Higher Education

Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking, 6th Edition

  • Merrilee H. Salmon University of Pittsburgh
  • ISBN-10: 1133049753  |  ISBN-13: 9781133049753
  • 528 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2007, 2002, 1995
  • © 2013 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $162.25
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Designed for students with no prior training in logic, INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING offers an accessible treatment of logic that enhances understanding of reasoning in everyday life. The text begins with an introduction to arguments. After some linguistic preliminaries, the text presents a detailed analysis of inductive reasoning and associated fallacies. This order of presentation helps to motivate the use of formal methods in the subsequent sections on deductive logic and fallacies. Lively and straightforward prose assists students in gaining facility with the sometimes challenging concepts of logic. By combining a sensitive treatment of ordinary language arguments with a simple but rigorous exposition of basic principles of logic, the text develops students' understanding of the relationships between logic and language, and strengthens their skills in critical thinking.

Features and Benefits

  • Inductive reasoning is introduced prior to the detailed treatment of deductive arguments. Students become sensitive to the structural features of arguments in the familiar, real world examples in the inductive arguments section, and can then apply these skills to analyzing deductive arguments.
  • Lucid prose assists students in gaining facility with the often difficult concepts of logic.
  • Timely real-world examples and exercises not only help students recognize the day-to-day relevance of logical analysis, they expand their vocabulary and knowledge of a wide array of subject areas.
  • Fallacies are introduced in chapter 3, and then specific types of fallacies are covered in connection with the correct patterns of inductive and deductive arguments which the fallacies resemble.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction To Arguments.
2. Paying Special Attention To The Language Of Arguments.
3. Deductive Arguments, Inductive Arguments, And Fallacies.
4. A Closer Look At Inductive Arguments.
5. Casual Arguments.
6. Probabilities And Inductive Logic.
7. Confirmation Of Hypotheses.
8. Deductive Reasoning-Sentential Logic.
9. Categorical Syllogisms.
10. Quantifiers AND Arguments In Which Validity Depends On Relationships.
Appendix One: Proof Method for Truth-Functional Logic.
Appendix Two: Index of Fallacies.
Answers to Even Numbered Exercises.

What's New

  • Expanded exercises and explanations ensure that students grasp key logical properties and relationships.
  • Revised and updated expositions use contemporary and colloquial examples to grab students' attention and see the relevance of logical analysis.
  • Expanded connections to standardized critical thinking test questions are designed to help students preparing for exams such as the LSAT and GRE.

Efficacy and Outcomes


"This text is exactly as advertised: an excellent introduction to both formal, sentential logic and informal, inductive reasoning ("critical thinking"). Of the numerous introductory "reasoning" texts that I have surveyed this one remains, to date, the only one currently on the market which extensively covers both deductive and inductive reasoning while remaining highly readable (i.e., does not read like a "math text") – no small feat."

— Michael Fletcher Maumus, Brooklyn College, City University of New York

"Merrilee Salmon's text wonderfully demonstrates the fact that both formal deductive logic and informal reasoning (critical thinking) are linked." "the text accomplishes what other logic books always force the instructor to develop on their own: a way to render philosophy and logic relevant to any student in any discipline while simultaneously demonstrating the importance of using language prudently."

— Philip Cronce,Chicago State University

"It covers the range of tools that you should want to give to a critical thinker. It also presents wonderful, real-life examples of both the good and the bad in human thought, giving the student a chance to reflect and respond."

— John Burn, Wayne State University

Meet the Author

Author Bio

Merrilee H. Salmon

Merrilee Salmon is Professor Emeritus in the Department of the History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Pittsburgh.