Higher Education

Thinking Critically, 10th Edition

  • John Chaffee City University of New York
  • ISBN-10: 0495908819  |  ISBN-13: 9780495908814
  • 592 Pages
  • Previous Editions: 2009, 2006, 2003
  • © 2012 | Published
  • College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $129.00
  • Newer Edition Available
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About

Overview

THINKING CRITICALLY teaches the fundamental thinking, reasoning, reading, and writing abilities that students need to succeed in the classroom and beyond. The text begins with basic skills related to personal experience and then carefully progresses to the more sophisticated reasoning skills required for abstract, academic contexts. The 10th edition maintains the hallmarks that make THINKING CRITICALLY an effective tool for instructors and students. Each chapter provides an overview of an aspect of critical thinking, such as problem-solving, perception, and the nature of beliefs. Exercises, discussion topics, and writing assignments encourage active participation and prompt students to critically examine others’ thinking, as well as their own.

Features and Benefits

  • THINKING CRITICALLY has many distinctive characteristics upon which instructors can support or build their curriculum. The text teaches the fundamental thinking, reasoning, and language abilities that students need for academic success.
  • The text begins with basic abilities and carefully progresses to more sophisticated thinking and reasoning skills. Cognitive maps open each chapter to help students understand the thinking process, as well as the interrelationship of ideas within that chapter.
  • Exercises, discussion topics, readings, and writing assignments encourage active participation, stimulating students to critically examine their own and others’ thinking and to sharpen and improve their abilities. The many diverse readings provide in-depth perspectives on significant social issues.
  • The development of thinking abilities is integrated with the four language skills crucial to success in college and careers: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. The abundant writing assignments (short answer, paragraph, and essay), challenging readings, and discussion exercises serve to improve students’ language skills.
  • The four-color design supports visual learning styles, prompts students to think critically about the way print media messages are shaped, and helps clarify distinctions between the many different features and elements of the book.
  • A section in Chapter 1, “Images, Decision-Making, and Thinking About Visual Information,” discusses and models the ways in which the media shapes the message, and introduces concepts for critical evaluation of visual information. Each chapter also includes a feature, “Thinking Critically About Visuals,” that engages students in comparing and evaluating images drawn from current events and popular culture.
  • Chapters 1 and 12 begin and end the book by linking critical thinking to creative thinking. Chapter 1 analyzes the creative process and develops creative thinking abilities, creating a template for approaching issues and problems both critically and creatively throughout the text. Chapter 12, “Thinking Critically, Living Creatively,” reinforces these connections and encourages students to create a life philosophy through moral choices.
  • Chapter 9, “Thinking Critically About Moral Issues,” was developed at the suggestion of reviewers who noted the deep engagement many students have with the moral and ethical choices that our complex and interconnected society requires them to make.
  • A section on “Constructing Extended Arguments” presents a clear model for researching and writing argumentative essays.
  • A critical thinking test, “Tom Randall’s Halloween Party,” or the “Test of Critical Thinking Abilities,” developed by the author, is included in the Instructor’s Resource Manual and in interactive form on the student website. It provides a comprehensive evaluation of student thinking and language abilities. Using a court case format arising from a fatal student drinking incident, the test challenges students to gather and weigh evidence, ask relevant questions, construct informed beliefs, evaluate expert testimony and summation arguments, reach a verdict, and then view the entire case from a problem-solving perspective.

Table of Contents

1. THINKING.
Thinking Critically About Visuals: The Mystery of the Mind. Living an “Examined” Life. Thinking Critically About Visuals: You Are the Artist of Your Life. A Roadmap to Your Mind. Working Toward Goals. Achieving Short-Term Goals. Achieving Long-Term Goals. Images, Decision-Making, and Thinking About Visual Information. Images, Perceiving, and Thinking. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Disaster and Perspective. Thinking Passage: The Autobiography of Malcolm X. From The Autobiography of Malcolm X by Malcolm X with Alex Haley. An Organized Approach to Making Decisions. Living Creatively. “Can I Be Creative?” Becoming More Creative. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “Expect the Unexpected” – Heraclitus. Thinking Critically About New Media: Creative Applications. Thinking Passage: Nurturing Creativity. ‘Original Spin,” by Lesley Dormen and Peter Edidin. “Revenge of the Right Brain,” by Daniel Pink. Thinking Critically About Visuals: ‘Express Yourself!” Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
2. THINKING CRITICALLY.
Thinking Critically About Visuals: “Now It Is Time for Us to Part ...” Thinking Actively. Influences on Your Thinking. Becoming an Active Learner. Carefully Exploring Situations with Questions. Thinking Independently. Viewing Situations from Different Perspectives. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Thinking Independently. Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “You Leave, I Was Here First!” Discussing Ideas in an Organized Way. Listening Carefully. Supporting Views with Reasons and Evidence. Responding to the Points Being Made. Asking Questions. Increasing Understanding. Reading Critically. Asking Questions Using a Problem-Solving Approach. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Complex Issues, Challenging Images. Becoming a Critical Thinker. Thinking Critically About New Media: Issues with Communication. Analyzing Issues. What Is the Issue? What Is the Evidence? What Are the Arguments? What Is the Verdict? Thinking Passage: Jurors’ and Judges’ Reasoning Processes. “Jurors Hear Evidence and Turn It into Stories,” by Daniel Goleman. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “Members of the Jury, Don’t Be Deceived...” Analyzing On-Line Trends in Higher Education. Will the Web Kill Colleges?” by Zephyr Teachout. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
3. SOLVING PROBLEMS.
Thinking Critically About Problems. Introduction to Solving Problems. Solving Complex Problems. Accepting the Problem. Step 1: What Is the Problem? Step 2: What Are the Alternatives? Step 3: What Are the Advantages and/or Disadvantages of Each Alternative? Thinking Critically About Visuals: “I Have a Creative Idea!” Step 4: What Is the Solution? Thinking Critically About Visuals: “Why Didn’t I Think of That!” Step 5: How Well Is the Solution Working? Solving Non-personal Problems. Thinking Critically About New Media: Surfing Dangers and Addictions. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Advertising to Change Behavior. Thinking Passage: The Influence of New Media “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” by Nicholas Carr. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
4. PERCEIVING AND BELIEVING.
Actively Selecting, Organizing, and Interpreting Sensations. People’s Perceptions Differ Thinking Critically About Visuals: The Investigation. Viewing the World Through “Lenses”. What Factors Shape Perceptions? Thinking Critically About Visuals: Witnessing a Martyrdom. Five Accounts of the Assassination of Malcolm X. Thinking Passage: Experiences Shape Your Perceptions. Untitled by Luis Feliz (student essay). Thinking Critically About Visuals: Perceiving and Managing Fear. Perceiving and Believing. Believing and Perceiving. Types of Beliefs: Report, Inferences, Judgments. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Observing a Street Scene. Reporting Factual Information. Inferring. Judging. Differences in Judgments. Thinking Critically About New Media: Distinguishing Perception from Reality. Thinking Passage: Perception and Reality on Reporting the Earthquake in Haiti. Haiti,” by Jonah Lehrer. “Making Sense of Haiti,” by Amy Davidson. “Suffering,” by George Packer. “Aftershock,” by Bryan Walsh, Jay Newton-Small, and Tim Padgett. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
5. CONSTRUCTING KNOWLEDGE.
Believing and Knowing. Knowledge and Truth. Stages of Knowing. Thinking Critically About Your Beliefs. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “I Knew That Aliens Existed!” Using Perspective-Taking to Achieve Knowledge. Several Accounts of Events at Tiananmen Square, 1989. Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience. How Reliable Are the Information and the Source? Thinking Critically About New Media: Evaluating Online Information. Before You Search. Choose Sources Likely to Be Reliable. Was the United States Justified in Dropping Atomic Bombs on Japan? Thinking Critically About Visuals: After the Bomb. Thinking Passage: Seeking the Truth vs. Winning a Battle. “The Story Behind the Story,” by Mark Bowden. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
6. LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT.
The Evolution of Language. The Symbolic Nature of Language. Semantic Meaning (Denotation). Perceptual Meaning (Connotation). Syntactic Meaning. Pragmatic Meaning. “Jabberwocky”. Thinking Passage. “How Nonsense Sharpens the Intellect,” by Benedict Carey. Using Language Effectively. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Reading the Unwritten. Thinking Passage. From Blue Highways by William Least Heat-Moon. Using Language to Clarify Thinking. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Words Paint a Picture. Improving Vague Language. Using Language in Social Contexts. Language Styles. Standard American English. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “What’s Happening?” Slang Jargon. The Social Boundaries of Language. Using Language to Influence. Euphemistic Language. “Ancient Greece to Iraq, the Power of Words in Wartime,” by Robin Tolmach Lakoff. Emotive Language. Thinking Passage: Persuading with Political Speeches. Thinking Critically About New Media: How to Write for the New Media. “How to Write for the New Media,” by Neal Jansons. Thinking Passage: Will Twitter Make Us Nit-Twits? “Twitter, Communication, and My Inner Luddite,” by Yves Smith. “The Hidden Problem With Twitter,” by Carin Ford. “How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live,” by Steven Johnson. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “You’re Not Going to Believe This....” Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
7. FORMING AND APPLYING CONCEPTS.
What Are Concepts? The Structure of Concepts. Forming Concepts. Applying Concepts. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Fashion Statements as Concepts. Thinking Passage: Femininity and Masculinity. “Women and Femininity in U.S. Popular Culture,” Susan Grayson. “The Second Coming of the Alpha Male,” by Michael Segell. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “Pose!” Using Concepts to Classify. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “A Tree Is Just a Tree, Is Just a Tree …” Defining Concepts. Thinking Passage: Defining Cultural Identity. “Identify Yourself: Who’s American?” by Gregory Rodriguez. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Who Is an American? Relating Concepts with Mind Maps. Thinking Passage: The Concepts Religion and Religious Experience.”What Is Religion?” by Frederick J. Streng. Thinking Critically About New Media: Using New Media to Research a Concept. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
8. RELATING AND ORGANIZING.
Chronological and Process Relationships. Chronological Relationships. Thinking Passage “Back, But Not Home,” by Maria Muniz (student essay). Process Relationships. Comparative and Analogical Relationships. Comparative Relationships. Analogical Relationships. Thinking Passage: Thinking Literally. Thinking Literally: The Surprising Ways that Metaphors Shape Your World. Thinking Critically About New Media: New Media Metaphors for Our World. Causal Relationships. Thinking Critically About Visuals: The Places We Think. Causal Chains. Contributory Causes. Interactive Causes. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Why...? Thinking Passage: Environmental Issues. “Playing God in the Garden,” by Michael Pollan. “Eating the Genes,” by Richard Manning. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
9. THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT MORAL ISSUES.
What Is Ethics? Your Moral Compass. I Would Follow My Conscience. I Do Not Know What I Would Do. I Would Do Whatever Would Improve My Own Situation. I Would Do What God or the Scriptures Say Is Right. I Would Do Whatever Made Me Happy. I Would Follow the Advice of an Authority, Such as a Parent or Teacher. I Would Do What Is Best for Everyone Involved. The Thinker’s Guide to Moral Decision-Making. Make Morality a Priority. Thinking Critically About Visuals: “What Homeless Person?” Recognize That a Critical-Thinking Approach to Ethics Is Based on Reason. Include the Ethic of Justice in Your Moral Compass. Include the Ethic of Care in Your Moral Compass. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Ethics and Emotions. Accept Responsibility for Your Moral Choices. Seek to Promote Happiness for Oneself and Others. Seek to Develop an Informed Intuition. Discover the “Natural Law” of Human Nature. Choose to Be a Moral Person. Thinking Critically About New Media: Ethical Issues with the Internet. Thinking Passage: Thinking and Acting Morally. “The Disparity Between Intellect and Character,” by Robert Coles. Solving the Problem of World Hunger. “The Solution to World Hunger,” by Peter Singer. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
10. CONSTRUCTING ARGUMENTS.
Thinking Critically About Visuals: ‘Let Herbs Grow Free!” Recognizing Arguments. Cue Words for Arguments. Thinking Passage: Legalizing Drugs. “Drugs” by Gore Vidal. “The Case for Slavery.” by A. M. Rosenthal. Arguments Are Inferences. Evaluating Arguments. Truth: How True Are the Supporting Reasons? Validity: Do the Reasons Support the Conclusion? Thinking Critically About Visuals: The Changing Rules of Love. The Soundness of Arguments. Understanding Deductive Arguments. Application of a General Rule. Disjunctive Syllogism. Thinking Critically About New Media: Freedom of Speech on the Internet. Constructing Extended Arguments. Writing an Extended Argument. Thinking Passage: Should We Ration Health Care? “Why We Must Ration Health Care,” by Peter Singer. “Rationing Health Care: A Second Opinion,” by Leonard Laster. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Cloning Mammals. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
11. REASONING CRITICALLY.
Inductive Reasoning. Empirical Generalization. Is the Sample Known? Is the Sample Sufficient? Is the Sample Representative? Fallacies of False Generalization. Hasty Generalization. Sweeping Generalization. False Dilemma. Causal Reasoning. The Scientific Method. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Curing Disease. Controlled Experiments. Thinking Passage: Researching Cures and Prevention. Thinking Passage: Treating Breast Cancer. Causal Fallacies. Questionable Cause. Misidentification of the Cause. Slippery Slope. Fallacies of Relevance. Appeal to Authority. Appeal to Tradition Bandwagon. Appeal to Pity. Appeal to Fear. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Stop and Think. Appeal to Flattery. Special Pleading. Appeal to Ignorance. Begging the Question Thinking Critically About Visuals: Fallacies in Action. Straw Man. Red Herring. Appeal to Personal Attack. Two Wrongs Make a Right. Thinking Critically About New Media: Internet Hoaxes, Scams, and Urban Legends. The Critical Thinker’s Guide to Reasoning. What Is My Initial Point of View? How Can I Define My Point of View More Clearly? What Is an Example of My Point of View? What Is the Origin of My Point of View? What Are My Assumptions? What Are the Reasons, Evidence, and Arguments That Support My Point of View? What Are Other Points of View on This Issue? What Is My Conclusion, Decision, Solution, or Prediction? What Are the Consequences? Thinking Passage: Thinking Critically About Authority. “Critical Thinking and Obedience to Authority,” by John Sabini and Maury Silver. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Milgram’s Experiment. “Pressure to Go Along with Abuse Is Strong, but Some Soldiers Find Strength to Refuse,” by Anahad O’Connor. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
12. THINKING CRITICALLY, LIVING CREATIVELY.
Living a Life Philosophy. Choose Freely. Condemned to be Free. Free Choice: The Mainspring of Human Action. Creating Yourself Through Free Choices. Because You Are Free… Using Your Freedom to Shape Your Life. Escaping Freedom. Increase Your Freedom By Eliminating Constraints. Deciding on a Career. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Weighing Your Decision Carefully. Thinking Errors in Career Decisions. Creating Your Dream Job. Discovering “Who” You Are. What Are Your Interests? What Are Your Abilities? Finding the Right Match. Thinking Critically About Visuals: A Bad Hair Day? Thinking Critically About New Media: Searching Online For the Right Career. “Seeking Employment Online -- Is Fear a Factor? 6 Tips to Protect Your Privacy,” by Kate Lorenz Thinking Passage: Finding Meaning in Work. Thinking Critically About Visuals: Envisioning the Good Life. Choosing the “Good Life”. The Meaning of Your Life. Final Thoughts. Chapter Summary. Suggested Films.
Appendix.
Evaluating Your Thinking Abilities.
How Creative Am I?
How Free Am I?

What's New

  • New “Thinking Critically About New Media” Sections. It is important that students stay attuned to the evolving ways in which people are communicating and how these advances pose unique dilemmas and opportunities for critical thinking. To this end, each chapter includes a “Thinking Critically About New Media” section that gives students the opportunity to explore and critically analyze some aspect of new media. In addition, new media is highlighted in other areas of the book, such as in extended readings and the photo program.
  • New “Evaluating Your Thinking Abilities” Assessments. Three self-assessment tests in the Appendix provide an opportunity for students to evaluate their critical and creative thinking abilities, as well as how thoughtful and enlightened their choices are. In addition to embodying the learning outcomes in these areas, the assessments provide students with practical suggestions for improving their thinking abilities.
  • New Visuals. “Thinking Critically About Visuals” activities tie into the new themes in the chapter and reading topics. In addition, new chapter-opening photos draw students into the chapter topics and provoke critical thinking from the first page of the chapter.
  • New Chapter Summaries and Suggested Films. Each chapter concludes with a new design that incorporates a bulleted “Chapter Summary” section and “Suggested Films” section that help students review what they have learned and provide the opportunity to explore the chapter’s topics further through other media, in this case film.
  • New Readings. This edition features new timely and provocative readings written by a variety of noteworthy authors, including: “Revenge of the Right Brain,” by Daniel Pink; “Will the Web Kill Colleges?” by Zephyr Teachout; “Is Google Making Us Stupid?” by Nicholas Carr; “The Solution to World Hunger,” by Peter Singer; “Playing God in the Garden,” by Michael Pollen; “Why We Must Ration Health Care,” by Peter Singer; “Suffering,” an article on the earthquake in Haiti by George Packard; “The Hidden Problem with Twitter,” by Carin Ford; and “Thinking Literally: The Surprising Ways that Metaphors Shape Your World,” by Drake Bennett.

Learning Resource Bundles

Choose the textbook packaged with the resources that best meet your course and student needs. Contact your Learning Consultant for more information.

ePack: Text + Aplia Instant Access

ISBN-10: 1285715756 | ISBN-13: 9781285715759

List Price = $184.95  | CengageBrain Price = $184.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $139.00

This Bundle Includes:

  • Thinking Critically
    List Price = $171.95  | CengageBrain Price = $171.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $129.00
  • Aplia™, 1 term Instant Access
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Supplements

All supplements have been updated in coordination with the main title. Select the main title's "About" tab, then select "What's New" for updates specific to title's edition.

For more information about these supplements, or to obtain them, contact your Learning Consultant.

Instructor Supplements

Multimedia eBook, 2 terms (12 months) Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 0495916048 | ISBN-13: 9780495916048)

THINKING CRITICALLY, 10th Edition is available as a multimedia eBook! Now students can do all of their reading online or use the eBook as a handy reference while they’re completing other coursework. The eBook includes the full text of the print version with interactive exercises, an integrated text-specific workbook, user-friendly navigation, search, and highlighting tools, along with links to videos that enhance the text content.

List Price = $118.95  | CengageBrain Price = $118.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $89.50

CourseMate Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1111357862 | ISBN-13: 9781111357863)

Cengage Learning's CourseMate brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools that support the printed textbook. Maximize your course success with the integrated eBook and chapter-specific learning tools that include flashcards, quizzes, videos, and more in your CourseMate. Key Features: Interactive eBook, Engagement Tracker, Learning Objectives, Tutorial Quizzes, Glossary and Flashcards, and Web Links and References.

List Price = $120.00  | CengageBrain Price = $120.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $120.00

Aplia™, 1 term Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1111678456 | ISBN-13: 9781111678456)

Succeed in your course with Aplia's interactive learning system--featuring practice problems with immediate feedback and tools developed specifically for THINKING CRITICALLY, 10th Edition, including step-by-step explanations that help you improve your reasoning and skills, interactive assignments that help you understand difficult or counterintuitive concepts, and more. Aplia has already helped more than a million students succeed in college classes.

List Price = $60.00  | CengageBrain Price = $60.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $60.00

Online Instructor's Manual  (ISBN-10: 0495914266 | ISBN-13: 9780495914266)

Available for download on the book companion site, the Instructor’s Manual is designed to help instructors tailor THINKING CRITICALLY to their courses. The manual includes both a comprehensive bibliography of critical and creative thinking resources, as well as a bibliography of suggested fiction, nonfiction readings, and films relating to the themes of the text.

Student Supplements

Multimedia eBook, 2 terms (12 months) Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 0495916048 | ISBN-13: 9780495916048)

THINKING CRITICALLY, 10th Edition is available as a multimedia eBook! Now you can do all of your reading online or use the eBook as a handy reference while you’re completing other coursework. The eBook includes the full text of the print version with interactive exercises, an integrated text-specific workbook, user-friendly navigation, search, and highlighting tools, along with links to videos that enhance the text content.

List Price = $118.95  | CengageBrain Price = $118.95  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $89.50

CourseMate Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1111357862 | ISBN-13: 9781111357863)

Cengage Learning's CourseMate brings course concepts to life with interactive learning, study, and exam preparation tools that support the printed textbook. Maximize your course success with the integrated eBook and chapter-specific learning tools that include flashcards, quizzes, videos, and more in your CourseMate. Key Features: Interactive eBook, Engagement Tracker, Learning Objectives, Tutorial Quizzes, Glossary and Flashcards, and Web Links and References.

List Price = $120.00  | CengageBrain Price = $120.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $120.00

Aplia™, 1 term Instant Access  (ISBN-10: 1111678456 | ISBN-13: 9781111678456)

Succeed in your course with Aplia's interactive learning system--featuring practice problems with immediate feedback and tools developed specifically for THINKING CRITICALLY, 10th Edition, including step-by-step explanations that help you improve your reasoning and skills, interactive assignments that help you understand difficult or counterintuitive concepts, and more. Aplia has already helped more than a million students succeed in college classes.

List Price = $60.00  | CengageBrain Price = $60.00  | College Bookstore Wholesale Price = $60.00

Meet the Author

Author Bio

John Chaffee

John Chaffee, Ph.D., is a professor of philosophy at The City University of New York, where he has developed a Philosophy and Critical Thinking program that annually involves 25 faculty and 3,000 students. He is a nationally recognized figure in the area of critical thinking, having authored leading textbooks and many professional articles. He also has conducted numerous conference presentations and workshops throughout the country. In developing programs to teach people to think more effectively in all academic subjects and areas of life, he has received grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the Ford Foundation, the Annenberg Foundation, and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. He was selected as New York Educator of the Year and received the Distinguished Faculty Award for Diversity in Teaching in Higher Education.