Glossary
Chapter 3
acculturation Adjusting and adapting to a specific culture other than one’s own.
area studies Environmental briefings and cultural orientation programs; factual preparation for living or working in another culture.
change agent The introduction into a culture of new products, ideas, or practices that may lead to changes in consumption.
consumer ethnocentric The notion that buying foreign products is unpatriotic, or even morally wrong
cultural controls Informal rules and regulations that are the result of shared beliefs and expectations among the members of an organization. See also bureaucratic controls.
cultural convergence The growing similarity of attitudes and behaviours across cultures.
cultural diversity The wide range of unique cultures in countries around the world.
cultural knowledge Broad, multifaceted knowledge acquired through living in a certain culture.
cultural literacy The acquisition of detailed knowledge of the culture of the target market that enables a person to function effectively in that culture.
cultural universals Characteristics common to all cultures, such as body adornments, courtship, etiquette, family gestures, joking, mealtimes, music, personal names, status differentiation, and so on.
culture An integrated system of learned behaviour patterns that are distinguishing characteristics of members of any given society.
encultured A situation in which a person has learned the “right” way to function in a particular culture.
experiential knowledge Knowledge acquired only by being involved in a culture other than one’s own.
factual information Objective knowledge of a culture obtained from others through communication, research, and education.
field experience The placement of a trainee in a different cultural environment for a limited time; for example, the trainee lives with a host family of the nationality to which the trainee will be assigned.
high context cultures Cultures in which the context is at least as important as what is actually said; for example, Japan and Saudi Arabia have cultures in which what is not said can carry more meaning than what is said.
interpretive knowledge Knowledge that requires comprehensive fact finding and preparation, as well as an ability to appreciate the nuances of different cultural traits and patterns.
low context cultures Cultures in which most information is contained explicitly in words; for example, North American cultures.
reference groups Persons or groups that significantly influence an individual’s attitude and behaviour.
self-reference criterion The unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values in comparison to other cultures.
sensitivity training An approach based on the assumption that understanding and accepting oneself is critical to understanding a person from another culture.
social stratification The division of a particular population into classes.
translation–back-translation Reducing problems in the wording of questions by translating the question into a foreign language and having a second translator return the foreign text to the researcher’s native language.