Higher Education

Elementary Statistics: Looking at the Big Picture, 1st Edition

  • Nancy Pfenning University of Pittsburgh
  • ISBN-10: 0495016527  |  ISBN-13: 9780495016526
  • 784 Pages
  • © 2011 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $182.25
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About

Overview

Using a successfully class-tested approach that gives coherence to a broad range of introductory topics, this innovative text provides students with a real-world, big picture view of statistics as well as problem-solving strategies that can be applied to the statistical questions, real data, and examples that they will encounter. Author Nancy Pfenning organizes content around four basic processes of statistics: producing data, displaying and summarizing data, understanding probability, and using probability to perform statistical inference. Within this framework, the book progresses systematically through five basic problem situations involving values of variables (quantitative, categorical, or a blend). As a result, students learn to identify which situation applies and how to choose the correct display, summary, or inference tool or technique. As students gain proficiency in specific statistical techniques, the author also points out connections among topics and techniques. More than 1,000 real-life examples and categorized exercises support the approach, engaging students in practicing and developing a variety of skills.

Features and Benefits

  • Big picture problem-solving approach--An innovative approach organizes content around four processes of statistics and the basic situations that apply to any statistical problem. Students learn specific techniques while gaining a broad perspective on statistics along with strategies for choosing the appropriate technique for any research situation.
  • Flexible content and technology integration--The presentation of each topic is self-contained enough to allow for more advanced topics such as ANOVA or chi-square to be skipped if desired with no loss in course coherence. A "Using Software" section near the end of each chapter makes it easy for instructors to emphasize the use of software in the course, or choose not to do so.
  • Examples using real data--Hundreds of well-chosen examples, based on current data from a wide variety of statistical applications, clarify the presentation of ideas. Each example follows a consistent format: Background, Question, Response, and Practice Exercise. Data sets feature values that allow easy entering by hand into a computer or calculator; they are also available at the Book Companion Website.
  • Plentiful categorized exercises, computational and conceptual--A set of problems after each major section assures that students practice basic concepts as they are introduced. A more comprehensive set at the end of each chapter ("Warming Up," "Exploring the Big Picture," "Using Software," "Discovering Research," and "Reporting on Research") encourages students to integrate individual topics. Like the examples, exercises cover a variety of topics and use real data.
  • Emphasis on connections among topics--Strategically placed marginal notes show how each new topic fits into the larger framework of statistics, relating it to material covered earlier as well as to content that follows. These connections can be digested by students at their own pace, without disrupting the flow of main ideas.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction: Variables and Processes in Statistics.
Types of Variables: Categorical or Quantitative. Students Talk Stats: Identifying Types of Variables. Handling. Data for Two Types of Variables. Roles of Variables: Explanatory or Response. Statistics as a Four-Stage Process.
PART I: DATA PRODUCTION.
2. Sampling: Which Individuals Are Studied.
Sources of Bias in Sampling: When Selected Individuals Are Not Representative.
Probability Sampling Plans: Relying on Randomness. Role of Sample Size: Bigger Is Better if the Sample Is Representative. From Sample to Population: To What Extent Can We Generalize? Students Talk Stats: Seeking a Representative Sample.
3. Design: How Individuals Are Studied.
Various Designs for Studying Variables. Sample Surveys: When Individuals Report Their Own Values. Observational Studies: When Nature Takes Its Course. Experiments: When Researchers Take Control. Students Talk Stats: Does TV Cause ADHD? Considering Study Design.
PART II: DISPLAYING AND SUMMARIZING DATA.
4. Displaying and Summarizing Data for a Single Variable.
Single Categorical Variable. Students Talk Stats: Biased Sample, Biased Assessment. Single Quantitative Variables and the Shape of a Distribution. Center and Spread: What''s Typical for Quantitative Values, and How They Vary. Normal Distributions: The Shape of Things to Come.
5. Displaying and Summarizing Relationships.
Relationship Between One Categorical and One Quantitative Variable. Students Talk Stats: Displaying and Summarizing Paired Data. Relationship Between Two Categorical Variables. Relationships Between Two Quantitative Variables. Students Talk Stats: How Outliers and Influential Observations Affect a Relationship. Students Talk Stats: Confounding in a Relationship Between Two Quantitative Variables.
PART III: PROBABILITY.
6. Finding Probabilities.
The Meaning of "Probability" and Basic Rules. More General Probability Rules and Conditional Probability. Students Talk Stats: Probability as a Weighted Average of Conditional Probabilities.
7. Random Variables.
Discrete Random Variables. Binomial Random Variables. Students Talk Stats: Calculating and Interpreting the Mean and Standard Deviation of Count or Proportion. Continuous Random Variables and the Normal Distribution. Students Talk Stats: Means, Standard Deviations, and Below-Average Heights.
8. Sampling Distributions.
The Behavior of Sample Proportion in Repeated Random Samples. The Behavior of Sample Mean in Repeated Random Samples. Students Talk Stats: When Normal Approximations Are Appropriate.
PART IV: STATISTICAL INFERENCE.
9. Inference for a Single Categorical Variable.
Point Estimate and Confidence Interval: A Best Guess and a Range of Plausible Values for Population Proportion. Students Talk Stats: Interpreting a Confidence Interval. Test: Is a Proposed Population Proportion Plausible? Students Talk Stats: Interpreting a P-value. Students Talk Stats: What Type of Error Was Made? Students Talk Stats: The Correct Interpretation of a Small P-value. Students Talk Stats: The Correct Interpretation When a P-value Is Not Small.
10. Inference for a Single Quantitative Variable.
Inference for a Mean when Population Standard Deviation Is Known or Sample Size Is Large. Students Talk Stats: Confidence Interval for a Mean. Students Talk Stats: Interpreting a Confidence Interval for the Mean Correctly. Inference for a Mean When the Population Standard Deviation Is Unknown and the Sample Size Is Small. Students Talk Stats: Practical Application of a t Test. A Closer Look at Inference for Means.
11. Inference for Relationships Between Categorical and Quantitative Variables.
Inference for a Paired Design with t. Inference for a Two-Sample Design with t. Students Talk Stats: Ordinary Vs. Pooled Two-Sample t. Inference for a Several-sample Design with F: Analysis of Variance. Students Talk Stats: Reviewing Relationships between Categorical and Quantitative Variables.
12. Inference for Relationships Between Two Categorical Variables.
Comparing Proportions with a z Test. Comparing Counts with a Chi-Square Test.
13. Inference for Relationships Between Two Quantitative Variables.
Inference for Regression: Focus on the Slope of the Regression Line. Students Talk Stats: No Evidence of a Relationship. Interval Estimates for an Individual or Mean Response.
14. How Statistics Problems Fit into the Big Picture.
The Big Picture in Problem-Solving. Students Talk Stats: Choosing the Appropriate Statistical Tools.
15. Non-Parametric Methods (Online).
The Sign Test as an Alternative to the Paired t Test. The Rank-Sum Test as an Alternative to the Two-Sample t Test. Summary of Non-Parametrics.
16. Two-Way ANOVA (Online).
17. Multiple Regression (Online).
PART V: SOLUTIONS TO SELECTED EXERCISES.

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Bundle: Text + Enhanced WebAssign Homework Printed Access Card for One Term Math and Science

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  • Elementary Statistics: Looking at the Big Picture
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  • Enhanced WebAssign Printed Access Card for Statistics, Single-Term Courses
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Bundle: Text + Enhanced WebAssign - Start Smart Guide for Students + Enhanced WebAssign Homework Printed Access Card for One Term Math and Science

ISBN-10:  1111115281  | ISBN-13:  9781111115289

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  • Elementary Statistics: Looking at the Big Picture
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  • Enhanced WebAssign - Start Smart Guide for Students
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  • Aplia™, 1 term Printed Access Card, Hybrid
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Student Solutions Manual  (ISBN-10: 049582996X | ISBN-13: 9780495829966)

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IMPORTANT: When purchasing this instant access code for Statistics, ensure that you are using it in one of the following courses: General Intro Statistics or Statistics for Engineers. Use with a different course may cause complications with access. Exclusively from Cengage Learning, Enhanced WebAssign combines exceptional mathematics content with the most powerful online homework solution, WebAssign. Enhanced WebAssign engages students with immediate feedback, rich tutorial content, and an interactive, fully customizable eBook, Cengage YouBook helping students to develop a deeper conceptual understanding of their subject matter. This access code includes access to Enhanced WebAssign and life-of-edition access to the eBook for the registered edition of that text. If your students need to retake the course and you are using the same book AND edition then they will not need to buy a new code. This instant access code will be delivered via email when purchased. If you are not certain this is the correct access code for your course, please contact your Cengage Learning Consultant.

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ExamView®  (ISBN-10: 0495829986 | ISBN-13: 9780495829980)

Featuring automatic grading, ExamView® allows you to create, deliver, and customize tests and study guides (both print and online) in minutes using all items from the printed Test Bank in electronic format. See assessments onscreen exactly as they will print or display online. Build tests of up to 250 questions using up to 12 question types and enter an unlimited number of new questions or edit existing questions.

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Student Solutions Manual  (ISBN-10: 049582996X | ISBN-13: 9780495829966)

Homework help! Worked-out solutions to the odd-numbered problems.

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Enhanced WebAssign,1 term (6 months) Instant Access for Statistics, Single-Term Courses  (ISBN-10: 1285858042 | ISBN-13: 9781285858043)

IMPORTANT: When purchasing this instant access code for Statistics, ensure that you are using it in one of the following courses: General Intro Statistics or Statistics for Engineers. Use with a different course may cause complications with access. Exclusively from Cengage Learning, Enhanced WebAssign combines exceptional mathematics content with the most powerful online homework solution, WebAssign. Enhanced WebAssign engages students with immediate feedback, rich tutorial content, and an interactive, fully customizable eBook, Cengage YouBook helping students to develop a deeper conceptual understanding of their subject matter. This access code includes access to Enhanced WebAssign and life-of-edition access to the eBook for the registered edition of that text. If you need to retake the course and your instructor is using the same book AND edition then you will not need to buy a new code. This instant access code will be delivered via email when purchased. If you are not certain this is the correct access code for your course, please contact your instructor.

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Aplia™, 1 term Printed Access Card, Hybrid  (ISBN-10: 1428277587 | ISBN-13: 9781428277588)

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Aplia™, 2 terms Instant Access, Hybrid  (ISBN-10: 1428277595 | ISBN-13: 9781428277595)

Included with this text, Aplia™ is an online interactive learning solution that helps you improve comprehension—and your grade—by integrating a variety of mediums and tools such as video, tutorials, practice tests and interactive e-book. More than 1,000,000 students like you have used Aplia™ at over 1800 institutions. Aplia™ should be purchased only when assigned by your instructor as part of your course.

List Price = $178.00  | CengageBrain Price = $178.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $178.00

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Aplia™, 2 terms Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1133508618 | ISBN-13: 9781133508618)

One million+ students, one billion answers In just 10 years, more than one billion answers have been submitted through Aplia, the premier online assignment solution. Millions of students use Aplia to better prepare for class and for their exams. Join them today! Know what’s important Aplia assignments mean “no surprises”—with an at-a-glance view of current assignments organized by due date, you always know what’s due, and when. Discover real-world relevance Aplia ties your lessons into real-world applications so you get a bigger, better picture of how you’ll use your education in your future workplace. Master the content Automatic grading and immediate step-by-step feedback helps you master content the right way the first time. Student Testimonial: “I was very engaged; the content in Aplia is useful. The study tools and materials in Aplia most definitely help me feel more prepared. I understood more than I would have otherwise.” - Tia Student, Glendale Community College CTA: Ask your instructor about Aplia for this course. www.cengage.com/aplia

List Price = $178.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $178.00

Premium eBook Instant Access Code  (ISBN-10: 0538738022 | ISBN-13: 9780538738026)

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Meet the Author

Author Bio

Nancy Pfenning

Nancy Pfenning received her PhD in Mathematics from Carnegie Mellon University in 1985. Her 1998 book "Chances Are..." is a bestseller at Prufrock Press, which specializes in gifted education. Since 1987 she has been teaching at the University of Pittsburgh, where she is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Statistics, liaison for College in High School Statistics, and a member of the American Statistical Association. Each year since 2005, she has used a draft of her new book to teach statistics to hundreds of undergraduates with her unique, "big picture" approach, which makes both the concepts and the learning process memorable to students. She is also a great believer in real-world applications, data collected from students themselves, and hands-on experiments---all ways that she has found to connect with her students, and to connect them to the wealth of ideas that statistics has to offer. In her free time, Nancy and her husband like to get together with their three grown children, with cooking, hiking, and traveling at the top of their list of favorite shared activities.