Since its first publication in 1981, AMERICA: RELIGIONS AND RELIGION has become the standard introduction to the study of American religious traditions. Written by one of the foremost scholars in the field of American religions, this textbook has introduced thousands of students to the rich religious diversity that has always been a hallmark of the American religious experience. Beginning with Native American religious traditions and following the course of America's religious history up to the present day, this text gives students the benefit of the author's rigorous scholarship in clear language that has proven to be readily accessible for today's undergraduates. This long-awaited new edition explores a variety of recent events and developments, including increasing religious pluralism and, especially, a combinative postpluralism in which different faiths in America subtly begin to borrow from one another. The new edition examines "postethnic" Judaism in the Jewish Renewal movement and other instances, the growing Womenpriest movement among American Catholics, and the development of Islam in America in the light of September 11, 2001. It surveys the "emerging church" movement among liberal evangelicals and others, and follows the growth of a "new spirituality" that is much broader than the New Age movement.
Table of Contents
Preface to the First and Second Editions.
Preface to the Third Edition.
Preface to the Fourth Edition.
Introduction An Elephant in the Dark.
Religion and Boundaries.
Two Kinds of Religion.
Components of a Religious System.
A Short Description of Religion.
Finding American Religion.
Many Religions and One Religion.
More about Boundaries.
A Short Tour of American Religious History in the Text.
Part I: MANYNESS: THE ORIGINAL CAST.
1. Original Manyness: Tradition and Change among Native Americans.
Native American Diversity. Common Characteristics in Religion. Differences in Native American Religious Traditions. The Oglala. The Hopi. Change in Native American Traditions.
2. Israel in a Promised Land: Jewish Religion and Peoplehood.
The Jewish Immigrations. Jewishness and Peoplehood. Judaism as Biblical Religion. Jewish Tradition and the Consecration of Time. The Ceremonial Cycle. The Moral Law. The Moral Law in the United States. American Forms of Judaism. American Judaism and Contemporary Life.
3 Bread and Mortar: The Presence of Roman Catholicism.
Spanish Missions. French Missions. English Colonies. Roman Catholic Religion. The Consecration of Space: Sacramentalism. The Consecration of Time: The Liturgical Cycle.
Paraliturgical Devotions. Ethics and Morality. The American Saga of Catholicism.
Ethnicity. Pluralism and Americanization in Historical Perspective. Pluralism and Americanization: The Later Twentieth Century and On.
4. Word from the Beginning: American Protestant Origins and the Liberal
Tradition. The Religion of the Reformation. The Reformation in England. The Reformation in the English Colonies. Anglican Virginia. Puritan New England. Pluralist New York and Pennsylvania. Colonial Foreshadowing''s of Liberalism. Liberalism in the American Revolution. Early Liberal Heyday: From the Revolution to the Civil War. From Gilded Age into Twentieth Century. Protestant Liberalism in Recent Times. In Overview.
5. Restoring an Ancient Future: The Protestant Churches and the Mission Mind.
Mission on the Home Front. Christianizing Relative, Friend, and Neighbor. Institutionalizing the Mission Mind. Christianizing Nearby Strangers. Mission to the World. In Overview.
6. Black Center: African American Religion and Nationhood.
West African Religions. New Land, New Religion. Black Christianity. The Invisible Institution.
The Black Church in Freedom. Black Religion in the Twentieth Century and After. The Holiness-Pentecostal Movement. Combination and Creation in New Religious Movements. The Religion of Blackness. In Overview.
Part II: MANYNESS: NEWMADE IN AMERICA.
Visions of Paradise Planted: Nineteenth-Century New Religions. Sectarianism and Nineteenth-Century New Religions. The Mormons. The Christian Scientists. The Seventh-day Adventists. The Jehovah''s Witnesses. Communalism. The Shakers. The Oneida Perfectionists. Paradise Found and Paradise Lost: An Afterword. In Overview.
8. Homesteads of the Mind: Belief and Practice in Metaphysics.
The Religious Meaning of Metaphysics. Metaphysical Sources in the Western Tradition.
Traditional Practice in the Colonies. Astrology. Witchcraft. The Metaphysical Revival of the Nineteenth Century. Popular Metaphysics in a New Nation. Spiritualism. Theosophy.
New Thought. Mystical and Psychic Frontiers. Later American Metaphysics. In Overview.
Part III: MANYNESS: PATTERNS OF EXPANSION AND CONTRACTION.
9. East Is West: Eastern Peoples and Eastern Religions.
Nearer East: Eastern Orthodoxy. Eastern Orthodox Religion. Orthodoxy in the United States. Middle East: Islam. The Religious Meaning of Islam. Transformations of Islam in the United States. Islam and New Religions: The Example of Baha''i. Farther East: Hinduism.
Religious Themes in Hinduism. Hinduism in the United States. Farther East: Buddhism.
The Religion of Buddhism. Buddhism in the United States. East Is West: Expansion, Contraction, and Combination. In Overview.
10. Fundamentals of the New Age: Present-Time Pluralism and Postpluralism.
Patterns of Contemporary Expansion: The New Age and New Spirituality. Roots of the New Age. The Religion of the New Age. New Spirituality. Patterns of Contemporary Contraction: Conservative Religion Come of Age. Fundamentalist and Evangelical: The Search for Conservative Identity. The Religion of the Fundamentalist-Evangelical Movement.
Expansion and Contraction, Pluralism and Postpluralism. In Overview.
Part IV: ONENESS: AMERICAN RELIGION, AMERICAN IDENTITY.
11. The Public, the Civil, and the Culture of the Center.
Public Protestantism. The Protestant Code. The Protestant Cultus. The Protestant Creed.
Civil Religion. Civil Religion in Historical Perspective.
The Structure of the Civil Religion. Civil Religion into the Present. Cultural Religion. The American Ritual Calendar. American Sacred Stories. American Codes of Living. Afterthoughts on Cultural Religion. In Overview.
12. Many Centers Meeting.
Conflicts. The Roman Catholic "Plot". The Jewish "Conspiracy". The Pluralist Struggle.
Coalitions. Combinations.Summing Up the Present.
Suggestions for Further Reading.