## Overview

MODERN PHYSICS presents the latest discoveries in physics, and offers a contemporary and comprehensive approach with a strong emphasis on applications. In order to illustrate the process behind scientific advances and give students a historical perspective, the authors discuss the experiments that led to key discoveries covered in the text. A flexible organization allows you to select and teach topics in your preferred sequence without compromising your student’s learning experience. A sound theoretical foundation in quantum theory is included to help physics majors succeed in their upper division courses.

## Table of Contents

1. THE BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSICS.

Classical Physics of the 1890s. The Kinetic Theory of Gases. Waves and Particles. Conservation Laws and Fundamental Forces. The Atomic Theory of Matter. Unresolved Questions of 1895 and New Horizons. Summary.

2. SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY.

The Apparent Need for Ether. The Michelson-Morley Experiment. Einstein’s Postulates. The Lorentz Transformation. Time Dilation and Length Contraction. Addition of Velocities. Experimental Verification. Twin Paradox. Spacetime. Doppler Effect. Special Topic: Applications of the Doppler Effect. Relativistic Momentum. Relativistic Energy. Computations in Modern Physics. Electromagnetism and Relativity. Summary.

3. THE EXPERIMENTAL BASIS OF QUANTUM PHYSICS.

Discovery of the X-Ray and the Electron. Determination of Electron Charge. Line Spectra.

Special Topic: The Discovery of Helium. Quantization. Blackbody Radiation. Photoelectric Effect. X-Ray Production. Compton Effect. Pair Production and Annihilation. Summary.

4. STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM.

The Atomic Models of Thomson and Rutherford. Rutherford Scattering. Special Topic: Lord Rutherford of Nelson. The Classical Atomic Model. The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom.

Successes and Failures of the Bohr Model. Characteristic X-Ray Spectra and Atomic Number. Atomic Excitation by Electrons. Summary.

5. WAVE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND QUANTUM MECHANICS I.

X-Ray Scattering. De Broglie Waves. Special Topic: Cavendish Laboratory. Electron Scattering.

Wave Motion. Waves or Particles? Uncertainty Principle. Probability, Wave Functions, and the Copenhagen Interpretation. Particle in a Box. Summary.

6. QUANTUM MECHANICS II.

The Schrödinger Wave Equation. Expectation Values. Infinite Square-Well Potential. Finite Square-Well Potential. Three-Dimensional Infinite-Potential Well. Simple Harmonic Oscillator.

Barriers and Tunneling. Special Topic: Scanning Probe Microscopes. Summary.

7. THE HYDROGEN ATOM.

Application of the Schrödinger Equation to the Hydrogen Atom. Solution of the Schrödinger Equation for Hydrogen. Quantum Numbers. Magnetic Effects on Atomic Spectra--The Normal Zeeman Effect. Intrinsic Spin. Special Topic: Hydrogen and the 21-cm Line Transition. Energy Levels and Electron Probabilities. Summary.

8. ATOMIC PHYSICS.

Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table. Special Topic: Rydberg Atoms. Total Angular Momentum. Anomalous Zeeman Effect. Summary.

9. STATISTICAL PHYSICS.

Historical Overview. Maxwell Velocity Distribution. Equipartition Theorem. Maxwell Speed

Special Topic: Superfluid 3^He. Summary.

10. MOLECULES, LASERS, AND SOLIDS.

Molecular Bonding and Spectra. Stimulated Emission and Lasers. Structural Properties of Solids. Thermal and Magnetic Properties of Solids. Superconductivity. Special Topic: Low-Temperature Methods. Applications of Superconductivity. Summary.

11. SEMICONDUCTOR THEORY AND DEVICES.

Band Theory of Solids. Semiconductor Theory. Special Topic: The Quantum Hall Effect. Semiconductor Devices. Nanotechnology. Summary.

12. THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS.

Discovery of the Neutron. Nuclear Properties. The Deuteron. Nuclear Forces. Nuclear Stability. Radioactive Decay. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Decay. Special Topic: Neutrino Detection. Radioactive Nuclides. Special Topic: The Formation and Age of the Earth. Summary.

13. NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS AND APPLICATIONS.

Nuclear Reactions. Reaction Kinematics. Reaction Mechanisms. Fission. Fission Reactors.

Fusion. Special Applications. Special Topic: The Search for New Elements. Summary.

14. PARTICLE PHYSICS.

Early Discoveries. The Fundamental Interactions. Classification of Particles. Conservation Laws and Symmetries. Quarks. The Families of Matter. Beyond the Standard Model. Accelerators. Special Topic: Experimental Ingenuity. Summary.

15. GENERAL RELATIVITY.

Tenets of General Relativity. Tests of General Relativity. Gravitational Waves. Special Topic: Gravitational Wave Detection. Black Holes. Frame Dragging. Summary.

16. COSMOLOGY AND MODERN ASTROPHYSICS--THE BEGINNING AND THE END.

Evidence of the Big Bang. The Big Bang. Stellar Evolution. Special Topic: Planck’s Time, Length, and Mass. Astronomical Objects. Problems with the Big Bang. The Age of the Universe. The Standard Model of Cosmology. The Future. Special Topic: Future of Space Telescopes. Summary.

Appendix 1: Fundamental Constants.

Appendix 2: Conversion Factors.

Appendix 3: Mathematical Relations.

Appendix 4: Periodic Table of Elements.

Appendix 5: Mean Values and Distributions.

Appendix 6: Probability Integrals.

Appendix 7: Integrals of the Type.

Appendix 8: Atomic Mass Table.

Appendix 9: Nobel Laureates in Physics.

Answers to Selected Odd- Numbered Problems.

Index.