Part I: TOOLS FOR THINKING, READING, AND WRITING.
1. The Thinking–Writing Model: Rhetoric, Situation, and Process.
Thinking and Writing in College. Becoming a Critical Thinker and Thoughtful Writer. Qualities of a Thoughtful Writer. The Thinking-Writing Model. Rhetoric and the Writing Situation. Purpose. Audience. Subject. Writer. Writing Thoughtfully, Thinking Creatively, Thinking Critically. The Writing Process. The Recursive Nature of the Writing Process. Generating Ideas. Keeping a Journal or Blog. Defining a Focus. Organizing Ideas. Drafting. Revising, Editing, and Proofreading. Collaborating.
2. Reading: Making Meaning.
Reading in College, Reading for Life. Reading Actively. Review the Table of Contents or Chapter Outlines. Read the Introductory Paragraphs and the Concluding Paragraphs or Summary. Scan the Reading Assignment, Taking Particular Note of Section Headings, Illustrations, and Diagrams. Annotating. Summarizing. Reading Critically. Asking Questions. Using a Problem-Solving Approach. Practicing Active and Critical Reading: One Student''s Approach. Using Metacognitive Strategies. Making Meaning. Semantic Meaning (Denotation).
Perceptual Meaning (Connotation). Syntactic Meaning. Pragmatic Meaning.
3. Writing: Using Independent Thought and Informed Beliefs.
From Insight to Writing to Informed Beliefs (and Back Again). Thinking Actively and Writing. Influences on Your Thinking. Thinking Independently. Viewing a Situation from Different Perspectives. Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence. Developing Informed Beliefs. Experiences That Affect Beliefs. Writing Project: An Experience That Influenced a Belief. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Eli Sharp''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
4. Thinking: Becoming More Creative and Visually Aware.
Creative Thinking, Critical Viewing, and Writing. Creativity in Topic Selection. Moving from Topic to Thesis. Creativity in Generating Ideas. Creative and Critical Thinking About Images. Images and the Writing Situation. Reading Images Critically. Semantic Meaning (Denotation). Perceptual Meaning (Connotation). Syntactic Meaning. Pragmatic Meaning. Living Creatively. Becoming More Creative: Understand and Trust the Process. Eliminate the Voice of Judgment. Establish a Creative Environment. Make Creativity a Priority. Where Do Ideas Come From? Writing Project: Imagining Your Life Lived More Creatively. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process: Freewriting. Alternative Writing Projects.
5. Drafting: Making and Analyzing Decisions.
Decisions While Drafting. Decisions in Your Life. An Organized Approach to Making Decisions. Step 1: Define the Decision and Its Goals Clearly (Audience). Step 2: Consider All Possible Choices (Subject). Step 3: Gather All Relevant Information and Evaluate the Pros and Cons of Each Possible Choice (Purpose). Step 4: Select the Choice That Seems Best Suited to the Situation. Step 5: Implement a Plan of Action and Monitor the Results, Making Necessary Adjustments. Analyzing Decisions. Writing Project: Analyzing a Decision to Be Made. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Wendy Agudo''s Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Cynthia Brown''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
6. Revising: Using Language Thoughtfully.
Recognizing Effective Use of Language. Language, Thinking, and Learning. Making Decisions When Revising Drafts. Specific Decisions to Make at Several Levels. Using Language Ethically. Improving Vague Language. Using Figurative Language. Using Language to Influence. Euphemistic Language. Clichés. Emotive Language. Writing Project: The Impact of Language on Our Lives. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
Part II: THINKING AND WRITING TO SHAPE OUR WORLD.
7. Writing to Describe and Narrate: Exploring Perceptions.
Thinking Critically About Perceptions. Becoming Aware of Your Own Perceptions. Noting Differences in People''s Perceptions. Writing Thoughtfully About Perceptions. Writing Objectively and Subjectively. Contrasting Objective and Subjective Writing. Chronological Relationships. Narratives. Writing About Processes. Examples of Process Writing. Writing Project: A Narrative Showing the Effect of a Perception. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Joshua Chaffee''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
8. Writing to Classify and Define: Exploring Concepts.
What Are Concepts? The Importance of Concepts. The Structure of Concepts. The Process of Classifying. Forming Concepts. Applying Concepts. Determining the Requirements of a Concept. Analyzing Complex Concepts. A Casebook on Gender and Sexuality. Using Concepts to Classify. Classifying People and Their Actions. Writing and Classifying. Defining Concepts. Writing Thoughtfully to Define Concepts. Writing Project: Defining an Important Concept. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Nawang Doma Sherpa''s Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jorden Carlsen''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects.
9. Writing to Compare and Evaluate: Exploring Perspectives and Relationships.
Perceptions and Perspectives. Selecting Perceptions: Why Do We Notice the Things We Notice? Organizing Perceptions. Interpreting Perceptions. Casebook: Perception and Reality in Reporting the Earthquake in Haiti. Changes in Perceptions and Perspectives. Obtaining More Accurate Perceptions: Adjusting the Lenses. Develop Awareness. Get Input from Others. Find Evidence. Keep an Open Mind. Writing Thoughtfully About Perspectives. Comparison and Contrast. Thinking in Comparisons. Analogy. Writing Project: Comparing Perspectives on an Issue or Event. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jennifer Wade''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: Comparing Two Reviews.
10. Writing to Speculate: Exploring Cause and Effect.
Kinds of Causal Relationships. Causal Chain. Contributory Causes. Interactive Causes. Ways of Testing Causes. Necessary Condition and Sufficient Condition. Immediate Cause and Remote Cause. Identifying Causal Fallacies. Questionable Cause. Misidentification of the Cause. Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc. Slippery Slope. Detecting Causal Claims. Exploring Cause and Effect: Modern Agriculture and Social Impact. Writing Thoughtfully About Causal Relationships. Writing Project: Exploring Some Causes of a Recent Event. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Daniel Eggers''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects: Utopias and Dystopias.
Part III: THINKING AND WRITING TO EXPLORE ISSUES AND TAKE POSITIONS.
11. Writing to Analyze: Believing and Knowing.
Ways of Forming Beliefs. Beliefs Based on Personal Experience. Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience. Evaluating Sources and Information. How Reliable Is the Source? What Are the Source''s Purposes and Interests? How Knowledgeable or Experienced Is the Source? Was the Source Able to Make Accurate Observations? How Reputable Is the Source? How Valuable Is Information from This Source? Believing and Knowing. Knowledge and Truth. Understanding Relativism. Understanding Falsifiable Beliefs. The Media and Truth. Ways of Presenting Beliefs. Reporting Factual Information. Inferring from Evidence or Premise. Judging by Applying Criteria. Distinguishing Among Reports, Inferences, and Judgments. Presenting Beliefs in Your Writing. Writing Project: Analyzing Influences on Your Beliefs About a Social or Academic Issue. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Jessie Lange''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: Evolving Beliefs in an Academic Field.
12. Writing to Propose Solutions: Solving Problems.
Problems in Personal and Civic Life. Basics of the Problem-Solving Method. 1. What Is the Problem? 2. What Are the Alternatives? 3. What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Alternative? 4. What Is the Solution? 5. How Well Is the Solution Working? The Problem-Solving Method in Detail. Before You Begin: Accepting the Problem. Step 1: What Is the Problem? Step 2: What Are the Alternatives? Step 3: What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Each Alternative? Step 4: What Is the Solution? Step 5: How Well Is the Solution Working? Solving Social Problems. Taking a Problem-Solving Approach to Writing. Writing Project: Proposing a Solution to a Problem. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. STUDENT WRITING: Joshua Bartlett''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Projects: Community Problems, Community Solutions.
13. Writing to Persuade: Constructing Arguments.
Principles of Argument. Classical Concepts of Argument. Modern Concepts of Argument. Recognizing Arguments. Two Friends Argue: Should Marijuana Be Legalized? Arguments as Inferences. Constructing Arguments to Decide. Constructing Arguments to Explain. Constructing Arguments to Predict. Constructing Arguments to Persuade. Evaluating Arguments. Truth: How True Are the Supporting Reasons? Validity: Do the Reasons Support the Claim or Conclusion? Soundness: Is the Argument Both True and Valid? Forms of Argument. Deductive Reasoning. Other Deductive Forms. Inductive Reasoning. Causal Reasoning. Empirical Generalization. More Fallacies: Forms of False Reasoning. Hasty Generalization. Sweeping Generalization. False Dilemma. Begging the Question. Red Herring. Fallacies of Relevance. Deductive and Inductive Reasoning in Writing. Writing Project: Arguing a Position on a Significant Issue. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. Principles for Writing Responsible Arguments. STUDENT WRITING: Will Portman''s Writing Process. Alternative Writing Project: The Pursuit of Happiness.
14. Writing About Investigations: Thinking About Research.
Rewards of Research. Starting with Questions. Questions That Identify Your Topic. Questions That Focus Your Topic. Searching for Information. Finding Electronic and Print Sources in the Library. Primary and Secondary Sources. Collecting Information from Experts and from the Field. Using Information. Evaluating Sources for a Research Project. Moving from Questions to Thesis. Understanding Plagiarism and Using Information Ethically. Taking Notes. Deciding When to Take Notes. Quoting and Paraphrasing. Using Common Knowledge. Characteristics of Effective Note-Taking Systems. Summarizing. Preparing an Annotated Bibliography. Integrating Source Material. Introducing Sources. Establishing Your Voice. Choosing Point of View. The Logic Behind Documentation. Reasons for Documentation. The Logic of MLA Style. Working Thoughtfully on Research Projects. Time. Planning and Outlining. Formats and Models. Collaboration. Writing Project: A Research Paper. The Writing Situation. The Writing Process. Annotated Student Research Paper with Outline and Drafts. STUDENT WRITING: Chris Buxton-Smith''s Writing Situation. STUDENT WRITING: Chris Buxton-Smith''s Writing Process.
APPENDIX: MLA and APA Documentation Styles.
Modern Language Association Style. Quick Reference. Citation Format. Accuracy and Completeness. What to Include in MLA Citations. Format for MLA Works-Cited List. Annotations. Books. Government/Civic Documents. Periodicals. Nonprint Sources. Electronic Sources. Creating a Works-Cited Page. American Psychological Association Style. Paper Format. Manuscript Format. Citation Format. Reference List Format. Electronic Sources. Text Citation Format. Quotations Within the Text.