BEGINNINGS TO 1700.
Native American Cultures and Traditions. The Europeans Arrive. Colonial Cultures of the Americas. Colonial Literatures of the Americas.
INDIGENOUS LITERARY TRADITIONS.
CREATION/EMERGENCE ACCOUNTS. Talk Concerning the First Beginning (Zuni). The Origin of Stories (Seneca). Iroquois or Confederacy of the Five Nations (Haudenosaunee-Iroquois). Man''s Dependence on Animals (Anishinaabe Ojibway). The Arrival of the Whites (Lenape-Delaware). RITUAL POETRY, SONG, AND CEREMONY. Two Songs (Aztec). Deer Hunting Song (Virsak Vai-i, O''odham). Song of Repulse to a Vain Lover (To''ak, Makah). Song of War (Odjib''we, Anishinabe-Ojibway). Song of War (Victoria, Tohono O''odham). Thanksgiving Address (Haudenosaunee-Iroquois). Formula to Attract a Woman (Cherokee). Formula for Going to the Water (Cherokee).
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: from Journal of the First Voyage to America, 1492–1493. ÁLVAR NÚÑEZ CABEZA DE VACA: from Relation of Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Prologue; from Chapter VII. The Character of the Country; from Chapter VIII. We Go from Aute; from Chapter X. The Assault from the Indians; from Chapter XXI. Our Cure of Some of the Afflicted; from Chapter XXIV. Customs of the Indians of That Country; from Chapter XXVII. We Moved Away and Were Well Received; from Chapter XXXII. The Indians Give Us the Hearts of Deer; from Chapter XXXIII. We See Traces of Christians; from Chapter XXXIV. Of Sending for the Christians. GASPAR DE VILLAGRÁ: from Historia de la nveva Mexico; from Canto XII (in Spanish); from Canto I; from Canto XII; from Canto XIV; from Canto XXI; from Canto XXXI; from Canto XXXIV. THE APPARITION OF THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE IN 1531: History of the Miraculous Apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531. SOR JUANA INÉS DE LA CRUZ: 48. In Reply to a Gentleman from Peru, Who Sent Her Clay Vessels While Suggesting She Would Better Be a Man.
RENÉ GOULAINE DE LAUDONNIÈRE: from A Notable Historie Containing Foure Voyages Made by Certaine French Captaines unto Florida. SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN: from The Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604–1618; from The Voyages to the Great River St. Lawrence, 1608–1612; from The Voyages of 1615. THE JESUIT RELATIONS: from The Relation of 1647, by Father Jerome Lalemant.
THOMAS HARRIOT: from A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia.
JOHN SMITH: from The Generall Historie of Virginia, New-England, and the Summer Isles; from Book III, Chapter 2 [Smith as captive at the court of Powhatan in 1608]; from Book III, Chapter 8 [Smith''s journey to Pamaunkee].
ADRIAEN VAN DER DONCK: from A Description of New Netherland: from The Country: When and by Whom New Netherland Was First Discovered; Why This Territory Was Named New Netherland; The Limits of New Netherland and How Far They Extend; from Of the Manners and Extraordinary Qualities of the Original Natives of New Netherland: Their Bodily Shape, and Why They Are Called Wilden; from Fare and Food of the Indians; Their Religion and Whether They Can Be Christianized.
THOMAS MORTON: from New English Canaan: from Book I, Containing the originall of the Natives, their manners & Customes, with their tractable nature and love towards the English: from Chapter IV. Of their Houses and Habitations; Chapter VIII. Of their Reverence, and respect to age; Chapter XVI. Of their Acknowledgment of the Creation, and Immortality of the Soule; from Chapter XX. That the Salvages live a contended life; from Book III, Containing a description of the People that are planted there, what remarkable Accidents have happened there since they were setled, what Tenents they hould, together with the practise of their Church: from Chapter I. Of a great League made with the Plimmouth Planters after their arrivall, by the Sachem of those Territories; from Chapter V. Of A Massacre made upon the Salvages at Wessaguscus; from Chapter VII. Of Thomas Mortons entertainement at Plimmouth, and castinge away upon an Island; from Chapter XIV. Of the Revells of New Canaan. JOHN WINTHROP: from A Modell of Christian Charity; from The Journal of John Winthrop. WILLIAM BRADFORD: from Of Plymouth Plantation; from Book I: from Chapter I. The Separatist Interpretation of the Reformation in England 1550–1607; from Chapter IX. Of their Voyage, and how they Passed the Sea; and of their Safe Arrival at Cape Cod; from Book II: Chapter XI. The Remainder of Anno 1620; from Chapter XIV: Anno Domini 1623; from Chapter XIX: Anno Domini 1628; from Chapter XXVIII. Anno Domini 1637. ROGER WILLIAMS: from A Key into the Language of America: [Preface]: To my Deare and Welbeloved Friends and Countreymen, in old and new England; from Chapter XXI. Of Religion, the soule, &c.; Chapter XXII. Of their Government and Justice; To the Town of Providence; Testimony of Roger Williams relative to his first coming into the Narragansett country. ANNE BRADSTREET: The Prologue [To Her Book]; The Author to Her Book; To My Dear and Loving Husband; A Letter to Her Husband, Absent upon Public Employment; In Memory of My Dear Grandchild Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August, 1665, Being a Year and Half Old; Upon the Burning of Our House July 10th, 1666; To My Dear Children. MARY WHITE ROWLANDSON [TALCOTT]: from A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. EDWARD TAYLOR: from Gods Determinations: The Preface; from Occasional Poems: 4. Huswifery; 6. Upon Wedlock, & Death of Children; from Preparatory Meditations First Series: Prologue; 6. Another Meditation at the same time.; 8. Meditation. Joh. 6.51. I am the Living Bread.; from Preparatory Meditations Second Series: 1. Meditation. Col. 2.17. Which are Shaddows of things to come and the body is Christs; 50. Meditation. Joh. 1.14. Full of Truth; 115. Meditation. Cant. 5:10. My Beloved; from A Valediction to all the World preparatory for Death 3d of the 11m 1720 (from Version 1); Cant. 3. Valediction, to the Terraqueous Globe; A Fig for thee Oh! Death (Version 2). COTTON MATHER: from The Wonders of the Invisible World; V. The Trial of Martha Carrier at the Court of Oyer and Terminer, Held by Adjournment at Salem, August 2, 1692; from Bonifacius . . . . with Humble Proposals . . . to Do Good in the World.
The Enlightenment and the Great Awakenings. Daily Life and the Woman''s Sphere. Literacy and Education. Revolution and Confederation. A Nation of Disparate Peoples. From the Plow, to the Sword, to the Book.
SETTLEMENT AND RELIGION.
JONATHAN EDWARDS: from A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. JOHN WOOLMAN: from The Journal of John Woolman. SAMSON OCCOM (MOHEGAN): A Short Narrative of My Life; A Sermon Preached by Samson Occom.
VOICES OF REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM.
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: The Way to Wealth; A Witch Trial at Mount Holly; The Speech of Polly Baker; An Edict by the King of Prussia; The Ephemera, an Emblem of Human Life; Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America; On the Slave-Trade; Speech in the Convention; from The Autobiography: Part One. Twyford, at the Bishop of St. Asaph''s, 1771; Part Two. Continuation of the Account of My Life Begun at Passy 1784. J. HECTOR ST. JOHN DE CRÈVECOEUR: from Letters from an American Farmer: from Letter III. What Is an American?; from Letter IX. Description of Charles Town; Thoughts on Slavery; on Physical Evil; a Melancholy Scene. THOMAS PAINE: from Common Sense: Thoughts on the Present State of American Affairs; JOHN ADAMS AND ABIGAIL ADAMS: from Autobiography of John Adams; Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, March 31, 1776; Letter from John Adams to Abigail Adams, April 14, 1776; from Letters from John Adams to Abigail Adams, July 3, 1776; Letter from Abigail Adams to John Adams, June 30, 1778; from Letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, September 2, 1813; from Letter from Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, October 28, 1813; from Letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson, November 15, 1813. THOMAS JEFFERSON: from Autobiography of Thomas Jefferson [Declaration of Independence]; from Notes on the State of Virginia; from Query XI. Aborigines, Original Condition and Origin; from Query XIV. Laws; from Query XVIII. Manners . . . Effect of Slavery; from Letter to James Madison; from Letter to James Madison; Letter to Benjamin Banneker; Letter to Edward Coles; from Indian Addresses: To Brother Handsome Lake.
CONTESTED VISIONS, AMERICAN VOICES.
OLAUDAH EQUIANO: from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself: from Chapter 1; Chapter 2; from Chapter 10. JUDITH SARGENT MURRAY: On the Equality of the Sexes. PHILIP FRENEAU: A Political Litany; To Sir Toby; The Wild Honey Suckle; from The Country Printer; The Indian Burying Ground; On the Causes of Political Degeneracy. PHILLIS WHEATLEY: To Mæcenas; Letter to the Right Hon''ble The Earl of Dartmouth per favour of Mr. Wooldridge; To the Right Honourable William, Earl of Dartmouth, His Majesty''s Principal Secretary of State for North-America, &c; Letter to the Rt. Hon''ble the Countess of Huntingdon; On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield 1770; On Being Brought from Africa to America; To the University of Cambridge, in New England; To His Excellency General Washington. LEMUEL HAYNES: Liberty Further Extended: Or Free Thoughts on the Illegality of Slave-keeping. HANNAH WEBSTER FOSTER: from The Coquette; or, the History of Eliza Wharton: Letter I; Letter II; Letter III; Letter IV; Letter V; Letter VI; Letter VIII; Letter XI; Letter XII; Letter XIII; Letter XVIII; Letter LXV; Letter LXVIII; Letter LXXI; Letter LXXII; Letter LXXIII; Letter LXXIV. CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN: Somnambulism: A Fragment.
EARLY NINETEENTH CENTURY: 1800–1865.
Publishing: Growth and Goals. Religion and Common Culture. The Debates over Racism and Slavery. The Debate over Women''s “Sphere.” The Many Cultures of America. The Rise of Industry. Individualism and/vs. Community.
RED JACKET (SENECA): On the Religion of the White Man and the Red. SEATTLE (DUWAMISH): Speech of Chief Seattle. WILLIAM APESS (PEQUOT): An Indian''s Looking-Glass for the White Man. JANE JOHNSTON SCHOOLCRAFT (OJIBWE): To the Pine Tree; By an Ojibwa Female Pen: Invitation to Sisters to a Walk in the Garden, after a Shower; Mishösha, or the Magician and His Daughters: A Chippewa Tale or Legend; The O-jib-way Maid. GEORGE COPWAY (KAH-GE-GA-GAH-BOWH; OJIBWA): from The Life of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh. JOHN ROLLIN RIDGE (CHEROKEE): Oppression of Digger Indians; The Stolen White Girl.
LA LLORONA: Legend of La Llorona. CARMEN TAFOLLA: La Llorona, Crying Lady of the Creekbeds, 483 Years Old, and Aging. JOSÉ MARÍA HEREDIA: In a Tempest: An Ode to the Hurricane (English). TALES FROM THE HISPANIC SOUTHWEST: La comadre Sebastiana (Doña Sebastiana); Los tres hermanos (The Three Brothers).
IN FOCUS: CUBA IN THE ANTEBELLUM U.S. IMAGINATION.
JUAN CLEMENTE ZENEA: from El filibustero (in Spanish); from El Filibustero (in English). MIGUEL TEURBE TOLÓN: from En el segundo aniversario de La Verdad; from On the Second Anniversary of La Verdad.
VICENTE PÉREZ ROSALES: from Times Gone By.
THE CULTURES OF NEW ENGLAND.
LYDIA HOWARD HUNTLEY SIGOURNEY: Death of an Infant; To the First Slave Ship; Indian Names; To a Shred of Linen; Fallen Forests. RALPH WALDO EMERSON: Nature; The American Scholar; Self-Reliance; Concord Hymn. Brahma; Days. JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER: The Farewell; At Port Royal. SARAH MARGARET FULLER: from Woman in the Nineteenth Century. HENRY DAVID THOREAU: Resistance to Civil Government; from Walden; Walking.
IN FOCUS: RACE AND SLAVERY.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS: from Memoirs of John Quincy Adams. THOMAS RODERICK DEW: An Argument Upholding Slavery. ANGELA DAVIS: from Reflections on the Black Woman''s Role in the Community of Slaves. LEVI COFFIN: from Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the Reputed President of the Underground Railroad. LEON LITWACK: from North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1860. U.S. CONGRESS: from Fugitive Slave Act of 1850. MARTIN R. DELANY AND FREDERICK DOUGLASS: An Exchange. CHIEF JUSTICE ROGER B. TANEY: from Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857). MORTIMER THOMSON: Great Auction Sales of Slaves at Savannah, Georgia. JOHN BROWN: from John Brown''s Last Speech and Letters.
RACE, SLAVERY, AND THE INVENTION OF THE “SOUTH.”
DAVID WALKER: from Appeal . . . to the Coloured Citizens of the World (Third Edition, 1829). WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON: Editorial from the First Issue of The Liberator; Declaration of Sentiments of the American Anti-Slavery Convention. LYDIA MARIA CHILD: from Letters from New York; The Duty of Disobedience to the Fugitive Slave Act: An Appeal to the Legislators of Massachusetts. ANGELINA GRIMKÉ: from Appeal to the Christian Women of the South. FREDERICK DOUGLASS: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. CAROLINE LEE HENTZ: from The Planter''s Northern Bride. FRANCES ELLEN WATKINS HARPER: The Slave Mother; Free Labor. HARRIET ANN JACOBS: from Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. ABRAHAM LINCOLN: Address at the Dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery; Second Inaugural Address.
IN FOCUS: THE CHEROKEE NATION AND THE ANGLO NATION.
Cherokee Vision of Elohi. CHEROKEE WOMEN: Petition, May 2, 1817. Petition, June 30, 1818. Petition, October 17, 1821 [1831?]. ELIAS BOUDINOT (CHEROKEE): An Address to the Whites. CHEROKEE NATION: from Constitution of the Cherokee Nation. GEORGIA STATE ASSEMBLY: Laws Extending Jurisdiction over the Cherokees. ANDREW JACKSON: On Indian Removal: The President''s Message to Congress. UNITED STATES CONGRESS: from Indian Removal Act, May 28, 1830. CHIEF JUSTICE JOHN MARSHALL: from Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831); from Worcester v. Georgia (1832). JOHN ROSS (CHEROKEE): Letter to Lewis Cass; Letter to Andrew Jackson; Annual Address. RALPH WALDO EMERSON: Letter to Martin Van Buren, President of the United States.
LITERATURE AND THE “WOMAN QUESTION.”
SARAH MOORE GRIMKÉ: from Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and the Condition of Woman; Letter VIII, The Condition of Women in the United States. SOJOURNER TRUTH: Reminiscences by Frances D. Gage of Sojourner Truth, for May 28–29, 1851; Speech at the Akron, Ohio, Women''s Rights Meeting. FANNY FERN (SARA WILLIS PARTON): Hints to Young Wives; from Fern Leaves, Second Series; Male Criticism on Ladies Books; The Working-Girls of New York. ELIZABETH CADY STANTON: from Eighty Years and More: Reminiscences; Declaration of Sentiments.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF NARRATIVE.
WASHINGTON IRVING: Rip Van Winkle. CAROLINE KIRKLAND: from A New Home-Who''ll Follow? NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE: My Kinsman, Major Molineux; Young Goodman Brown; Rappaccini''s Daughter; Preface to The House of the Seven Gables. EDGAR ALLAN POE: The Fall of the House of Usher; The Tell-Tale Heart; The Purloined Letter. Sonnet-To Science; To Helen; The City in the Sea; The Raven; Annabel Lee. HARRIET BEECHER STOWE: from Uncle Tom''s Cabin. WILLIAM WELLS BROWN: from Clotelle or, The Colored Heroine. HERMAN MELVILLE: Bartleby, the Scrivener; The Tartarus of Maids; Benito Cereno; from Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War, The Portent; from John Marr and Other Sailors, The Maldive Shark. ALICE CARY: from Clovernook, or Recollections of Our Neighborhood in the West, First Series; from Clovernook, or Recollections of Our Neighborhood in the West, Second Series. REBECCA HARDING DAVIS: Life in the Iron-Mills.
THE EMERGENCE OF AMERICAN POETIC VOICES.
SONGS AND BALLADS: Songs of the Slaves; Songs of White Communities. WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT: Thanatopsis; The Yellow Violet; To Cole, the Painter, Departing for Europe; To the Fringed Gentian; The Prairies. HENRY WADSWORTH LONGFELLOW: The Warning; The Arsenal at Springfield; The Jewish Cemetery at Newport; Nature; The Tide Rises, the Tide Falls. FRANCES SARGENT LOCKE OSGOOD: The Maiden''s Mistake; Oh! Hasten to My Side; A Reply; The Indian Maid''s Reply to the Missionary; The Hand That Swept the Sounding Lyre. WALT WHITMAN: Preface to the First Edition of Leaves of Grass; Song of Myself; from Inscriptions; from Children of Adam; from Calamus; from Sea-Drift; from By the Roadside; from Drum-Taps; from Memories of President Lincoln; from From Noon to Starry Night; from Sands at Seventy (First Annex). PHOEBE CARY: The Life of Trial; Jacob. EMILY DICKINSON: Poems; Letters.