Part I: EARLY MODERN EUROPE.
1. The Rise of Modernity.
1. The Humanists’ Fascination with Antiquity: Petrarch, The Father of Humanism; Leonardo Bruni, Study of Greek Literature and A Humanist Educational Program. 2. Human Dignity: Pico della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man. 3. Break with Medieval Political Theory: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince. 4. The Lutheran Reformation: Martin Luther, On Papal Power, Justification by Faith, the Interpretation of the Bible, and The Nature of the Clergy. 5. Justification of Absolute Monarchy by Divine Right: Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture. 6. A Secular Defense of Absolutism: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan. 7. The Triumph of Constitutional Monarchy in England: The Glorious Revolution: The English Declaration of Rights.
2. The Scientific Revolution.
1. The Copernican Revolution: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres; Cardinal Bellarmine, Attack on the Copernican Theory. 2. Galileo: Confirming the Copernican System: Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican; Galileo Before the Inquisition. 3. Prophet of Modern Science: Francis Bacon, Attack on Authority and Advocacy of Experimental Science. 4. The Circulation of the Blood: Validating the Empirical Method: William Harvey, The Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals. 5. The Autonomy of the Mind: René Descartes, Discourse on Method. 6. The Mechanical Universe: Isaac Newton, Principia Mathematica.
3. The Enlightenment.
1. The Enlightenment Outlook: Immanuel Kant, What is Enlightenment? 2. Political Liberty: John Locke, Second Treatise on Government; Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. 3. Attack on Religion: Voltaire, A Plea for Tolerance and Reason; Thomas Paine, The Age of Reason; Baron d’Holbach, Good Sense. 4. Epistemology: John Locke, Essay Concerning Human Understanding; Claude Helvétius, Essays on the Mind and A Treatise on Man. 5. Compendium of Knowledge: Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia. 6. Rousseau: Political Reform: Jean Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract. 7. Humanitarianism: Caesare Beccaria, On Crimes and Punishments; John Howard, Prisons in England and Wales; Denis Diderot, Encyclopedia “Men and Their Liberty are Not Objects of Commerce…”; Marquis de Condorcet, The Evils of Slavery. 8. Literature as Satire: Critiques of European Society: Voltaire, Candide; Denis Diderot, Supplement to the Voyage of Bougainville; Montesquieu, The Persian Letters. 9. On the Progress of Humanity: Marquis de Condorcet, Progress of the Human Mind.
Part II: MODERN EUROPE.
4. Era of the French Revolution.
1. Abuses of the Old Regime: Grievances of the Third Estate; Emmanuel Sieyès, What is the Third Estate? 2. The Role of the Philosophes: Alexis de Tocqueville, Critique of the Old Regime. 3. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. 4. Expansion of Human Rights: Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Women; Society of the Friends of Blacks, Address to the National Assembly in Favor of the Abolition of the Slave Trade; Petition of the Jews of Paris, Alsace, and Lorraine to the National Assembly, January 28, 1790. 5. The Jacobin Regime: Maximilien Robespierre, Republic of Virtue; General Louis de Ligniéres Turreau, Uprising in the Vendée. 6. Demands for Economic Justice: Gracchus Babeuf, Conspiracy of the Equals. 7. Napoleon: Destroyer and Preserver of the Revolution: Napoleon Bonaparte, Leader, General, Tyrant, Reformer.
5. The Industrial Revolution.
1. Early Industrialization: Edward Baines, Britain’s Industrial Advantages and the Factory System; Adam Smith, The Division of Labor. 2. The New Science of Political Economy: Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations; Thomas R. Malthus, On the Principle of Population. 3. The Dark Side of Industrialization: Sadler Commission, Report on Child Labor; James Phillips Kay, Moral and Physical Dissipation; Friedrich Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England. 4. Factory Discipline; Factory Rules. 5. The Capitalist Ethic: Samuel Smiles, Self-Help and Thrift. 6. Reformers: Robert Owen, A New View of Society.
6. Romanticism, Reaction, Revolution.
1. Romanticism: William Wordsworth, Tables Turned; William Blake, Milton; Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust. 2. Conservatism: Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France; Klemens von Metternich, The Odious Ideas of the Philosophes; Joseph de Maistre, Essay on the Generative Principle of Political Constitutions. 3. Liberalism: John Stuart Mill, On Liberty. 4. Rise of Modern Nationalism: Ernst Moritz Arndt, The War of Liberation; Giuseppe Mazzini, Young Italy. 5. Repression: Karlsbad Decrees. 6. 1848: The Year of Revolutions; Flora Tristan, “Workers, Your Condition…Is Miserable and Distressing”; Alexis de Tocqueville, The June Days.
7. Thought and Culture in an Age of Science and Industry.
1. Realism in Literature: Vissarion Belinsky, The Poetry of Reality; Henrik Ibsen, A Doll’s House. 2 Theory of Evolution: Charles Darwin, Natural Selection. 3. The Socialist Revolution: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Communist Manifesto. 4. The Evolution of Liberalism: L. T. Hobhouse, Justification for State Intervention; Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State.
8. Politics and Society, 1845–1914.
1. The Lower Classes: Nikolaus Osterroth, The Yearning for Social Justice; William Booth, In Darkest England; Henry Mayhew, Prostitution in Victorian London. 2. Feminism and Antifeminism: John Stuart Mill, The Subjection of Women; Emmeline Pankhurst, Why We Are Militant; The Goncourt Brothers, On Female Inferiority; Almroth E. Wright, The Unexpurgated Case Against Woman Suffrage. 3. German Racial Nationalism; Houston Stewart Chamberlain, The Importance of Race; Pan-German League, “There Are Dominant Races and Subordinate Races.” 4. Anti-Semitism: Regression to the Irrational: Hermann Ahlwardt, The Semitic Versus the Teutonic Race; The Dreyfus Affair: The Henry Memorial; The Kishinev Pogrom, 1903; Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State.
9. European Imperialism.
1. The Spirit of British Imperialism: Cecil Rhodes, Confession of Faith; Joseph Chamberlain, The British Empire: Colonial Commerce and “The White Man’s Burden”; Karl Pearson, Social Darwinism: Imperialism Justified by Nature. 2. European Rule in Africa; Cecil Rhodes and Lo Bengula, “I Had Signed Away the Mineral Rights of My Whole Country”; Edmund Morel, The Black Man’s Burden; Richard Meinertzhagen, An Embattled Colonial Officer in East Africa; German Brutality in Southwest Africa: Exterminating the Herero. 3. Chinese Resentment of Western Imperialism: The Boxer Rebellion. 4. Imperialism Debated: The Edinburgh Review, “We…Can Restore Order Where There Is Chaos, and Fertility Where There Is Sterility”; John Atkinson Hobson, An Early Critique of Imperialism.
10. Modern Consciousness.
1. The Futility of Reason and the Power of the Will: Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Notes from Underground. 2. The Overman and the Will to Power: Friedrich Nietzsche, The Will to Power and The Antichrist. 3. The Unconscious: Sigmund Freud, The Unconscious and Civilization and Its Discontents. 4. The Political Potential of the Irrational: Gustave Le Bon, Mass Psychology. 5. Modern Art and the Questioning of Western Values: Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Manifesto of Futurism.
Part III: WESTERN CIVILIZATION IN CRISIS.
11. World War I.
1. Militarism: Heinrich von Treitschke, The Greatness of War; Friedrich von Bernhardi, Germany and the Next War; Henri Massis and Alfred de Tarde, The Young People of Today. 2. Pan-Serbism: Nationalism and Terrorism: The Black Hand. 3. War as Celebration: The Mood in European Capitals: Roland Doregelès, Paris: “That Fabulous Day”; Stefan Zweig, Vienna: “The Rushing Feeling of Fraternity”; Philipp Scheidemann, Berlin: “The Hour We Yearned For”; Bertrand Russell, London: “Average Men and Women Were Delighted at the Prospect of War.” 4. Trench Warfare: Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front; Siegfried Sassoon, Base Details; Wilfred Owen, Disabled. 5. Women at War: Naomi Loughnan, Genteel Women in the Factories; Magda Trott, Opposition to Female Employment. 6. The Paris Peace Conference: Woodrow Wilson, The Idealistic View; Georges Clemenceau, French Demands for Security and Revenge. 7. The Bolshevik Revolution: Army Intelligence Report, The Breakdown of Military Discipline; V. I. Lenin, The Call to Power. 8. The War and European Consciousness: Paul Valéry, Disillusionment; Erich Maria Remarque, The Lost Generation; Ernst von Salomon, Brutalization of the Individual; Sigmund Freud, A Legacy of Embitterment.
12. Era of Totalitarianism.
1. Modernize or Perish: Joseph Stalin, The Hard Line. 2. Forced Collectivization: Lev Kopelev, Terror in the Countryside. 3. Famine in Ukraine: Miron Dolot, Execution by Hunger. 4. Soviet Indoctrination: A. O. Avdienko, The Cult of Stalin; Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Literature as Propaganda. 5. Stalin’s Terror: Nikita S. Khrushchev, Khrushchev’s Secret Speech; Lev Razgon, True Stories. 6. The Rise of Italian Fascism; Benito Mussolini, Fascist Doctrines. 7. The Great Depression: Max Cohen, I Was One of the Unemployed; Heinrich Hauser, "With Germany’s Unemployed." 8. The Rise of Nazism: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf; Kurt G. W. Ludecke, The Demagogic Orator; Thomas Mann, "An Appeal to Reason." 9. The Leader-State: Ernst Rudolf Huber, “The Authority of the Führer is... All-Inclusive and Unlimited.” 10. The Nazification of Culture and Society: Jakob Graf, Heredity and Racial Biology for Students; Louis P. Lochner, Book Burning; Joseph Roth, “The Auto-Da-Fé of the Mind.” 11. Persecution of the Jews: Hertha Nathorff, A German-Jewish Doctor’s Diary; Marta Appel, Memoirs of a German-Jewish Woman; David H. Buffum, Night of the Broken Glass (Kristallnacht). 12. The Anguish of the Intellectuals: Johan Huizinga, In the Shadow of Tomorrow; Nicolas Berdyaev, Modern Ideologies at Variance with Christianity.
13. World War II.
1. Prescient Observers of Nazi Germany: Horace Rumbold, “Pacifism is the Deadliest of Sins”; George S. Messersmith, “The Nazis Were After . . . Unlimited Territorial Expansion.” 2. Remilitarization of the Rhineland: William L. Shirer, Berlin Diary. 3. The Anschluss, March 1938: Stefan Zweig, The World of Yesterday. 4. The Munich Agreement: Neville Chamberlain, In Defense of Appeasement; Winston Churchill, “A Disaster of the First Magnitude.” 5. World War II Begins: Adolf Hitler, “Poland Will Be Depopulated and Settled with Germans.” 6. The Fall of France: Heinz Guderian, “French Leadership... Could Not Grasp the Significance of the Tank in Mobile Warfare.” 7. The Battle of Britain; Winston Churchill, “Blood, Toil, Tears, and Sweat.” 8. Nazi Propaganda: For Volk, Führer, and Fatherland: The Indoctrination of the German Soldier. 9. Stalingrad: A Turning Point: William Hoffman, Diary of a German Soldier; Anton Kuzmich Dragan, A Soviet Veteran Recalls. 10. The Holocaust: Hermann Graebe, Slaughter of Jews in Ukraine; Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz; Y. Pfeffer, Concentration Camp Life and Death. 11. Resistance: Albert Camus, “I Am Fighting You Because Your Logic is as Criminal as Your Heart”; Hans and Sophie Scholl, The White Rose; Marek Edelman, The Ghetto Fights: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, 1943; Tadeusz Bor-Komorowski, The Warsaw Rising, 1944. 12. D-Day, June 6, 1944; Historical Division, War Department, Omaha Beachhead. 13. The End of the Third Reich: Nerin E. Gun, The Liberation of Dachau; Margaret Freyer, The Fire-Bombing of Dresden; Joseph Goebbels, “The Morale of the German People, Both at Home and at the Front, Is Sinking Ever Lower”; Marie Neumann, “We’re in the Hands of a Mob, Not Soldiers, and They’re All Drunk Out of Their Minds”; Adolf Hitler, Political Testament. 14. The Defeat of Japan: Hiromichi Yahara, The Battle for Okinawa.
14. Europe: A New Era.
1. The Aftermath: Devastation and Demoralization: Theodore H. White, “Germany: Spring in the Ruins”; Gerold Frank, "The Tragedy of the DPs [Displaced Person]" ; A German Expellee from Czechoslovakia, “Germans were driven out of their homeland like dogs.” 2. The Cold War: Winston Churchill, The “Iron Curtain”; Nikita S. Khrushchev, Report to the Twentieth Party Congress. 3. Communist Repression: Roy Medvedev, Stalin’s Last Years; Milovan Djilas, The New Class: An Analysis of the Communist System; Andor Heller, The Hungarian Revolution, 1956. 4. The New Germany: Economic Miracle and Confronting the Past: Theodore H. White, “Germany is Alive and Vigorous Again”; Hannah Vogt, The Burden of Guilt; Richard von Weizsäcker, “We Seek Reconciliation.” 5. The Soviet Union: Restructuring and Openness: Mikhail S. Gorbachev, Perestroika.
Part IV: THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD.
15. The West in an Age of Globalism.
1. The Collapse of Communism: Vaclav Havel, The Failure of Communism. 2. Russia: Creeping Autocracy and Burgeoning Nationalism: C. J. Chivers, Vladimir Putin: A New Tsar in the Kremlin? 3. Globalization: Patterns and Problems: Fareed Zakaria, “Democracy Has Its Dark Sides.” 4. Female Oppression: United Nations Secretary-General, Ending Violence Against Women, “The Systematic Domination of Women by Men.” 5. Child Soldiers: Ishmael Beah, A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier. 6. Radical Islamic Terrorism: Mary Habeck, Jihadist Ideology; European Union, Islamist Terrorism; Abdurrahman Wahid, “Right Islam vs. Wrong Islam: Muslims and Non-Muslims Must Unite to Defeat the Wahhabi Ideology.” 7. Islam in Europe: Failure of Assimilation: Walter Laqueur, The Last Days of Europe: Epitaph for an Old Continent. 8. Resurgence of Anti-Semitism: United States State Department, Contemporary Global Anti Semitism: A Report Provided to the United States Congress. 9. In Defense of European Values: Jacques Ellul, The Betrayal of the West.