This companion is designed for anyone who desires a guide to using SAS to carry out nonparametric analyses. It can serve as a SAS lab manual for students enrolled in a course covering nonparametric methods where SAS is used for computing. It is also an excellent reference for researchers who currently use SAS and wish to learn about the capabilities of SAS for performing nonparametric analyses and the syntax for implementing the procedures.
An important feature of this companion is that all of the SAS examples presented are self-contained and can be entered into SAS, as they appear, and executed. Thus, the user does not have to deal with issues of creating SAS data sets before using the programs. In addition to presenting the SAS code to obtain various nonparametric analyses, brief introductions to the methods themselves are also given. Particular attention is given to how SAS calculates the results it presents, and explanation provided wherever SAS presents results that might be different from what is typically presented in textbooks.

### Table of Contents

1. ONE-SAMPLE METHODS.

Binomial Test for the Median. A Confidence Interval for the Pth Quantile.

2. TWO-SAMPLE METHODS.

A Two-Sample Permutation Test. Random Sampling the Permutations. The Wilcoxon Tank-Sum Test. Other Scoring Systems. Tests for Equality of Scale Parameters and Omnibus Tests. Nonparametric Bootstrap Methods for Two Samples.

3. K-SAMPLE METHODS.

K-Sample Permutation Tests. The Kruskal-Wallis Test. Multiple Comparisons. Ordered Alternatives.

4. PAIRED COMPARISONS AND BLOCKED DESIGNS.

Paired Comparisons. Friedman's Test for Randomized Complete Block Design.

5. TESTS OF ASSOCIATION FOR BIVARIATE DATA.

Measures of Association for Bivariate Data. Summary of Options for Obtaining P-values for Measures of Association.

6. TESTS OF ASSOCIATION FOR CONTINGENCY TABLES.

Measures of Association for Contingency Tables. Chi-Square and Permutation Tests for Contingency Tables. Fisher's Exact Test for a 2X2 Contingency Table. Contingency Tables with Ordered Categories. Tables with Multiple Strata. McNemar's Test.

7. ANALYSIS OF CENSORED DATA.

Estimating the Survival Function. Permutation Test for Type I and Type II Censored Data. Permutation Tests for Randomly Censored Data. Comparing Survival Functions.

8. MULTIVARIATE PERMUTATION TESTS.

Tests Based on Raw Data. Tests Based on Ranks.

9. SMOOTHING METHODS AND ROBUST MODEL FITTING.

Estimating the Probability Density Function. Nonparametric Curve Smoothing. Robust Regression.