As with successful previous editions, the Sixth Edition of INVITATION TO CRITICAL THINKING focuses on the recognition, analysis, evaluation, and composition of arguments as discursive tools of rational persuasion. Fostering discussions of critical thinking and its application in mass media, effective writing, and problem solving, this book introduces students to a wide variety of strategies for identifying and analyzing arguments in the world around them. In addition, the robust companion website offers an array of online tools that provide critical thinking students with an unprecedented variety of interactive exercises that facilitate retention and help them apply the most essential concepts in critical thinking.
Table of Contents
Unit I: THE BASICS.
1. Critical Thinking.
The Importance of Critical Thinking. What Is Critical Thinking? Obstacles to Critical Thinking. Looking Ahead: Issues and Disputes. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
What Is Language? Functions of Language. Meaning in Language. Definitions. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
Unit II: ARGUMENT.
Argument Identification. Argument Analysis. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
4. Argument Analysis I: Representing Argument Structure.
The Goal of Argument Analysis. Elementary Procedures. Intermediate Challenges. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
5. Argument Analysis Ii: Paraphrasing Arguments.
Paraphrasing. Advanced Applications. Additional Exercises.
Unit III: DEDUCTIVE REASONING.
6. Evaluating Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic.
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning. Argument Form. Categorical Logic. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
7. Evaluating Deductive Arguments Ii: Truth Functional Logic.
Truth Functional Analysis of Logical Operators. Argument Forms. Testing for Validity with Truth Tables. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
Unit IV: INDUCTIVE REASONING.
8. Evaluating Inductive Arguments I: Generalization and Analogy.
Assessing Inductive Strength. Reasoning by Analogy. Glossary. Exercises.
9. Evaluating Inductive Arguments Ii: Hypothetical Reasoning and Burden of Proof.
Presumption and the "Burden of Proof". Reasoning Hypothetically. Causal Reasoning. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
Unit V: EVALUATING WHOLE ARGUMENTS.
10. Evaluating Premises: Self-Evidence, Consistency, Indirect Proof.
Necessary Truths. Contingent Claims. Beyond "Self-Evidence". Glossary. Additional Exercises.
11. Informal Fallacies I: Assumptions, Language, Relevance, Authority.
Fallacious Assumptions. Fallacies of Language. Fallacies of Relevance. Fallacious Appeals to Authority. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
12. Informal Fallacies Ii: Inductive Reasoning.
Polling, Probability and Statistics. Analogy and Burden of Proof. Causality. A Final Word of Caution. Glossary. Additional Exercises.
13. Making Your Case: Argumentative Composition.
The Issue Statement. Research and the Media. The Thesis Statement. Argument Design. The Presentation. Glossary. Additional Exercises.