Introduction: The Writing Process.
PART I: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ALL COMPOSITIONS.
Improving Your Writing Skills. The Three Steps of the Writing Process. Step #1: Prewriting. Step #2: Writing a Draft. Step #3: Rewriting and Editing.
1. Essential #1: Clear Subject, Audience, and Purpose.
Subject. Audience. Purpose. Prewriting for a Clear Subject, Audience, and Purpose. Writing for a Clear Subject, Audience, and Purpose. Rewriting for a Clear Subject, Audience, and Purpose.
2. Essential #2: Conventional Form and Features
Paragraph Form. Form for Essays and Multi-Paragraph Documents. Guidelines for Document Format. Prewriting for Document Format. Writing for Document Format. Rewriting for Document Format.
PART II: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE SENTENCES
3. Essential #3: Four Rules for Clear Sentences.
Prewriting for Clear Sentences. Writing Clear Sentences. Rule #1: Use Strong Verbs. Rule #2: Avoid Wordiness. Rule #3: Vary Sentence Types and Length. Rewriting and Editing for Clear Sentences. Rule #4: Adhere to Rules for Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling.
4. Essential #4: Vivid Language.
Prewriting for Vivid Language. Writing Sentences with Vivid Language. Details. Descriptive Adjectives. Strong Verbs. Figures of Speech. Precise Word Choices. Rewriting for Vivid Language.
PART III: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS.
5. Essential #5: Complete Paragraphs.
Anticipating Readers' Questions. Prewriting for Complete Paragraphs. Writing Complete Paragraphs. General and Specific Words and Sentences. Types of Details. Information from Research. Transition Words and Phrases. Rewriting For Complete Paragraphs.
6. Essential #6: Coherent Paragraphs.
Methods of Development and Transitions. Narration. Description. Illustration. Process. Comparison. Cause and Effect. Division. Classification. Argument. Prewriting for Methods of Development and Transitions. Choosing a Method. Combining Methods. Writing Using Methods of Development and Transitions. Rewriting for Methods of Development and Transitions.
7. Essential #7: Cohesive Paragraphs.
Paragraphs that Digress. Paragraphs that Ramble. Avoiding Paragraphs that Digress or Ramble. Prewriting for Cohesive Paragraphs. Writing Cohesive Paragraphs. Rewriting for Cohesive Paragraphs.
PART IV: ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE ESSAYS
8. Essential #8: Clear Organization in Essays and Multi-Paragraph Compositions
Prewriting to Organize Ideas. The Thesis Statement. Discovering Logical Units for Ideas. Choosing Natural or Logical Organization. Methods of Development. Outlining. Writing to Organize Ideas. Make Connections to the Thesis Statement. Link Paragraphs. Use Organizational Markers. Rewriting to Organize Ideas.
9. Prewriting for Effective Opening Paragraphs.
Purposes of the Opening. State Thesis. Give Background Information. Interest the Reader. Techniques for Writing Interesting Openings. Tell a story. Ask Questions. Connect to Readers' Goals or Needs. Begin with a Quotation. Given an Example. Explain the General Topic and Narrow to a Specific Point. Surprise or Shock the Reader. Combine the Methods. Rewriting for Interesting Openings.
10. Essential #10: Effective Closings.
Prewriting for Effective Closings. Techniques for Writing Effective Closings. Describe Effects or Consequences. Make Predictions. Recommend an Action. Complete a Circle. Ask Questions. Rewriting for Effective Closings.
11. Essential#11: Sensitivity and Tact.
Prewriting to Match Your Points to Your Reader. Writing with Sensitivity and Tact. Make Concessions. Avoid Offending or Insulting Readers. Rewriting to Improve Sensitivity and Tact.