The Second Edition of Roland Stull's METEOROLOGY FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS lets professors quantify the concepts in Ahren's METEOROLOGY TODAY, SEVENTH EDITION like never before. This book can serve as a technical companion to Ahren's text or as a stand-alone text. It provides the mathematical equations needed for a higher level of understanding of meteorology. The organization is mapped directly to the Ahrens book, making Stull's text a perfect companion. More than a lab manual or workbook, this text contains detailed math and physics that expand upon concepts presented in Ahrens' text, as well as numerous solved problems. This text demonstrates how to use mathematical equations (algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and finite differential equations) to explain the dominant characteristics of certain atmospheric phenomena and processes.

### Table of Contents

1. THE ATMOSPHERE

Introduction / Meteorological Conventions / Thermodynamic State / Equation of State - Ideal Gas Law / Hydrostatic Equilibrium / Hypsometric Equation / Atmospheric Structure / Process Terminology / Summary / Exercises

2. RADIATION

Orbital Factors / Flux / Radiation Principles / Surface Radiation Budget / Summary / Exercises

3. HEAT

Sensible and Latent Heats / Lagrangian Heat Budget - Part 1: Unsaturated / Thermodynamic Diagrams - Part 1: Dry Adiabatic Processes / Eulerian Heat Budget / Surface Heat Budget / Apparent Temperatures / Summary / Exercises

4. BOUNDARY LAYERS

Static Stability - A Preview / Boundary-Layer Formation / ABL Structure and Evolution / Temperature / Wind / Turbulence / Summary / Exercises

5. MOISTURE

Saturation Vapor Pressure / Humidity Variables / Total Water Mixing Ratio / Lagrangian Water Budget / Thermo Diagrams - Part 2: Isohumes / Eulerian Water Budget / Lagrangian Heat Budget - Part 2: Saturated / Thermo Diagrams - Part 3: Saturated Adiabats / Summary / Exercises

6. STABILITY

Thermodynamic Diagrams - Part 4: Applications / Parcels vs. Environment / Buoyancy / Static Stability / Thermo Diagrams for Boundary Layers / Brunt-Väisälä Frequency / Dynamic Stability / Summary / Exercises

7. CLOUD FORMATION

Cloud Development / Cloud Sizes / Fractal Cloud Shapes / Processes Causing Saturation / Clouds and Upslope Fog / Other Fogs / Summary / Exercises

8. PRECIPITATION

Nucleation of Liquid Droplets / Nucleation of Ice Crystals / Droplet Growth by Diffusion / Ice Growth by Diffusion / Collision and Collection / Precipitable Water / Rainfall Estimated by Radar / Summary / Exercises

9. DYNAMICS

Newton''s Second Law of Motion / Forces / Full Equations of Motion / Height Contours on Isobaric Surfaces / Winds / Full Equations of Motion - Revisited / Mass Conservation / Summary / Exercises

10. LOCAL WINDS

Scales of Motion / Wind-Speed Probability / Wind Turbines and Power Generation / Vertical Equation of Motion / Thermally Driven Circulations / Streamlines, Streaklines, and Trajectories / Bernoulli''s Equation / Mountain Waves / Foehns (again) and Chinooks / Summary / Exercises

11. GLOBAL CIRCULATION

Nomenclature / Differential Heating / Thermal Wind Relationship / Jet Stream / Vorticity / Midlatitude Troughs and Ridges / Focus: Rossby Radius of Deformation and Geostrophic Adjustment - Part 1 / Three-Band General Circulation / Ekman Spiral in the Ocean / Summary / Exercises

12. AIR MASSES & FRONTS

Anticyclones or Highs / Air Masses / Synoptic Weather Maps / Surface Fronts / Geostrophic Adjustment - Part 2 / Frontogenesis / Occluded Fronts and Mid-Tropospheric Fronts / Dry Lines / Summary / Exercises

13. CYCLONES

Case Study of a Cyclone over North America / Cyclogenesis / Lee Cyclogenesis / Cyclone Spin-Up / Upward Motion / Sea-level Pressure Tendency / Self Development of Cyclones / Iso-surfaces and Their Utility / Case Study of a Cyclone (Continued) / Summary / Exercises

14. NUMERICAL WEATHER PREDICTION

Solutions to Atmospheric Equations / Grid Points / Finite-Difference Equations / Numerical Stability / The Numerical-Forecast Process / Forecast Quality / Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos / Useful Indicators on Weather Maps Produced By NWP / Elements of a Good Weather Briefing / Summary / Exercises

15. THUNDERSTORMS

Convective Conditions / CAPE / Severe-Thunderstorm Environment / Downbursts and Gust Fronts / Lightning and Thunder / Tornadoes / Doppler Radar / Summary / Exercises

16. HURRICANES

Dynamics / Thermodynamics / A Hurricane Model / Storm Surge / Surface Wind-Waves / Summary / Exercises

17. AIR POLLUTION DISPERSION

Dispersion Factors / Air Quality Standards / Turbulence Statistics / Dispersion Statistics / Taylor''s Statistical Theory / Dispersion in Neutral & Stable Boundary Layers / Dispersion in Unstable Boundary Layers / Summary / Exercises

18. CLIMATE CHANGE

Relative Equilibrium / Greenhouse Effect / Atmospheric Window / Water Vapor and Cloud Feedbacks / Ice-Albedo-Temperature Feedback / Daisyworld / GCMs / Sensitivity / Summary / Exercises

19. OPTICS

Ray Geometry / Liquid Drop Optics / Ice-Crystal Optics / Scattering / Diffraction / Mirages / Summary / Exercises / APPENDIX A: FUNDAMENTALS OF SCIENCE / Dimensions and Units / Functions and Finite Difference / Relationships and Graphs / On Doing Science / Summary / Exercises / APPENDIX B: CONSTANTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS / Universal Constants / Earth Characteristics / Air and Water Characteristics / Conversion Factors & Combined Parameters / Other Information / APPENDIX C: NOTATION / Roman Symbols, Acronyms & Contractions / Greek Symbols / Operators / Superscripts / Subscripts / Special Symbols / APPENDIX D: ADDITIONAL READING MATERIAL / The Atmosphere / Radiation, Thermodynamics & Moisture / Cloud & Satellite Pictures / Cloud & Storm Processes / Dynamics of Atmospheres & Oceans / Boundary-Layers & Air Pollution / Synoptics / Numerical Weather Prediction & Chaos / Hurricanes / Climate Change / Optics / APPENDIX E: ANSWERS TO SELECTED EXERCISES / Answers for Chapters 1 to 6 / Answers for Chapters 6 to 13 / Answers for Chapters 13 to 19 / Answers for Appendices A & H / APPENDIX F: SYLLABUS / The Student Mix / Tests & Grading / Textbooks & Homework / Lectures & Weekly Schedule / APPENDIX G: CHAPTER CORRESPONDENCES / Ahrens'' Essentials / Ahrens'' Meteorology Today / Holton''s Dynamic Meteorology / Wallace and Hobbs'' Atmospheric Science / APPENDIX H: TURBULENCE CLOSURE / Turbulence Closure Types / K-Theory / Transilient Turbulence Theory / Summary / Exercises / INDEX