. Considering Sexual Orientation. Historical Context.
4. The Media for Argument.
Analyzing Arguments in Print. Reading Arguments Critically. Evaluating Ethos. Appraising Evidence. Facts as Evidence. Personal Experience as Evidence. Authority as Evidence. Values as Evidence. Presenting Evidence in Visual Form. Analyzing Arguments in Visual Media. Design and Color. Art as Visual Argument. Integrating Visual Elements and Text. Analyzing Arguments in Electronic Media. The Internet. Web Sites. Online Discussion Forums. Radio and Television.
5. Constructing Arguments.
Managing the Composing Process. Understanding Composing as Inquiry. Defining Your Topic. Considering Audience. Defining Your Terms. Structuring an Argument. Classical arrangement. Rogerian arrangement. Logical arrangements. Inductive Reasoning. Deductive Reasoning. Using the Toulmin Model. Supporting Claims and Presenting Evidence. Using Language Effectively.
Part II: WORKING WITH SOURCES.
6. Doing Research.
Reading Sources Critically. Previewing. Annotating. Summarizing. Synthesizing. Avoiding Plagiarism. Taking Notes. Finding Relevant Material. Getting Started. Avoiding Selective Research. Using the Internet. Finding Articles in Magazines, Journals, and Newspapers. Looking for Books. Using Other Library Resources. Conducting Interviews and Surveys.
7. Documenting Your Sources.
Putting a Source-Based Paper Together. Compiling a Preliminary Bibliography. Organizing a Research Paper. Integrating Source Material into Your Paper. Citing Sources. Footnotes and Content Notes. Parenthetical (In-Text) Documentation. MLA Author/Work Style. APA Author/Date Style. Organizing a Bibliography. Works Cited in MLA Style. References in APA Style. Preparing Your Final Draft.
Part III: NEGOTIATING DIFFERENCES.
Who Owns Music? *Con-Text: The Importance of Music. *Janis Ian, Free Downloads Play Sweet Music. *Richard Taruskin, Music Dangers and the Case for Control. *Jeffrey O.G. Ogbar and Vijay Prashad, Black is back. *Jenny Toomey, Empire of the Air.
How Should We Determine What Our Children Learn? *Con-Text: The Committee of Ten. *Eleanor Martin, No is the Right Answer. *Patricia Williams, Tests, Tracking, and Derailment. *Gregory Cizek, Unintended Consequences of High Stakes Testing. *Bertell Ollman, Why So Many Exams? A Marxist Response.
How Do We Design Communities? *Con-Text: Frank Lloyd Wright, A Beautiful Place Made Ugly. *David Plotz, A Surburb Grown Up and All Paved Over. *Virginia Postrell, Misplacing the Blame for Our Troubles on ''Flat, Not Tall'' Spaces. *Donella Meadows, So What Can We Do--Really Do--About Sprawl? *Robert Wilson, Enough Snickering. Suburbia Is More Complicated And Varied Than We Think.
11. American National Identity.
What Kind of Power Should We Give Our Government? Con-Text: The Declaration of Independence. *Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail. *Michael Kelly, Liberties are a Real Casualty of War. *Heather Green, Databases and Security vs. Privacy. *Alan M. Dershowitz, Why Fear National ID Cards?
What Does it Mean to be a Consumer? *Con-Text: Conspicuous Consumption. *Ian Frazier, All-Consuming Patriotism. *James Deacon, The Joys Of Excess. *Norman Solomon, Mixed Messages Call for Healthy Skepticism. *Peter Singer, The Singer Solution to World Poverty.
Is Globalization Progress? *Con-Text: The Marshall Plan. *Daniel Yergin, Giving Aid to World Trade. *Helena Norberg-Hodge, The March of the Monoculture. *Vandana Shiva, The Living Democracy Movement: Alternatives to the Bankruptcy of Globalisation. *Bjorn Skorpen Claeson, Singing for the Global Community.
*Denotes new to this edition.