Sentence components. Verb Structure. Sentence structure: Independent clauses. Main or principal clauses. Dependent or subordinate clauses. Verb-Subject agreement. Accents. Syllabification: Consonants. Vowels. Stress: Categorization of words by stress. Rules for written accents. Special cases. Adverbs ending in �mente. Monosyllables. Non-monosyllabic homonyms. Aún vs aun. Sólo vs solo. Demonstrative pronouns. Exclamative and Interrogative Adjectives, Pronouns, or Adverbs.
2. NOUNS AND NOUN DETERMINERS.
Nouns and their equivalents. Introduction: Definition. Noun equivalents. Noun companions. Nouns: gender and number. Personal A. Noun Determiners. Articles: Definite articles. Subjects. Titles. Languages. Possessives vs. articles: Indefinite articles. Adjectives: Demonstrative adjectives. Possessive adjectives. Forms of descriptive adjectives. Common adjective endings. Adjectives with short and long forms: Position of descriptive adjectives. Comparisons. Comparisons of inequality. With adverbs, Adjectives, and Nouns. With numerical expressions, use de instead of que. With a verb or clause as second part of comparison. Comparisons of equality. Tanto(-a, -os, -as)...como. Tanto como. Tan...como. Superlatives.
Personal pronouns. Definitions: Intransitive verbs. Transitive verbs. With subject and direct object. With subject, direct object, and indirect object. With subject and indirect object only. Subject pronouns. Direct object pronouns: Format and usage. Stressed and unstressed object pronouns (direct and indirect object). Lo: The neuter invariable pronoun. Indirect object pronouns. Required repetitive object pronouns: Direct object pronouns. Indirect object pronouns. Order of object pronouns when combined. Position of object pronouns. Prepositional object pronouns. Se. Introduction. Reflexive pronouns: Reflexives. Reciprocals. Se me Construction: Accidental or Irresponsible Se. Impersonal Se: Introduction. Agent Present No agent: Impersonal No agent: Not impersonal: Impersonal se with inanimate objects. Impersonal se with persons. Impersonal se with both human and inanimate objects. Impersonal reflexive construction--Uno. Demonstrative and Possesive Pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns. Possessive pronouns. Interrogatives: ¿Qué?, ¿Cuál?, ¿Qué? vs. ¿Cuál? with ser, "How", "How"+ Verb=¿Cómo?, "How"+ Adjective or Adverb. Word order. Exclamatives: ¡Qué!+ Noun. ¡Qué!+ Modified noun. ¡Qué!+ Adjective. ¡Qué!+ Adverb. ¡Cómo!+Verb. ¡Cuánto!+Verb. ¡Cuánto(a)!+Noun. ¡Cuántos(as)!+Noun. ¡Quién!+Verb. Indefinites and Negatives. Relative Pronouns. Formation and usage. Relative Pronouns without a preposition. Relative Pronouns with a preposition: El cual / el que. Exceptional Prepositions. Additional Uses: Lo que / lo cual. El que. Lo que. Cuyo. Donde. "Who". Interrogative pronoun: ¿Quién?. Relative Pronoun: Que. El cual / el que. "What".
4. PREPOSITIONS, ADVERBS, AND CONJUNCTIONS.
Prepositions: Function of Prepositions. Verbs used without Prepositions. Individual Prepositions. A: Usage. Personal A. Expression with A. Verbs with A. Con: Usage. Expressions with Con.Verbs with Con. De: Usage. Expressions with De. Verbs with De. En: Usage. Expressions with En. Verbs with En. Para: Usage. Expressions with Para. Verbs with Para. Por: Usage. Expressions with Por. Verbs with Por. List of expressions with prepositions (English-Spanish). Review of expressions with prepositions. Adverbs: Definition. Adverbs ending in �mente. Word Order. Multiple function words. Adverbs of time: Aun, aún. Nunca, jamás. Tarde, temprano. Ya, ya no, todavía, todavía no. Examples of Adverbs of time. Adverbs of manner: Así. Bien. Adverbs of quantity: Demasiado, mucho, muy. Examples of Adverbs of quantity. Adverbs of Confirmation, Doubt, or Negation: Acaso / quizá / tal vez. Bueno. No. Sí. También / tampoco. Ya. Adverbial Phrases. Adverbs of place: Acá / allá; aquí / allí. Arriba; encima; abajo; debajo; bajo. Related Adverbs and Prepositions. Conjunctions: Usage. Conjunctions of coordination. Conjunctions of subordination. Transitions.
5. VERBS: FORMATION.
Indicative Mood. Present indicative: Regular verbs. Stem-changing verbs. Spelling-changing verbs. Classified irregular verbs. Other irregular verbs. Past tenses of the indicative: Imperfect indicative. Preterite. Present perfect indicative. Pluperfect indicative. Future: Simple future. Future Perfect. Conditional Mood: Present conditional. Conditional perfect. Subjunctive Mood. Present subjunctive: Regular verbs. Stem-changing verbs. Irregular verbs. Imperfect subjunctive. Present perfect subjunctive. Pluperfect subjunctive. Imperative Mood. Direct commands: Tú. Usted / Ustedes. Vosotros. Nosotros. Indirect commands. Infinitive: Present infinitive. Perfect infinitive. Participle: Present participle or gerund. Past participle.
6. VERBS: USAGE.
Present Indicative. Past Indicative Tenses: Preterite vs. Imperfect vs. Pluperfect. Introduction. Action vs. State: Definitions. Verbs of action: Preterite is the rule, Imperfect is the exception. Special note on "Would". Action vs. State Review Elimination Checklist. Verbs of state: Imperfect is the rule, Preterite is the exception. Beginning-Middle-End: Preterite: Beginning and/or end. Imperfect: Middle. Diachronic vs. Synchronic. Pluperfect. Compound Tenses: Introduction. Perfect tenses: Present perfect indicative. Future perfect. Past perfect (pluperfect) indicative. Conditional perfect. Present perfect subjunctive. Pluperfect subjunctive. Simple progressive tenses: Introduction. Present progressive. Future progressive. Past progressive. Conditional present progressive. Subjunctive present progressive. Subjunctive imperfect progressive. Perfect progressive tenses: Introduction. Indicative present perfect progressive. Indicative future prefect progressive. Indicative pluperfect progressive. Conditional pluperfect progressive. Subjunctive present perfect progressive. Subjunctive pluperfect progressive. Modal Auxiliaries: Ways of Expressing the Future. Conditional. Introduction. Courtesy with conditional of modal auxiliaries. Hypothetical situations with or without condition expressed with Si. Future of the past. Probability in the past: Probability. Subjunctive. Introduction. Nominal clause: Definition and usage. Subjunctive after expressions of emotion. Subjunctive after expressions of volition and influence. Subjunctive after expressions of doubt and negation of reality. Subjunctive after impersonal expressions with Ser. Adjectival clauses: Definition. Usage. Adverbial clauses: Definition. Usage. Sequence of tenses: Introduction. Chronological relativity. Aspect relativity. Tense relativity. Main clause in the present set. Main clause in the past set. If (Si) clauses: Sequence of tenses. Como si (As if). Ojalá. Expressions of Leave-taking. Infinitives and Present Participles. Infinitives: Present infinitive. Perfect infinitive. Present participles. Verbs like Gustar: Introduction. Verb-tense changes. No verb-tense changes. Person changes. Time changes. Other changes: Connectives. This, that, and the other. Verbs of communication. A note on the word order with indirect interrogatives.
7. SER, ESTAR, HABER, HACER, AND TENER.
Overview. Ser vs Estar: With equal elements: Ser. With adjectives. Predicate adjectives: Aburrido. Bueno. Callado. Ciego. Cómodo. Frío. Listo. Maduro. Rico. Verde. Vivo. Expressions with "To be". Impersonal expressions. With prepositions and adverbs: De. Time and place.With past and present participles: With present participles. With past participles: passive voice and resultant condition. Formation of the passive voice. A note on the passive voice. Estar vs Haber. Expressions with Estar and Haber: Expressions with estar. Expressions with haber. Time Expressions. Introduction: Counting forward. Counting backward. Duration: Counting back from the present. Counting back from a moment in the past. Ago.
8. LEXICAL VARIATIONS.
Introduction. Terms and Expressions: Acabar. Apply. Ask. At. Attend. Because. Become or Get. But. Come and Go. Despedir. Exit and Success. Go and Leave. Guide. Know. Learn. Meet. Order. Pensar. People vs. Machines. Play. Put. Realize. Serve. Spend. Take. Time. What. False Cognates.