Part I: THE ANCIENT WORLD.
1. The Near East.
1. Mesopotamian Protest against Death: Epic of Gilgamesh. 2. Mesopotamian Concepts of Justice: Code of Hammurabi. 3. Divine Kingship in Egypt: Hymns to the Pharaohs; Guidelines for the Ruler. 4. Religious Inspiration of Akhenaten: Hymn to Aton. 5. Love, Passion, and Misogyny in Ancient Egypt: Love Poetry; The Instruction of Ankhsheshonq. 6. Empire Builders: The Assyrian Empire, Inscription of Tiglathpileser I; The Persian Empire, Inscriptions of Cyrus and Darius I. 7. The Myth-Making Outlook of the Ancient Near East: Personification of Natural Objects; Lament for Ur, The Gods and Human Destiny.
2. The Hebrews.
1. Hebrew Cosmogony and Anthropology: Genesis. 2. Human Sinfulness: Genesis, The Origins of Sin. 3. The Covenant and the Ten Commandments: Exodus, The Covenant; Exodus, The Ten Commandments. 4. Humaneness of Hebrew Law: Exodus, Crime and Punishment; Leviticus, Neighbor and Community; Deuteronomy, Judges, Witnesses, and Justice. 5. God’s Greatness and Human Dignity: Psalm 8; Psalm 104. 6. The Problem of Undeserved Suffering: Job, “[God] destroys both the blameless and the wicked.” 7. The Age of Classical Prophecy: Amos and Isaiah, Social Justice; Isaiah, Peace and Humanity.
3. The Greeks.
1. Homer: The Educator of Greece: Homer, The Iliad. 2. Lyric Poetry: Sappho, Love, Passion, and Friendship. 3. Early Greek Philosophy: The Emancipation of Thought from Myth: Aristotle, Thales of Miletus; Anaximander; Aristotle, Pythagoras. 4. The Expansion of Reason: Hippocrates, The Sacred Disease, The Separation of Medicine from Myth; Thucydides, Method of Historical Inquiry; Critias, Religion as a Human Invention. 5. Humanism: Pindar, The Pursuit of Excellence; Sophocles, Lauding Human Talents. 6. The Persian Wars: Herodotus, The Histories. 7. Greek Drama: Sophocles, Antigone. 8. Athenian Greatness: Thucydides, The Funeral Oration of Pericles. 9. The Status of Women in Classical Greek Society: Euripides, Medea; Aristophanes, Lysistrata. 10. The Peloponnesian War: Thucydides, The Melian Dialogue and The Revolution at Corcyra. 11. Socrates: The Rational Individual: Plato, The Apology. 12. Plato: The Philosopher-King: Plato, The Republic. 13. Aristotle: Science, Politics, and Ethics: Aristotle, History of Animals, Politics, and Nicomachean Ethics. 14. Hellenistic Culture: Universalism and Individualism: Plutarch, Cultural Fusion; Epicurus, Self-Sufficiency. 15. Greek Culture and the Jews in the Hellenistic Age: First Book of Maccabees, Jewish Resistance to Forced Hellenization; Philo of Alexandria, Appreciation of Greek Culture and Synthesis of Reason and Revelation.
4. The Roman Republic.
1. Rome’s March to World Empire: Polybius, The Roman Army. 2. The Punic Wars: Livy, The Second Punic War: The Threat from Hannibal; Appian of Alexandria, The Third Punic War: The Destruction of Carthage. 3. The Spread of Greek Philosophy to Rome: Lucretius, Denunciation of Religion; Cicero, Advocate of Stoicism; Cato the Elder, Hostility to Greek Philosophy. 4. Roman Slavery: Diodorus Siculus, Slaves: Torment and Revolt; Appian of Alexandria, The Revolt of Spartacus. 5. Women in Republican Society: Quintus Lucretius Vespillo, A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife. 6. The Decline of the Republic: Plutarch, Tiberius Gracchus; Cicero, Justifying Caesar’s Assassination; Velleius Paterculus, The Triumph of Octavian; Sallust, Moral Deterioration.
5. The Roman Empire.
1. The Imperial Office: Augustus, The Achievements of the Divine Augustus; Tacitus, The Imposition of One-Man Rule. 2. Imperial Culture: Virgil, The Aeneid; Ovid, The Art of Love; Juvenal, The Satires. 3. Roman Stoicism: Seneca, The Moral Epistles; Marcus Aurelius, Meditations. 4. Roman Law: Justinian, Corpus Iurius Civilis. 5. Provincial Administration: Correspondence between Pliny the Younger and Emperor Trajan. 6. The Roman Peace: Aelius Aristides, The Roman Oration, The Blessings of the Pax Romana; Tacitus, The Other Side of the Pax Romana. 7. Third-Century Crisis: Dio Cassius, Caracalla’s Extortions; Petition to Emperor Phillip; Herodian, Extortions of Maximinus. 8. The Demise of Rome: Ammianus Marcellinus, The Battle of Adrianople; Salvian, Political and Social Injustice; Saint Jerome, The Fate of Rome; Pope Gregory I, The End of Roman Glory.
6. Early Christianity.
1. The Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel According to Saint Mark; The Gospel According to Saint Matthew. 2. The Dead Sea Scrolls: The Qumran Community, The Community Rule. 3. Christianity and Greco-Roman Learning: Tertullian, What Has Jerusalem to Do with Athens?; Clement of Alexandria, In Defense of Greek Learning; Saint Augustine, Appropriating Pagan Learning and Institutions for Christian Ends. 4. The Persecutions: Persecutions at Lyons and Vienne. 5. Monastic Life: Saint Jerome, The Agony of Solitude in the Desert; Cassian of Marseilles, On the Dangers and Fruits of Solitude; Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Benedictine Rule. 6. Christianity and Society: Lactantius, Acquisitiveness as the Source of Evil; Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Christian Way of Life; The Apostle Paul, The Submissive Role of Women. 7. Jews in the Era of Early Christianity: Saint John Chrysostom, Christian Demonization of Jews; Rabbinic Judaism: Ethical Concerns. 8. Church and State: Pope Gelasius I, Letter to Emperor Anastasius. 9. The Christian World-View: Saint Augustine, The City of God.
Part II: THE MIDDLE AGES.
7. The Early Middle Ages.
1. The Byzantine Cultural Achievement: Theophylact Simocattes, The Value of Reason and History. 2. Islam: The Koran. 3. Muslim Relations with Christians and Jews: Legal Texts and Decrees: Restrictions on Dhimmis. 4. Jihad: Sayings Attributed to the Prophet: Ibn Taymiyyah, The Religious and Moral Doctrine of Jihad. 5. Islam and Greek Learning: Avicenna, Love of Learning. 6. Converting the Germanic Peoples to Christianity: Bede, History of the English Church and People; Einhard, Forcible Conversion under Charlemagne; Martin of Braga, The Persistence of Paganism in the Countryside. 7. The Transmission of Learning: Cassiodorus, The Monk as Scribe. 8. The Carolingian Renaissance: Einhard, Charlemagne’s Appreciation of Learning; Charlemagne, An Injunction to Monasteries to Cultivate Letters. 9. The Feudal Lord: Vassal and Warrior: Galbert of Bruges, Commendation and the Oath of Fealty; Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, Obligations of Lords and Vassals; Bertran de Born, In Praise of Combat. 10. The Burdens of Serfdom: Bishop Adalbero of Laon, The Tripartite Society; Ralph Glaber, Monk of Cluny, Famine; William of Jumièges and Wace, Failed Rebellion.
8. The High and Late Middle Ages.
1. The Revival of Trade and the Growth of Towns: How to Succeed in Business; Ordinances of the Guild Merchant of Southampton; Alliance of German Towns to Protect Merchants, 1253. 2. Papal Supremacy: Pope Gregory VII, The Dictatus Papae; Pope Innocent III, “Royal Power Derives Its Dignity from the Pontifical Authority.” 3. The Crusades: Robert the Monk, Appeal of Urban II to the Franks; William of Tyre, The Capture of Jerusalem; James of Vitry, “The Remission of Sins and the Reward of Eternal Life.” 4. Religious Dissent: Thomas Aquinas, Death for Unrepentant Heretics; Bernard Gui, The Waldensian Teachings. 5. Medieval Learning: Synthesis of Reason and Christian Faith: Adelard of Bath, A Questioning Spirit; Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica. 6. Medieval Universities: Geoffrey Chaucer, an Oxford Cleric; Student Letters; A Wandering Scholar, “In the Tavern Let Me Die.” 7. The Jews in the Middle Ages: Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle, Massacre of the Jews of Mainz; A Decree by Pope Innocent III; The Libel of Ritual Murder; Philip II Augustus, Expulsion of the Jews from France; Maimonides, Jewish Learning. 8. Troubadour Love Songs: Love as Joyous, Painful, and Humorous. 9. The Status of Women in Medieval Society: Jacopone da Todi, Praise of the Virgin Mary, “O Thou Mother, Fount of Love”; Christine de Pisan, The City of Ladies; A Merchant of Paris, On Love and Marriage. 10. Sexual Nonconformity: Satan’s Lures: Robert of Flamborough, Prohibition of Sexual Sins; Peter Damian, Condemnation of Homosexuality. 11. Medieval Contributions to the Tradition of Liberty: John of Salisbury, Policraticus, A Defense of Tyrannicide; Magna Carta. 12. The Fourteenth Century: An Age of Adversity: Jean de Venette, The Black Death; Sir John Froissart, The Peasant Revolt of 1381; John Wycliffe, Concerning the Pope’s Power; Peter of les Vaux-de-Cernay, Exterminating the Cathars; Marsilius of Padua, Attack on the Worldly Power of the Church. 13. The Medieval World-View: Lothario dei Segni (Pope Innocent III), On the Misery of the Human Condition; The Vanity of This World; Dante Alighieri, The Divine Comedy.
Part III: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.
9. The Renaissance.
1. The Humanists’ Fascination with Antiquity: Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and A Humanist Educational Program; Petrus Paulus Vergerius, The Importance of Liberal Studies. 2. Human Dignity: Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man. 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince. 4. The Ideal Gentleman: Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier. 5. Renaissance Art and Science: Leonardo da Vinci, Observation and Mathematical Perspective; Leonardo on His Own Genius. 6. The Spread of the Renaissance: François Rabelais, Celebration of the Worldly Life; William Shakespeare, Human Nature and the Human Condition.
10. The Reformation.
1. A Catholic Critic of the Church: Desiderius Erasmus, In Praise of Folly. 2. The Lutheran Reformation: Martin Luther, On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, The Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy; Ulrich von Hutten, Resentment of Rome. 3. The German Peasants’ Revolt: Anonymous, To the Assembly of the Common Peasantry; Martin Luther, Against the Peasants. 4. Luther and the Jews: Martin Luther, On the Jews and Their Lies. 5. The Calvinist Reformation: John Calvin, The Institutes of the Christian Religion. 6. The Catholic Response to Protestantism: Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent. 7. Religious Persecution: Chronicle of King Francis I, Burning of Protestants in Paris; The Persecution of Anabaptists: The Examination of Elizabeth Dirks; Menno Simons, An Anabaptist Rejection of the Use of Force.
11. Early Modern Society and Politics.
1. The Age of Exploration and Conquest: Bernal Díaz del Castillo, The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico. 2. Spanish Oppression of Amerindians: Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubios, Justifying Spanish Domination of Amerindians; Bartolomé de las Casas, The Tears of the Indians. 3. Toward the Modern Economy: The Example of Holland: William Carr, The Dutch East India Company. 4. The Jews of Spain and Portugal: Expulsion, Forced Conversion, Inquisition: Proceedings of the Spanish Inquisition: The Torture of Elvira del Campo; Damião de Gois, The Forced Conversion of Portuguese Jews. 5. The Atlantic Slave Trade: Seventeenth-Century Slave Traders, Buying and Transporting Africans; Malachy Postlethwayt, Slavery Defended; John Wesley, Thoughts Upon Slavery; Olaudah Equiano, Memoirs of a Former Slave. 6. The Witch Craze: Jakob Sprenger and Heinrich Krämer, The Hammer of Witches; Johannes Junius, A Confession of Witchcraft Explained; Nicholas Malebranche, Search After Truth. 7. The Court of Louis XIV: Duc de Saint-Simon, An Assessment of Louis XIV; Liselotte von der Pfalz (Elizabeth Charlotte d’Orleans), A Sketch of Court Life. 8. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. 9. A Secular Defense of Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. 10. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution: The English Declaration of Rights.
12. The Scientific Revolution.
1. The Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Cardinal Bellarmine, Attack on the Copernican Theory. 2. Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition. 3. Prophet of Modern Science: Francis Bacon, Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science. 4. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method: William Harvey, The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. 5. The Autonomy of the Mind: René Descartes, Discourse on Method. 6. The Mechanical Universe: Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica.
13. The Enlightenment.
1. The Enlightenment Outlook: Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty: John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. 3. Attack on Religion: Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d’Holbach, Good Sense. 4. Epistemology and Education: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude Helvétius, Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man. 5. Compendium of Knowledge: Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. 6. Rousseau: Political Reform: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract. 7. Humanitarianism: Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard, Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia “Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce…”; Marquis de Condorcet, The Evils of Slavery. 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society: Voltaire, Candide; Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. 9. On the Progress of Humanity: Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.