1. The Writing Context.
How We Write. The Writer. The Writer''s Purpose. A Note About Modes. The Writer''s Role. The Reader. Individual Readers. Extended Readerships. The Perceptual World. The Discipline. The Document Writing Contexts.
2. The Writing Process.
Critical Thinking. Avoiding Errors in Critical Thinking. Strategies for Improving Critical Thinking. Prewriting. Moving from Topic to Thesis. Elements of a Thesis Statement. Supporting the Thesis. Developing Outlines. How to Write an Essay. Strategies for Creating a Composing Style. Writing the Whole Composition. Prewriting. Planning. First Draft with Revision Notes. Revised Draft with Instructor''s Annotations. Final Draft. Writing on a Computer. Strategies for Writing on a Computer. Collaborative Writing. Strategies for Collaborative Writing. Writer''s Block. Strategies for Overcoming Writer''s Block. Avoid Plagiarism. Strategies for Avoiding Plagiarism.
3. Critical Reading.
Reading Critically. Strategies for Critical Reading. First Reading. Second Reading. Before Class Discussion. Above All, Read to Learn. Cornel West, Black Political Leadership (annotated). Using THE SUNDANCE READER. Writing Techniques. Analyzing Visual Images. Photographs, Film, and Video. Perspective and Contrast. Context. Visual Connotations. Timing and Duplication. Manipulating Images. Gender and Cultural Issues. Perception and Analysis. Strategies for Analyzing Visual Images.
4. Narration: Relating Events.
What Is Narration? The Writer''s Purpose. Chronology. Writing Techniques: Narration, Focus, Dialogue. Tense Strategies for Reading Narration. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Samuel Scudder, Take This Fish and Look at It (annotated). Joel Klein, How the Teachers Killed a Dream. John Reed, The Rise of Pancho Villa. Ramon Tianguis Pérez, The Fender-Bender. Martin Gansberg, Thirty-Eight Who Saw Murder and Didn''t Call the Police. Blending the Modes. Michael Patrick Mcdonald, Returning to Southie. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Roisin Reardon, Incident Report. Responding to Images. New Orleans Following Hurricane Katrina, September, 2005. Strategies for Writing Narration. Suggested Topics for Writing Narration. Student Paper, Spare Change. Narration Checklist.
5. Description: Presenting Impressions.
What Is Description? Objective and Subjective Description. The Language of Description. Writing Techniques: Description. Dominant Impressions. Action and Dialogue. Organization Strategies for Reading Descriptions. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Lansing Lamont, The Bomb (annotated). Jack London, The San Francisco Earthquake. James Tuite, Sounds of the City. José Antonio Burciaga, My Ecumenical Father. Carl T. Rowan, Unforgettable Miss Bessie. Blending the Modes. Paul M. Barrett, American Islam. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Bayou Printing Job Announcement. Monica Ramos, The Resume of Monica Ramos. Responding to Images. Seattle Street Kids with Gun, 1983. Strategies for Writing Description. Suggested Topics for Descriptive Writing. Student Paper, Vista Del Sol Way. Description Checklist.
6. Definition: Establishing Meaning.
What Is Definition? Types of Definition. The Purpose of Definition. Methods of Definition. Definition in Context. Writing Techniques: Definition. Definition Statement. Explaining What it is Not. Using or Revising Existing Definitions. Strategies for Reading Definitions. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Eileen Simpson, Dyslexia (annotated). Sydney Harris, A Jerk. Ellen Goodman, The Company Man. William Safire, Liberal and Conservative. Bruce Bartlett, Who Counts as Rich? Blending the Modes. Robert Rector, How Poor Is “Poor”? Writing Beyond the Classroom. Siobhan Lehane, Depression. Don D. Rosenberg, What Is Depression? Responding to Images. Anti-Gay Marriage Protest in Boston, 2004. Strategies for Writing Definitions. Suggested Topics for Writing Definitions. Student Paper, Disneyland Dads. Definition Checklist.
7. Comparison and Contrast: Indicating Similarities and Differences.
What Is Comparison and Contrast? The Purposes of Comparison and Contrast. Selecting Topics for Comparison-and-Contrast Papers. Organizing Comparison and Contrast Papers. Subject-by-Subject. Point-by-Point. Writing Techniques: Comparison and Contrast. Balance. Transitions. Stating Common Elements to Avoid Repetition. Strategies for Reading Comparison and Contrast. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Yi-Fu Tuan, Chinese Space, American Space (annotated). Rachel Carson, A Fable for Tomorrow. Suzanne Britt, Neat People vs. Sloppy People. William Zinsser, The Transaction. Mark Twain, Two Ways of Seeing a River. Blending the Modes. Oscar Wilde, Impressions of America. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Peggy Kenna and Sondra Lacy, Communication Styles: United States and Taiwan. Responding to Images. Tea Party Rally, Chicago and Student Rally, Chicago. Strategies for Writing Comparison and Contrast. Suggested Topics for Comparison and Contrast Writing. Student Paper, Parallel States: Israel and Ireland. Comparison and Contrast Checklist. Critical Issues: An Online Reader. Confronting Issues. Immigration. The American Dream. America''s Role in the World. Privacy in the Electronic Age.
8. Analysis: Making Evaluations.
What Is Analysis? Subjective and Objective Analysis. Detailed Observation. Critical Thinking for Writing Analysis. Writing Techniques: Analysis. Questions. Sources and Methods. Definitions. Strategies for Reading Analysis. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Robert Reich, Don''t Blame Walmart (annotated). Harold Meyerson, How to Grade Teachers: Lessons from the Teachers Strike. Fouad Ajami, Why is the Arab World so Easily Offended? Blending the Modes. Benjamin Radford, How Television Distorts Reality. Opposing Viewpoints: Motherhood. Jenny Allen, I''m A Mom. Jessica Valenti, Are All Women Born to Be Mothers? Writing Beyond the Classroom. Alton Enterprises, Preliminary Security Analysis. Responding to Images. Demonstrator Being Arrested. Strategies for Writing Analysis. Suggested Topics for Writing Analysis. Student Paper, Endless War. Analysis Checklist.
9. Division and Classification: Separating into Parts and Rating Categories.
What Are Division and Classification? Division. Critical Thinking for Writing Division Classification. Critical Thinking for Writing Classification. Using Division and Classification. Writing Techniques: Division and Classification. Introductions. Names and Numbers. Degree of Precision. Strategies for Reading. Division and Classification. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Judith Viorst, Friends, Good Friends--and Such Good Friends (annotated). Martin Luther King Jr., Three Ways of Meeting Oppression. James Austin, Four Kinds of Chance. Stewart Brand, Four Sides to Every Story. Florence King, Stuck in the Middle. Blending the Modes. Edward Koch, Death And Justice: How Capital Punishment Affirms Life. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Motion Picture Association of America, Parents: Stay Ahead of the Curve! Responding to Images. Symbols of Three Faiths, 2006. Strategies for Division and Classification Writing. Suggested Topics for Division and Classification Writing. Student Paper, Entitlements: The Big Three. Division and Classification Checklist.
10. Process: Explaining How Things Work and Giving Directions.
What Is Process? Explaining How Things Work. Critical Thinking for Writing Explanations. Giving Directions. Critical Thinking for Writing Directions. Writing Techniques: Process. Introductions. Second Person. Alternative Directions. Strategies for Reading Process. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Mortimer Adler, How to Mark a Book (annotated). Armond D. Budish, Fender Benders: Legal Do''s and Don''ts. Anne Weisbord, Resumes That Rate a Second Look. Walter C. Vertreace, Modifying Your Resume for Computer Selection. Donna Farrugia, How to Recover From a Bad Interview. Blending the Modes. Mark Clayton, Syria''s Cyberwars: Using Social Media Against Dissent. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Stein And Giotta Associates, Conducting A Self-Assessment. Responding to Images. Register to Vote. Strategies for Process Writing. Suggested Topics for Process Writing. Student Paper, Securing Your Home. Process Checklist.
11. Cause and Effect: Determining Reasons and Measuring or Predicting Results.
What Is Cause and Effect? Deduction and Induction. Establishing Causes. Measuring and Predicting Results. Critical Thinking for Cause-and-Effect Writing. Writing Techniques: Cause and Effect. Objective and Subjective Cause and Effect. Deduction and Induction. Qualifications and Admissions. Strategies for Reading Cause and Effect. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. John Taylor Gatto, Why Schools Don''t Educate (annotated). Stephen Winzenburg, In the Facebook Era, Students Tell You Everything. Al Gore, We Can''t Wish Away Climate Change. Brent Staples, Black Men and Public Space. Blending the Modes. Alexander Stille, Are We Losing Our Memory? Opposing Viewpoints, The Minimum Wage. Alexander Cockburn, Why We Must Raise The Minimum Wage. Phil Kerpen And Nicole Kaeding, A Starter Wage For Teens. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Thomas Jefferson et al., The Declaration of Independence.
Responding to Images. Sign showing the former edge of the Exit Glacier in Alaska. Strategies for Cause-and-Effect Writing. Suggested Topics for Cause-and-Effect Writing.
Student Paper, Helmet to Helmet: The NFL and Concussions. Cause-and-Effect Checklist.
12. Argument and Persuasion.
What Is Argument and Persuasion? Purposes of Argument. Audience. Appealing to Hostile Readers. Persuasive Appeals. Blending Appeals. Writing Techniques: Argument and Persuasion. Asking and Answering Questions. Organizing Arguments Using Other Modes. Using Connotations to Shape Perceptions. Critical Thinking for Writing Argument and Persuasion. Strategies for Reading Argument and Persuasion. Understanding Meaning. Evaluating Strategy. Appreciating Language. Anna Quindlen, Stuff is Not Salvation. Mary Sherry, In Praise of the “F” Word. Blending the Modes. Rick Newman, Five Reasons to Stop Fearing China. Opposing Viewpoints: Free Speech And Censorship. Charles Lane, There''s No Place For Censorship-By-Riot. Sarah Chayes, Anti-Muslim Movie Doesn''t Meet the Free Speech Test. Opposing Viewpoints: Ethnic Identity. Armstrong Williams, Hyphenated Americans. Julianne Malveaux, Still Hyphenated Americans. Writing Beyond the Classroom. Doctors Without Borders. Responding to Images. Sign Warning Drivers about Illegal Immigrants. Strategies for Writing Argument and Persuasion. Suggested Topics for Writing Argument and Persuasion.
Student Paper, Why a Black Student Union? Argument and Persuasion Checklist.
Appendix A: A Writer''s Guide to Documenting Sources.
What Is Documentation? Why Document Sources? When to Document. What Not to Document. What to Document. Types of Evidence. Evaluating Internet Sources. Checklist. Using Quotations. Using Paraphrases. Using MLA Documentation. Building a Works Cited List. General Guidelines. Print Sources. Online Sources. In-text Citations. Sources and Sample. Documented Essay. Book Excerpt. Magazine Article. A Website. Student Essay. Using APA Documentation. Building a Reference List. Understanding the DOI System. General Guidelines. Print Sources. Online Sources. In-text Citations. Strategies for Avoiding Common Documentation Problems. Informal Documentation.
Appendix B: A Writer''s Guide to Revising and Editing.
What Are Revising and Editing? Revising the Essay. Review the Assignment and Your Goal. Review the Whole Essay. Examine the Thesis. Review Topic Sentences and Controlling Ideas. Review the Sequence of Paragraphs. Revise the Introduction. Introduction Checklist. Revise Supporting Paragraphs. Supporting Paragraphs Checklist. Revise the Conclusion. Conclusion Checklist. Revising Paragraphs. First Draft. Revision Notes. Second Draft. Editing Sentences. Common Grammar Errors. Fragments. Run-ons and Comma Splices. Subject-Verb Agreement. Pronoun Agreement. Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers. Faulty Parallelism. Awkward Shifts in Person. Avoid Awkward Shifts in Tense. Improving Sentences. Sentence Checklist. Be Brief. Delete Wordy Phrases. Eliminate Redundancy. Avoid Placing Minor Details in Separate Sentences. Vary Sentence Types. Editing Words. Diction Checklist. Use Words Precisely. Use Specific Words. Avoid Sexist Language. Avoid Clichés. Use Appropriate Levels of Diction. Appreciate the Impact of Connotations.