1. PRELUDES

Nature and Mathematics: Physics as Natural Philosophy / Contemporary Physics: Classical and Modern / Standards for Measurement / Units of Convenience and Unit Conversions / The Meaning of the Word Dimension / The Various Meanings of the Equal Sign / Estimation and Order of Magnitude / The Distinction Between Precision and Accuracy / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

2. A MATHEMATICAL TOOLBOX: AN INTRODUCTION TO VECTOR ANALYSIS

Scalar and Vector Quantities / Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar / Parallel Transport of Vectors / Vector Addition by Geometric Methods: Tail-to-Tip Method / Determining Whether a Quantity is a Vector / Vector Difference by Geometric Methods / The Scalar Product of Two Vectors / The Cartesian Coordinate System and the Cartesian Unit Vectors / The Cartesian Representation of Any Vector / Multiplication of a Vector Expressed in Cartesian Form by a Scalar / Expressing Vector Addition and Subtraction in Cartesian Form / The Scalar Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Determining the Angle Between Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Equality of Two Vectors / Vector Equations / The Vector Product of Two Vectors / The Vector Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Variation of a Vector / Some Aspects of Vector Calculus / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

3. KINEMATICS I: RECTILINEAR MOTION

Rectilinear Motion / Position and Changes in Position / Average Speed and Average Velocity / Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity / Average Acceleration / Instantaneous Acceleration / Rectilinear Motion with a Constant Acceleration / Geometric Interpretations / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

4. KINEMATICS II: MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors in Two Dimensions / Two-Dimensional Motion with a Constant Acceleration / Motion in Three Dimensions / Relative Velocity Addition and Accelerations / Uniform Circular Motion: A First Look / The Angular Velocity Vector / The Geometry and Coordinates for Describing Circular Motion / The Position Vector for Circular Motion / The Velocity and Angular Velocity in Circular Motion / Uniform Circular Motion Revisited / Nonuniform Circular Motion and the Angular Acceleration / Nonuniform Circular Motion with a Constant Angular Acceleration / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

5. NEWTON''S LAWS OF MOTION

Fundamental Particles / The Fundamental Forces of Nature / Newton''s First Law of Motion and a Qualitative Conception of Force / The Concept of Force and Its Measurement / Newton''s Second Law of Motion / Newton''s Third Law of Motion / Limitations to Applying Newton''s Laws of Motion / Inertial Reference Frames: Do They Really Exist? / Second Law and Third Law Force Diagrams / Weight and the Normal Force of a Surface / Tension in Ropes, Strings, or Cables / Static Friction / Kinetic Friction at Low Speeds / Kinetic Friction Proportional to the Particle Speed / Fundamental Forces and Other Forces Revisited / Noninertial Reference Frames / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

6. THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE AND THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

How Did Newton Deduce the Gravitational Force Law? / Newton''s Law of Universal Gravitation / Gravitational Force of a Uniform Spherical Shell on a Particle / Gravitational Force of a Uniform Sphere on a Particle / Measuring the Mass of the Earth / Artificial Satellites of the Earth / Kepler''s First Law of Planetary Motion and the Geometry of Ellipses / Spatial Average Position of a Planet in an Elliptical Orbit / Kepler''s Second Law of Planetary Motion / Central Forces, Orbital Angular Momentum, and Kepler''s Second Law / Newton''s Form for Kepler''s Third Law of Planetary Motion / Customized Units / The Gravitational Field / The Flux of a Vector / Gauss''s Law for the Gravitational Field / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

7. HOOKE''S FORCE LAW AND SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATION

Hooke''s Force Law / Simple Harmonic Oscillation / A Vertically Oriented Spring / Connection Between Simple Harmonic Oscillation and Uniform Circular Motion / How to Determine Whether an Oscillatory Motion is Simple Harmonic Motion / The Simple Pendulum / Through a Fictional Earth in 42 Minutes / Damped Oscillations / Forced Oscillations and Resonance / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

8. WORK, ENERGY, AND THE CWE THEOREM

Motivation for Introducing the Concepts of Work and Energy / The Work Done by Any Force / The Work Done by a Constant Force / The Work Done by the Total Force / Geometric Interpretation of the Work Done by a Force / Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces / Examples of Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces / The Concept of Potential Energy / The Gravitational Potential Energy of a System near the Surface of the Earth / The General Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy / The Relationship Between the Local Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy and the More General Form / The Potential Energy Function Associated with Hooke''s Force Law / The CWE Theorem / The Escape Speed / Black Holes / Limitations of the CWE Theorem: Two Paradoxical Examples / The Simple Harmonic Oscillator Revisited / The Average and Instantaneous Power of a Force / The Power of the Total Force Acting on a System / Motion Under the Influence of Conservative Forces Only: Energy Diagrams / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

9. IMPULSE, MOMENTUM, AND COLLISIONS

Momentum and Newton''s Second Law of Motion / Impulse-Momentum Theorem / The Rocket: A System with Variable Mass / Conservation of Momentum / Collisions / Disintegrations and Explosions / The Centripetal Acceleration Revisited / An Alternative Way to Look at Force Transmission / The Center of Mass / Dynamics of a System of Particles / Kinetic Energy of a System of Particles / The Velocity of the Center of Mass for Collisions / The Center of Mass Reference Frame / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

10. SPIN AND ORBITAL MOTION

The Distinction Between Spin and Orbital Motion / The Orbital Angular Momentum of a Particle / The Circular Orbital Motion of a Single Particle / Noncircular Orbital Motion / Rigid Bodies and Symmetry Axes / Spin Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body / The Time Rate of Change of the Spin Angular Momentum / The Moment of Inertia of Various Rigid Bodies / The Kinetic Energy of a Spinning System / Spin Distorts the Shape of the Earth / The Precession of a Rapidly Spinning Top / The Precession of the Spinning Earth / Simultaneous Spin and Orbital Motion / Synchronous Rotation and the Parallel Axis Theorem / Rolling Motion Without Slipping / Wheels / Total Angular Momentum and Torque / Conservation of Angular Momentum / Conditions for Static Equilibrium / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

11. SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

States of Matter / Stress, Strain, and Young''s Modulus for Solids / Fluid Pressure / Static Fluids / Pascal''s Principle / Archimedes'' Principle / The Center of Buoyancy / Surface Tension / Capillary Action / Fluid Dynamics: Ideal Fluids / Equation of Flow Continuity / Bernoulli''s Principle for Incompressible Ideal Fluids / Nonideal Fluids / Viscous Flow / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

12. WAVES

What is a Wave? / Longitudinal and Transverse Waves / Wavefunctions, Waveforms, and Oscillations / Waves Propagating in One, Two, and Three Dimensions / One-Dimensional Waves Moving at Constant Velocity / The Classical Wave Equation for One-Dimensional Waves / Periodic Waves / Sinusoidal (Harmonic) Waves / Waves on a String / Reflection and Transmission of Waves / Energy Transport Via Mechanical Waves / Wave Intensity / What is a Sound Wave? / Sound Intensity and Sound Level / The Acoustic Doppler Effect / Shock Waves / Diffraction of Waves / The Principle of Superposition / Standing Waves / Wave Groups and Beats / Fourier Analysis and the Uncertainty Principles / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

13. TEMPERATURE, HEAT TRANSFER, AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Simple Thermodynamic Systems / Temperature / Work, Heat Transfer and Thermal Equilibrium / The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics / Thermometers and Temperature Scales / Temperature Conversions Between the Fahrenheit and Celsius Scales / Thermal Effects in Solids and Liquids: Size / Thermal Effects in Ideal Gases / Calorimetry / Reservoirs / Mechanisms for Heat Transfer / Thermodynamic Processes / Energy Conservation: The First Law of Thermodynamics and the CWE Theorem / The Connection Between the CWE Theorem and the General Statement of Energy Conservation / Work Done by a System on Its Surroundings / Work Done by a Gas Taken Around a Cycle / Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics: Changes of State / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

14. KINETIC THEORY

Background for the Kinetic Theory of Gases / The Ideal Gas Approximation / The Pressure of an Ideal Gas / The Meaning of the Absolute Temperature / The Internal Energy of an Monatomic Ideal Gas / The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas / Complications Arise for Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases / Degrees of Freedom and the Equipartition of Energy Theorem / Specific Heat of a Solid / Some Failures of Classical Kinetic Theory / Quantum Mechanical Effects / An Adiabatic Process for an Ideal Gas / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

15. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Why Do Some Things Happen, While Others Do Not? / Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Carnot Heat Engine and Its Efficiency / Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics / Refrigerator Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Carnot Refrigerator Engine / The Efficiency of Real Heat Engines and Refrigerator Engines / A New Concept: Entropy / Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Direction of Heat Transfer: A Consequence of the Second Law / A Statistical Interpretation of the Entropy / Entropy Maximization and the Arrow of Time / Extensive and Intensive State Variables / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

16. ELECTRIC CHARGES, ELECTRICAL FORCES, AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD

The Discovery of Electrification / Polarization and Induction / Coulomb''s Force Law for Pointlike Charges: The Quantification of Charge / Charge Quantization / The Electric Field of Static Charges / The Electric Field of a Pointlike Charge Distributions / A Way to Visualize the Electric Field: Electric Field Lines / A Common Molecular Charge Distribution: The Electric Dipole / The Electric Field of Continuous Distributions of Charge / Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Electric Field: An Electrical Projectile / Gauss''s Law for Electric Fields / Calculating the Magnitude of the Electric Field Using Gauss''s Law / Conductors / Other Electrical Materials / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

17. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

Electrical Potential Energy and the Electric Potential / The Electric Potential of a Pointlike Charge / The Electrical Potential of a Collection of Pointlike Charges / The Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distributions of Finite Size / Equipotential Volumes and Surfaces / The Relationship Between the Electric Potential and the Electric Field / Acceleration of Charged Particles Under the Influence of Electrical Forces / A New Energy Unit: The Electron-Volt / An Electric Dipole in an External Electric Field Revisited / The Electric Potential and Electric Field of a Dipole / The Potential Energy of a Distribution of Pointlike Charges / Lightning Rods / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

18. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS, INDEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES, AND CAPACITORS

Terminology, Notation, and Conventions / Circuit Elements / An Independent Voltage Source: A Source of Emf / Connections of Circuit Elements / Independent Voltage Sources in Series and Parallel / Capacitors / Series and Parallel Combinations of Capacitors / Energy Stored in a Capacitor / Electrostatics in Insulating Material Media / Capacitors and Dielectrics / Dielectric Breakdown (Optional) / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

19. ELECTRIC CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The Concept of Electric Current / Electric Current / The Pièce de Résistance: Resistance and Ohm''s Law / Resistance Thermometers / Characteristic Curves / Series and Parallel Connections Revisited / Resistors in Series and Parallel / Electric Power / Electrical Networks and Circuits / Electronics / Kirchoff''s Laws for Circuit Analysis / Electric Shock Hazards / A Model for a Real Battery / Maximum Power Transfer Theorem / Basic Electronic Instruments: Voltmeters, Ammeters, and Ohmmeters / An Introduction to Transients in Circuits: A Series RC Circuit / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

20. MAGNETIC FORCES AND THE MAGNETIC FIELD

The Magnetic Field / Applications / Magnetic Forces on Currents / Work Done by Magnetic Forces / Torque on a Current Loop in a Magnetic Field / The Biot-Savart Law / Forces of Parallel Currents on Each Other and the Definition of the Ampere / Gauss''s Law for the Magnetic Field / Magnetic Poles and Current Loops / Ampere''s Law / The Displacement Current and the Ampere-Maxwell Law / Magnetic Materials / The Magnetic Field of the Earth / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

21. FARADAY''S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Faraday''s Law of Electromagnetic Induction / Lenz''s Law / An AC Generator / Summary of Maxwell''s Equations of Electromagnetism / Electromagnetic Waves / Self-Inductance / Series and Parallel Combinations of Inductors / A Series LR Circuit / Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field / A Parallel LC Circuit / Mutual Inductance / An Ideal Transformer / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

22. SINUSOIDAL AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Representations of a Complex Variable / Arithmetic Operations with Complex Variables / Complex Potential Differences and Currents: Phasors / The Potential Difference and Current Phasors for Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors / Series and Parallel Combinations of Impedances / Complex Independent ac Voltage Sources / Power Absorbed by Circuit Elements in ac Circuits / A Filter Circuit / A Series RLC Circuit / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

23. GEOMETRIC OPTICS

The Domains of Optics / The Inverse Square Law for Light / The Law of Reflection / The Law of Refraction / Total Internal Reflection / Dispersion / Rainbows / Objects and Images / The Cartesian Sign Convention / Image Formation by Spherical and Plane Mirrors / Ray Diagrams for Mirrors / Refraction at a Single Spherical Surface / Thin Lenses / Ray Diagrams for Thin Lenses / Optical Instruments / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

24. PHYSICAL OPTICS

Existence of Light Waves / Interference / Young''s Double Slit Experiment / Single Slit Diffraction / Diffraction by a Circular Aperture / Resolution / The Double Slit Revisited / Multiple Slits: The Diffraction Grating / Resolution and Angular Dispersion of a Diffraction Grating / The Index of Refraction and the Speed of Light / Thin-Film Interference / Polarized Light / Polarization by Absorption / Malus''s Law / Polarization by Reflection: Brewster''s Law / Polarization by Double Refraction / Polarization by Scattering / Rayleigh and Mie Scattering / Optical Activity / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

25. THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Reference Frames / Classical Galilean Relativity / The Need for Change and the Postulates of the Special Theory / Time Dilation / Lengths Perpendicular to the Direction of Motion / Lengths Oriented Along the Direction of Motion: Length Contraction / The Lorentz Transformation Equations / The Relativity of Simultaneity / A Relativistic Centipede / A Relativistic Paradox and Its Resolution / Relativistic Velocity Addition / Cosmic Jets and the Optical Illusion of Superluminal Speeds / The Longitudinal Doppler Effect / The Transverse Doppler Effect / A General Equation for the Relativistic Doppler Effect / Relativistic Momentum / The CWE Theorem Revisited / Implications of the Equivalence Between Mass and Energy / Space-Time Diagrams / Electromagnetic Implications of the Special Theory / The General Theory of Relativity / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

26. AN APERITIF: MODERN PHYSICS

The Discovery of the Electron / The Discovery of X-Rays / The Discovery of Radioactivity / The Appearance of Planck''s Constant h / The Photoelectric Effect / The Quest for an Atomic Model: Plum Pudding / The Bohr Model of a Hydrogenic Atom / The Bohr Correspondence Principle / A Bohr Model of the Solar System? / Problems with the Bohr Model / Radioactivity Revisited / Carbon Dating / Radiation Units, Dose, and Exposure / The Momentum of a Photon / The de Broglie Hypothesis / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

27. AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principles / Implications of the Position-Momentum Uncertainty Principle / Implications of the Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle / Observation and Measurement / Particle-Waves and the Wavefunction / Operators / The Schrödinger Equation / Chapter Summary / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects / EPILOGUE / APPENDIX A: PROOFS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL SHELL THEOREMS / A Mass Within A Uniform Spherical Shell / A Mass Outside a Uniform Spherical Shell / ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS / QUOTATIONS INDEX / REFERENCE INDEX / GENERAL INDEX / CREDITS