Higher Education

Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction, 11th Edition

  • Alan Hausman Hunter College
  • Howard Kahane University of Maryland, Baltimore County
  • Paul Tidman Mount Union College
  • ISBN-10: 0495601586  |  ISBN-13: 9780495601586
  • 456 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2007, 2003, 1999
  • © 2010 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $180.00
  • Newer Edition Available
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A comprehensive introduction to formal logic, LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 11E is a rigorous, yet accessible text appropriate for students encountering the subject for the first time. Numerous carefully crafted exercise sets accompanied by clear, crisp exposition give students a firm grasp of basic concepts and take the student from sentential logic through first-order predicate logic, the theory of descriptions, and identity. As the title suggests, this is a book devoted not merely to logic; students will encounter an abundance of philosophy as well.

Features and Benefits

  • Walk-Through sections: For crucial exercises, these "how-to" sections show, step by step, the process of solving a moderately difficult sample problem.
  • Coverage of basic concepts: Beginning with the first chapter, attention is paid to such topics as logical form and the relationship between consistency and validity. The fundamental concept of a semantic interpretation is used to provide a unified explanation of such basic concepts as validity, consistency, logical equivalence, and logical implication in both sentential and predicate logic.
  • Help for the mathematically anxious or averse: The symbols in a symbolic logic text and the rules for their manipulation are mathematical in character; the discussions of both are philosophical. LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 11E stresses the relationships between the mathematical and the philosophical in ways that are designed to engage student interest and, at the same time, provide explanations of why the symbols work as they do.
  • Glossaries following each chapter assist students in reviewing key concepts.
  • Answers to the even-numbered exercises are found in the back of the book, providing immediate feedback to students as they work through the exercises in the text.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction.
The Elements of an Argument. Deduction and Induction. Deductive Argument Forms. Truth and Validity. Soundness. Consistency. Contexts of Discovery and Justification. The Plan of This Book. Key Terms.
2. Symbolizing in Sentential Logic.
Atomic and Compound Sentences. Truth-Functions. Conjunctions. Non–Truth-Functional Connectives. Variables and Constants. Negations. Parentheses and Brackets. Use and Mention. Disjunctions. "Not Both" and "Neither . . . Nor". Material Conditionals. Material Biconditionals. "Only If" and "Unless". Symbolizing Complex Sentences. Alternative Sentential Logic Symbols. Key Terms.
3. Truth Tables.
Computing Truth-Values. Logical Form. Tautologies, Contradictions, and Contingent Sentences. Logical Equivalences. Truth Table Test of Validity. Truth Table Test of Consistency. Validity and Consistency. The Short Truth Table Test for Invalidity. The Short Truth Table Test for Consistency. A Method of Justification for the Truth Tables. Key Terms.
4. Proofs.
Argument Forms. The Method of Proof: Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens. Disjunctive Syllogism and Hypothetical Syllogism. Simplification and Conjunction. Addition and Constructive Dilemma. Principles of Strategy. Double Negation and DeMorgan''s Theorem. Commutation, Association, and Distribution. Contraposition, Implication, and Exportation. Tautology and Equivalence. More Principles of Strategy. Common Errors in Problem Solving. Key Terms.
5. Conditional and Indirect Proofs.
Conditional Proofs. Indirect Proofs. Strategy Hints for Using CP and IP. Zero-Premise Deductions. Proving Premises Inconsistent. Adding Valid Argument Forms. An Alternative to Conditional Proof? The Completeness and Soundness of Sentential Logic. Introduction and Elimination Rules. Key Terms.
6. Sentential Logic Truth Trees.
The Sentential Logic Truth Tree Method. The Truth Tree Rules. Details of Tree Construction. Normal Forms and Trees. Constructing Tree Rules for Any Function. Key Terms.
7. Predicate Logic Symbolization.
Individuals and Properties. Quantifiers and Free Variables. Universal Quantifiers. Existential Quantifiers. Basic Predicate Logic Symbolizations. The Square of Opposition. Common Pitfalls in Symbolizing with Quantifiers. Expansions. Symbolizing "Only", "None but", and "Unless". Key Terms.
8. Predicate Logic Semantics.
Interpretations in Predicate Logic. Proving Invalidity. Using Expansions to Prove Invalidity. Consistency in Predicate Logic. Validity and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic. Key Terms.
9. Predicate Logic Proofs Proving Validity.
The Four Quantifier Rules. The Five Main Restrictions. Precise Formulation of the Four Quantifier Rules. Mastering the Four Quantifier Rules. Quantifier Negation (QN). Key Terms.
10. Relational Predicate Logic.
Relational Predicates. Symbolizations Containing Overlapping Quantifiers. Expansions and Overlapping Quantifiers. Places and Times. Symbolizing "Someone", "Somewhere", "Sometime", and So On. Invalidity and Consistency in Relational Predicate Logic. Relational Predicate Logic Proofs. Strategy for Relational Predicate Logic Proofs. Theorems and Inconsistency in Predicate Logic. Predicate Logic Metatheory. A Simpler Set of Quantifier Rules.
11. Rationale Behind the Precise Formulaton of the Four Quantifier Rules.
Cases Involving the Five Major Restrictions. One-to-One Correspondence Matters. Accidentally Bound Variables and Miscellaneous Cases. Predicate Logic Proofs with Flagged Constants.
12. Predicate Logic Truth Trees Introductory Remarks.
General Features of the Method. Specific Examples of the Method. Some Advantages of the Trees. Example of an Invalid Argument with at Least One Open Path. Metatheoretic Results. Strategy and Accounting. Key Terms.
13. Identity and Philosophical Problems of Symbolic Logic.
Identity. Definite Descriptions. Properties of Relations. Higher-Order Logics. Limitations of Predicate Logic. Philosophical Problems. Logical Paradoxes. Key Terms.
14. Syllogistic Logic.
Categorical Propositions. Existential Import. The Square of Opposition. Conversion, Obversion, Contraposition. Syllogistic Logic—Not Assuming Existential Import. Venn Diagrams. Syllogisms. Determining Syllogism Validity. Venn Diagram Proofs of Validity or Invalidity. Five Rules for Determining Validity or Invalidity. Syllogistics Extended. Enthymemes. Sorites. Technical Restrictions and Limitations; Modern Logic and Syllogistic Logic Compared. Key Terms.
Answers to Even-Numbered Exercise Items.
Special Symbols.

What's New

  • In addition to revisions made to ensure accuracy of print and thought, this new edition of LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 11E contains additional discussions of philosophical interest.
  • Chapter 5 now contains a discussion on an alternative to Conditional Proof that, in the authors' estimation, raises issues about the very nature of proofs and their relation to semantics
  • Chapter 9 discusses issues related to inferences involving arbitrarily selected individuals.
  • Chapter 12 contains a discussion of alternatives to the flow chart method of constructing Predicate Trees. Users of prior editions will also notice some changes in the flow chart itself.
  • Part III of the prior edition, which included such diverse subjects as informal fallacies and modal logic, has been removed from the text and is available online and as an option for customized versions of the text. The author and reviewers of the previous edition felt that the standard deductive logic sections of the book were the crucial ones for a one or even two semester course.


All supplements have been updated in coordination with the main title. Select the main title's "About" tab, then select "What's New" for updates specific to title's edition.

For more information about these supplements, or to obtain them, contact your Learning Consultant.

Instructor Supplements

eBank Instructor's Manual  (ISBN-10: 0495601594 | ISBN-13: 9780495601593)

Description: Save time, streamline your course preparation, and get the most from the text with the Online Instructor's Manual.

Web Site  (ISBN-10: 0495800031 | ISBN-13: 9780495800033)

The Companion website for LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 11E is a rich teaching and learning resource that includes a glossary and flashcards, tutorial quizzing, and Logic Coach—a highly innovative computer environment for practicing and learning skills taught in a college-level course in logic.

Student Supplements

Web Site  (ISBN-10: 0495800031 | ISBN-13: 9780495800033)

The Companion website for LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY: A MODERN INTRODUCTION, 11E is a rich learning resource that includes a glossary and flashcards, tutorial quizzing, and Logic Coach—a highly innovative computer environment for practicing and learning skills taught in a college-level course in logic.

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Meet the Author

Author Bio

Alan Hausman

Alan Hausman received a Ph.D. in philosophy from Iowa State University and now teaches philosophy at Hunter College. He has published extensively on history of early modern philosophy, especially on the work of Hume, and on the work of Nelson Goodman.

Howard Kahane

Howard Kahane (deceased) is considered one of the founders of the critical-thinking movement, an approach to logic that makes it less abstract and more practical as a tool for analyzing political and social issues.

Paul Tidman

Paul Tidman received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Notre Dame. He teaches philosophy at Mount Union College in Ohio.