Preface.

1. Logic and Argument.

Logic Defined. Argument Defined. Exercise: Argument Form. Diagraming Arguments. Exercise: Diagraming Arguments. Supplying Missing Parts: Enthymemes. Exercise: Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions. Recognizing Real Arguments. Interpretation and the Principle of Charity. Exercise: Recognizing Real Arguments. Exercise: Composing Arguments. Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

2. Good Argument, Deductive Validity, and Inductive Strength.

Good Arguments. Does the Conclusion Follow?: Deductive Validity and Inductive Strength. Deductive Validity Defined. Exercise: Deductive Validity. Does the Conclusion Follow Necessarily? Exercise: Inductive Strength. Does the Conclusion Follow Probably? Validity and Logical Form. Exercise: Validity and Logical Form. Exercise: More Logical Form. Are the Premises True? Exercise: Empirical or Nonempirical? Truth, Validity, and Good Argument. Exercise: What, if Anything, Is Wrong with This Argument? Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

3. Categorical Logic Part I.

Introduction. Categories and Reasoning. The Four Categorical Forms. Exercise: Categorical Forms. Exercise: Change the Quality. Exercise: Change the Quantity. Venn Diagrams. Diagramming with Two Categories. Exercise: Drawing Venn Diagrams. Exercise: Reading Venn Diagrams. Recognizing Simple Inferences. Exercise: Recognizing Simple Inferences. The Squares of Opposition. The Traditional Square of Opposition. Inferences on the Traditional Square. Exercise: Inferences on the Traditional Square of Opposition. Exercise: More Inferences. Exercise: Quick Check on the Square. The Modern Square of Opposition. Exercise: Inferences on the Modern Square of Opposition. The Operations. The Raven Paradox. Exercise: Operations. Exercise: What Operation? Exercise: Valid or Invalid? Exercise: Simplifying with Operations. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

4. Categorical Logic Part II.

Translating into Categorical Form. Translating Guide. Exercise: Translating. The Categorical Syllogism.

Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams. The Bar. Making an Existential Assumption. Exercise: Diagramming with Three Circles. Exercise: Reading Venn Diagrams. Exercise: Testing Validity with Venn Diagrams. Special Cases for the Syllogism. Exercise: Valid or Invalid? Exercise: Sorites. Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

5. Truth-Functional Logic Part I.

Introduction. Statements and Operators. The Logical Operators Defined. The Symbols and Their Uses. Table: Symbols Used in Truth-Functional Logic. Symbolic Translation. Exercise: Symbolic Translation.

Grouping and the Scope of Operators . Symbolizing with Parentheses and Brackets. Exercise: Translating and Grouping. Special Cases for Translation. Variations on the Conjunction and Disjunction. Variations on the Conditional. Table: Special Cases for Translation. Exercise: More Symbolic Translations. The Truth-Functions. Constructing Truth Tables. Exercise: Truth Tables for the Operators. Exercise: The Truth-Values of Compounds. Exercise: Translating and Truth Tables. Exercise: Interpreting Symbolic Statement. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

6. Truth-Functional Logic Part II.

Truth Tables for Evaluating Arguments. Exercise: The Truth Table Method. Indirect Truth Tables. Exercise: Indirect Truth Table Method. Statements and Relations. Types of Statements: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingencies. Types of Relations: Equivalences and Contradictories. Exercise: Tautologies, Self-contradictions, and Contingencies. Exercise: Equivalences and Contradictories

Summary. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

7. Formal Deduction.

Introduction. The Rules of Inference: Group I. Exercise: The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group I. Exercise: Deduction with the Rules of Inference, Group I. The Rules of Inference: Group II. Exercise: The Validity of Rules of Inference, Group II. Exercise: Complete the Deductions. Exercise: Rules of Inference. Equivalences. Table: Rules of Inference. Table: Equivalences. Exercise: Equivalences and Rules of Inference. Exercise: More Deductions. Exercise: Symbolize and Deduce. Review Questions.

8. Inductive Logic.

Inductive Strength. Inductive Generalization. Summary: Inductive Generalization. Exercise 8.2A Inductive Generalization. Exercise 8.2B More Inductive Generalizations. Causal Arguments. What is a causal statement?. What does ''A causes B'' mean? Types of Causal Arguments. Exercise: Types of Causal Arguments. Mill''s Methods. Summary: Mill''s Method. Exercise: Mill''s Methods. Argument from Analogy. Summary: Argument from Analogy. Exercise:Arguments from Analogy. Summary. Exercise: Identifying Types of Arguments. Exercise: Identifying More Difficult Arguments. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

9. Informal Fallacies.

Appeal to Authority. Appeal to the People. Appeal to Force. Appeal to Pity. Appeal to Ignorance. Ad Hominem. False Cause. Slippery Slope. Either/Or Fallacy. Equivocation. Hasty Generalization. Fallacy of Composition. Fallacy of Division. False Analogy. Begging the Question. Straw Man. Red Herring. Inconsistency. Summary. Exercise: Identifying Fallacies. Exercise: More Informal Fallacies. Exercise: Composing Fallacies. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

10. Evaluating Arguments.

Procedure for Argument Evaluation. Exposing Real Arguments. Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing Omitting Sentences. Rewriting Sentences. Paraphrasing. Exercise: Omitting, Rewriting, and Paraphrasing. More on Enthymemes: Plausible Interpretations.Exercise: Real Enthymemes: Missing Premises and Conclusions. Examining Premises. More on Empirical and Nonempirical Statements. Exercise: More on Empirical and Nonempirical. Sample Evaluations. Sample Evaluation 1. Sample Evaluation 2. Exercise: Evaluating Real Arguments. Review Questions. Discussion Questions.

Answers to Selected Exercises.

Glossary.

Index.