Defining the Humanities and Cultural Roots for the Twenty-First Century
VI. Renaissance and Reformation: Fusion of the Roots
16. Humanism and the Early Italian Renaissance
Beginnings of the Modern World
Daily Lives: Marriage in Renaissance Florence
Reading Selections: Francesco Petrarch, from the Rime Sparse (Scattered Rhymes); from Letters on Familiar Matters. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, from the Oration on the Dignity of Man. Laura Cereta, Letter to Bibulus Sempronius: Defense of the Liberal Instruction of Women.
17. Art and Architecture in Florence
The City of Florence
Sculpture in Florence in the Fifteenth Century
New Developments in Painting
18. The End of the Florentine Renaissance: Machiavelli, Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael
Niccoló Machiavelli (1469-1527)
The Renaissance Artist
Daily Lives: A Renaissance Banquet
Reading Selections: Niccoló Machiaveli, from The Prince.
19. The Northern Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation
Reform and Counter-Reform
William Shakespeare (1564-1616) and the Late Renaissance
Daily Lives: Theatergoing in Shakespeare''s Time
Reading Selections: Desiderius Erasmus, from The Praise of Folly. Michel de Montaigne, from the Essays. William Shakespeare, from the Sonnets; The Tempest.
VII. Science and Splendor: The Seventeenth Century
20. The Consolidation of Modernity
Daily Lives: The Suffering of Ordinary People in the Thirty Years'' War
The Thirty Years'' War and Its Aftermath
The Scientific Revolution
The Age of Absolutism
Reading Selections: René Descartes, from the Discourse on Method. Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan. John Locke, from the Second Treatise of Civil Government.
21. The Baroque Style in Art and Literature
Baroque in the Visual Arts
Baroque Architecture and Sculpture in Rome: Gian Lorenzo Bernini
Reading Selections: Saint Teresa of Ávila, from The Book of Her Life. Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, A Philosophical Satire; Sonnet on a Portrait of Herself. Richard Crashaw, from The Flaming Heart. John Donne, from Holy Sonnets; from Elegies.
22. Two Masters of Baroque Music: Handel and Bach
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759): Messiah
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750): Christmas Oratorio and Toccata and Fugue in D Minor
23. The Arts at the Court of Louis XIV
Louis XIV (1638-1715) and Absolutism
Daily Lives: Rituals at Versailles
French Court Ballet and the Origins of Modern Theatrical Dancing
French Neoclassical Drama
Marie de la Vergne de La Fayette (1634-1693) and the Origins of the Modern Novel
Reading Selections: Molière, Tartuffe. Marie de la Vergne de La Fayette, from The Princess of Clèves.
VIII. Reason, Revolution, Romanticism: The Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries
24. The European Enlightenment
A Prerevolutionary Movement
Aspects of Painting in the Enlightenment
Reading Selections: Voltaire, Micromegas; from the Philosophical Dictionary. Montesquieu, from The Persian Letters. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract. Mary Wollstonecraft, from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
25. The Enlightenment in the United States
The American Revolution
Daily Lives: Education in a Moravian School for Girls
From European Classicism to an "American Style"
African American Voices in the Enlightenment
Reading Selections: Jonathan Edwards, from A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God. Thomas Jefferson, The Virginia Statute of Religious Liberty. Phillis Wheatley, from Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral; Letters to Samson Occom. David Walker, from David Walker''s Appeal in Four Articles; Together with a Preamble, to the Coloured Citizens of the World.
26. The Classical Style in Music, the Development of Opera, and Mozart''s Don Giovanni
The Don Juan Theme
Don Giovanni: The Rake Punished
27. From Revolution to Romanticism
The French Revolution
The Art of the French Revolution: Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825)
Romanticism: A Revolutionary Movement
Enlightened Ideas, Romantic Style
Friedrich Schiller, Hymn to Joy
Individualism and the Romantic Hero
Nature and "Natural People"
Influence of Rousseau
Daily Lives: Lord Byron
Nature in Poetry, Music, and Art
Art: Revolution, Individualism, and Nature
The Romantic Woman and Romantic Love
Reading Selections: William Wordsworth, from The Prelude; The Solitary Reaper; Lines. Lord Byron, Prometheus; On This Day I Complete My Thirty-Sixth Year. John Keats, Ode to a Grecian Urn. Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind; Ozymandias. Emily Dickinson, Selected Poems.
IX. Industrialism and the Humanities: The Middle and Late Nineteenth Century
28. The Industrial Revolution and New Social Thought
Britain in the Lead
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Daily Lives: The Lives of the Urban Poor Under the Industrial Revolution
Slavery and the Abolitionist Movement
Women''s Rights Movements
Reading Selections: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, from The Communist Manifesto. The "Declaration of Sentiments" of the Seneca Falls Convention. John Stuart Mill, from The Subjection of Women. Frederick Douglass, from "What to the Slave Is the Fourth of July?": An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 5 July 1852.
29. Art and Literature in the Industrial World: Realism and Beyond
Realism in Literature
The Poet and the City: Charles Baudelaire (1821-1867)
Late-Nineteenth-Century Thinkers and Writers
The New Painting
Postimpressionism and Symbolism
Reading Selections: Guy de Maupassant, A Fishing Excursion. Charles Baudelaire, from Les Fleurs du Mal/The Flowers of Evil; The Swan; from Poems in Prose (The Spleen of Paris). Friedrich Nietzsche, Zarathustra''s Prologue. Fyodor Dostoevsky, from Notes from Underground.
X. Discontinuities: The Early Twentieth Century
30. Colonialism, the Great War, and Cultural Change
The Great War (World War I) and Its Aftermath
Daily Lives: Life in the Trenches
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
The Postwar Decades
Reading Selections: Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est; Strange Meeting. Ezra Pound, from Hugh Selwyn Mauberly. Rudyard Kipling, Recessional. Mohandas ("Mahatma") Gandhi, from Letter to Lord Irwin; from A Conversation with Tobias and Mays. Sigmund Freud, from Civilization and Its Discontents.
31. Modernism: Visual Arts, Music, and Dance
Modernist Painting, 1900-1930
Nonobjective and Expressionist Painting
Dada and Surrealism
Modernist Sculpture, 1900-1930
Modernist Painting in America
Modernist Architecture, 1900-1930
Two New Art Forms: Photography and Film
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), the Russian Ballet, and The Rite of Spring
Daily Lives: Harlem Nightlife in the Twenties
Modernism and Indigenous Cultures in Latin America
32. Modernism: Theater and Literature
Influences of Asia on Modern European Theater
Modernist Movements in Fiction and Poetry
The Harlem Renaissance
Developments in Latin American Literature
Reading Selections: Antonin Artaud, from The Theater and Its Double. Franz Kafka, A Country Doctor. T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock. Ezra Pound, The River-Merchant''s Wife: A Letter; In a Station of the Metro. Virginia Woolf, from A Room of One''s Own. Léopold Sédar Senghor, Prayer to Masks. Léon Gontran Damas, They came that night. Claude McKay, If We Must Die. Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers; Danse Africaine. Marita Bonner, On Being Young--a Woman--and Colored. Jorge Luis Borges, Death and the Compass. Miguel Angel Asturias, Tatuana''s Tale. Pablo Neruda, Ode to Broken Things. Octavio Paz, Madrugada al raso/Daybreak; Escritura/Writing; La exclamación/Exclamation; Prójimo lejano/Distant Neighbor.
XI. Cultural Plurality: From the Middle Twentieth Century On
33. Absurdity and Alienation: World War II and the Postwar Period
World War II
The Postwar Period
Daily Lives: The Existentialists'' Life in Paris Under the German Occupation
Postwar American Literature
Postwar Music: Charlie Parker (1920-1955)
Painting After World War II
Sculpture After World War II
Reading Selections: Primo Levi, from If This Is a Man. Jean-Paul Sartre, The Republic of Silence. Simone de Beauvoir, from The Second Sex. Albert Camus, from The Myth of Sisyphus. Eugène Ionesco, The Leader. Ralph Ellison, Prologue to Invisible Man. Allen Ginsberg, Sunflower Sutra. Frantz Fanon, from The Wretched of the Earth.
34. Postcolonialism, Postmodernism, and Beyond
The United States from the 1960s into the Twenty-First Century
The World After the Cold War
The Arts in the Contemporary World
Postmodernism, Culture, and the Arts
Architecture from the International Style to Postmodernism
Postmodern Visual Art: Polemics or Platitudes?
The Ascendancy of Craft: The Expansion of the Tradition
Postmodern Music and Dance
Mass Culture and Popular Music
Postmodern Literature and Theory
Reading Selections: Modern African Poems: Chinua Achebe, Generation Gap; Wole Soyinka, Death in the Dawn and I Think It Rains. From the Caribbean: Derek Walcott, White Magic and For Pablo Neruda. From the United States: Sonia Sanchez, present; Ishmael Reed, beware: do not read this poem; Rita Dove, Persephone Abducted and Demeter Mourning; John Barth, Autobiography: A Self-Recorded Fiction. From Latin America: Ernesto Cardenal, Prayer for Marilyn Monroe; Clarice Lispector, He Soaked Me Up. From Israel/Palestine: Yehuda Amichai, Jerusalem; 18; 42; Mahmoud Darwish, Identity Card.