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## Overview

Reese writes a text that embraces the spirit of many reform goals, such as better integration of modern physics topics, a stronger emphasis on conceptual understanding, and an attention to different learning styles. Most importantly, however, Reese writes for students to allow them not only to learn the tools that physics provides, but also to see why those tools work and the beauty of the ideas that underlie them. Because students sometimes fail to see how the topics of physics connect to each other or to the world outside the classroom, Reese introduces each new topic by describing how it relates to experiences and phenomena with which the student is already familiar or to topics previously discussed. Reese emphasizes introductory physics, rather than encyclopedic physics, leaving appropriate topics for more advanced courses. His thinking is that it is better to build technical knowledge on a firm foundation of fundamental principles rather than on a large collection of mere formulas. In doing this, he helps students develop a thorough understanding of the principles of basic areas of physics: kinematics, dynamics, waves, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, optics, relativity, and modern physics. Because most students cannot discern simplifying patterns and connections when faced with seemingly complex ideas, students learn physics through practice. To assist them, Reese integrates the most significant material from previous chapters into new material; provides an accurate conceptual understanding of fundamental physical principles by placing great emphasis on these principles and how they arose; points out the limits of applicability of the theories and equations of physics; and stresses connections among topics by incorporating many aspects of contemporary physics and astronomy into a mix of traditional topics.

Nature and Mathematics: Physics as Natural Philosophy / Contemporary Physics: Classical and Modern / Standards for Measurement / Units of Convenience and Unit Conversions / The Meaning of the Word Dimension / The Various Meanings of the Equal Sign / Estimation and Order of Magnitude / The Distinction Between Precision and Accuracy / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

2. A MATHEMATICAL TOOLBOX: AN INTRODUCTION TO VECTOR ANALYSIS

Scalar and Vector Quantities / Multiplication of a Vector by a Scalar / Parallel Transport of Vectors / Vector Addition by Geometric Methods: Tail-to-Tip Method / Determining Whether a Quantity is a Vector / Vector Difference by Geometric Methods / The Scalar Product of Two Vectors / The Cartesian Coordinate System and the Cartesian Unit Vectors / The Cartesian Representation of Any Vector / Multiplication of a Vector Expressed in Cartesian Form by a Scalar / Expressing Vector Addition and Subtraction in Cartesian Form / The Scalar Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Determining the Angle Between Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Equality of Two Vectors / Vector Equations / The Vector Product of Two Vectors / The Vector Product of Two Vectors Expressed in Cartesian Form / Variation of a Vector / Some Aspects of Vector Calculus / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

3. KINEMATICS I: RECTILINEAR MOTION

Rectilinear Motion / Position and Changes in Position / Average Speed and Average Velocity / Instantaneous Speed and Instantaneous Velocity / Average Acceleration / Instantaneous Acceleration / Rectilinear Motion with a Constant Acceleration / Geometric Interpretations / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

4. KINEMATICS II: MOTION IN TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONS

The Position, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors in Two Dimensions / Two-Dimensional Motion with a Constant Acceleration / Motion in Three Dimensions / Relative Velocity Addition and Accelerations / Uniform Circular Motion: A First Look / The Angular Velocity Vector / The Geometry and Coordinates for Describing Circular Motion / The Position Vector for Circular Motion / The Velocity and Angular Velocity in Circular Motion / Uniform Circular Motion Revisited / Nonuniform Circular Motion and the Angular Acceleration / Nonuniform Circular Motion with a Constant Angular Acceleration / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

5. NEWTON''S LAWS OF MOTION

Fundamental Particles / The Fundamental Forces of Nature / Newton''s First Law of Motion and a Qualitative Conception of Force / The Concept of Force and Its Measurement / Newton''s Second Law of Motion / Newton''s Third Law of Motion / Limitations to Applying Newton''s Laws of Motion / Inertial Reference Frames: Do They Really Exist? / Second Law and Third Law Force Diagrams / Weight and the Normal Force of a Surface / Tension in Ropes, Strings, or Cables / Static Friction / Kinetic Friction at Low Speeds / Kinetic Friction Proportional to the Particle Speed / Fundamental Forces and Other Forces Revisited / Noninertial Reference Frames / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

6. THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE AND THE GRAVITATIONAL FIELD

How Did Newton Deduce the Gravitational Force Law? / Newton''s Law of Universal Gravitation / Gravitational Force of a Uniform Spherical Shell on a Particle / Gravitational Force of a Uniform Sphere on a Particle / Measuring the Mass of the Earth / Artificial Satellites of the Earth / Kepler''s First Law of Planetary Motion and the Geometry of Ellipses / Spatial Average Position of a Planet in an Elliptical Orbit / Kepler''s Second Law of Planetary Motion / Central Forces, Orbital Angular Momentum, and Kepler''s Second Law / Newton''s Form for Kepler''s Third Law of Planetary Motion / Customized Units / The Gravitational Field / The Flux of a Vector / Gauss''s Law for the Gravitational Field / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

7. HOOKE''S FORCE LAW AND SIMPLE HARMONIC OSCILLATION

Hooke''s Force Law / Simple Harmonic Oscillation / A Vertically Oriented Spring / Connection Between Simple Harmonic Oscillation and Uniform Circular Motion / How to Determine Whether an Oscillatory Motion is Simple Harmonic Motion / The Simple Pendulum / Through a Fictional Earth in 42 Minutes / Damped Oscillations / Forced Oscillations and Resonance / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

8. WORK, ENERGY, AND THE CWE THEOREM

Motivation for Introducing the Concepts of Work and Energy / The Work Done by Any Force / The Work Done by a Constant Force / The Work Done by the Total Force / Geometric Interpretation of the Work Done by a Force / Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces / Examples of Conservative, Nonconservative, and Zero-Work Forces / The Concept of Potential Energy / The Gravitational Potential Energy of a System near the Surface of the Earth / The General Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy / The Relationship Between the Local Form for the Gravitational Potential Energy and the More General Form / The Potential Energy Function Associated with Hooke''s Force Law / The CWE Theorem / The Escape Speed / Black Holes / Limitations of the CWE Theorem: Two Paradoxical Examples / The Simple Harmonic Oscillator Revisited / The Average and Instantaneous Power of a Force / The Power of the Total Force Acting on a System / Motion Under the Influence of Conservative Forces Only: Energy Diagrams / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

9. IMPULSE, MOMENTUM, AND COLLISIONS

Momentum and Newton''s Second Law of Motion / Impulse-Momentum Theorem / The Rocket: A System with Variable Mass / Conservation of Momentum / Collisions / Disintegrations and Explosions / The Centripetal Acceleration Revisited / An Alternative Way to Look at Force Transmission / The Center of Mass / Dynamics of a System of Particles / Kinetic Energy of a System of Particles / The Velocity of the Center of Mass for Collisions / The Center of Mass Reference Frame / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

10. SPIN AND ORBITAL MOTION

The Distinction Between Spin and Orbital Motion / The Orbital Angular Momentum of a Particle / The Circular Orbital Motion of a Single Particle / Noncircular Orbital Motion / Rigid Bodies and Symmetry Axes / Spin Angular Momentum of a Rigid Body / The Time Rate of Change of the Spin Angular Momentum / The Moment of Inertia of Various Rigid Bodies / The Kinetic Energy of a Spinning System / Spin Distorts the Shape of the Earth / The Precession of a Rapidly Spinning Top / The Precession of the Spinning Earth / Simultaneous Spin and Orbital Motion / Synchronous Rotation and the Parallel Axis Theorem / Rolling Motion Without Slipping / Wheels / Total Angular Momentum and Torque / Conservation of Angular Momentum / Conditions for Static Equilibrium / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

11. SOLIDS AND FLUIDS

States of Matter / Stress, Strain, and Young''s Modulus for Solids / Fluid Pressure / Static Fluids / Pascal''s Principle / Archimedes'' Principle / The Center of Buoyancy / Surface Tension / Capillary Action / Fluid Dynamics: Ideal Fluids / Equation of Flow Continuity / Bernoulli''s Principle for Incompressible Ideal Fluids / Nonideal Fluids / Viscous Flow / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

12. WAVES

What is a Wave? / Longitudinal and Transverse Waves / Wavefunctions, Waveforms, and Oscillations / Waves Propagating in One, Two, and Three Dimensions / One-Dimensional Waves Moving at Constant Velocity / The Classical Wave Equation for One-Dimensional Waves / Periodic Waves / Sinusoidal (Harmonic) Waves / Waves on a String / Reflection and Transmission of Waves / Energy Transport Via Mechanical Waves / Wave Intensity / What is a Sound Wave? / Sound Intensity and Sound Level / The Acoustic Doppler Effect / Shock Waves / Diffraction of Waves / The Principle of Superposition / Standing Waves / Wave Groups and Beats / Fourier Analysis and the Uncertainty Principles / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

13. TEMPERATURE, HEAT TRANSFER, AND THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Simple Thermodynamic Systems / Temperature / Work, Heat Transfer and Thermal Equilibrium / The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics / Thermometers and Temperature Scales / Temperature Conversions Between the Fahrenheit and Celsius Scales / Thermal Effects in Solids and Liquids: Size / Thermal Effects in Ideal Gases / Calorimetry / Reservoirs / Mechanisms for Heat Transfer / Thermodynamic Processes / Energy Conservation: The First Law of Thermodynamics and the CWE Theorem / The Connection Between the CWE Theorem and the General Statement of Energy Conservation / Work Done by a System on Its Surroundings / Work Done by a Gas Taken Around a Cycle / Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics: Changes of State / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

14. KINETIC THEORY

Background for the Kinetic Theory of Gases / The Ideal Gas Approximation / The Pressure of an Ideal Gas / The Meaning of the Absolute Temperature / The Internal Energy of an Monatomic Ideal Gas / The Molar Specific Heats of an Ideal Gas / Complications Arise for Diatomic and Polyatomic Gases / Degrees of Freedom and the Equipartition of Energy Theorem / Specific Heat of a Solid / Some Failures of Classical Kinetic Theory / Quantum Mechanical Effects / An Adiabatic Process for an Ideal Gas / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

15. THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Why Do Some Things Happen, While Others Do Not? / Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Carnot Heat Engine and Its Efficiency / Absolute Zero and the Third Law of Thermodynamics / Refrigerator Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Carnot Refrigerator Engine / The Efficiency of Real Heat Engines and Refrigerator Engines / A New Concept: Entropy / Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics / The Direction of Heat Transfer: A Consequence of the Second Law / A Statistical Interpretation of the Entropy / Entropy Maximization and the Arrow of Time / Extensive and Intensive State Variables / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

16. ELECTRIC CHARGES, ELECTRICAL FORCES, AND THE ELECTRIC FIELD

The Discovery of Electrification / Polarization and Induction / Coulomb''s Force Law for Pointlike Charges: The Quantification of Charge / Charge Quantization / The Electric Field of Static Charges / The Electric Field of a Pointlike Charge Distributions / A Way to Visualize the Electric Field: Electric Field Lines / A Common Molecular Charge Distribution: The Electric Dipole / The Electric Field of Continuous Distributions of Charge / Motion of a Charged Particle in a Uniform Electric Field: An Electrical Projectile / Gauss''s Law for Electric Fields / Calculating the Magnitude of the Electric Field Using Gauss''s Law / Conductors / Other Electrical Materials / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

17. ELECTRIC POTENTIAL ENERGY AND THE ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

Electrical Potential Energy and the Electric Potential / The Electric Potential of a Pointlike Charge / The Electrical Potential of a Collection of Pointlike Charges / The Electric Potential of Continuous Charge Distributions of Finite Size / Equipotential Volumes and Surfaces / The Relationship Between the Electric Potential and the Electric Field / Acceleration of Charged Particles Under the Influence of Electrical Forces / A New Energy Unit: The Electron-Volt / An Electric Dipole in an External Electric Field Revisited / The Electric Potential and Electric Field of a Dipole / The Potential Energy of a Distribution of Pointlike Charges / Lightning Rods / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

18. CIRCUIT ELEMENTS, INDEPENDENT VOLTAGE SOURCES, AND CAPACITORS

Terminology, Notation, and Conventions / Circuit Elements / An Independent Voltage Source: A Source of Emf / Connections of Circuit Elements / Independent Voltage Sources in Series and Parallel / Capacitors / Series and Parallel Combinations of Capacitors / Energy Stored in a Capacitor / Electrostatics in Insulating Material Media / Capacitors and Dielectrics / Dielectric Breakdown (Optional) / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

19. ELECTRIC CURRENT, RESISTANCE, AND DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

The Concept of Electric Current / Electric Current / The Pièce de Résistance: Resistance and Ohm''s Law / Resistance Thermometers / Characteristic Curves / Series and Parallel Connections Revisited / Resistors in Series and Parallel / Electric Power / Electrical Networks and Circuits / Electronics / Kirchoff''s Laws for Circuit Analysis / Electric Shock Hazards / A Model for a Real Battery / Maximum Power Transfer Theorem / Basic Electronic Instruments: Voltmeters, Ammeters, and Ohmmeters / An Introduction to Transients in Circuits: A Series RC Circuit / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

20. MAGNETIC FORCES AND THE MAGNETIC FIELD

The Magnetic Field / Applications / Magnetic Forces on Currents / Work Done by Magnetic Forces / Torque on a Current Loop in a Magnetic Field / The Biot-Savart Law / Forces of Parallel Currents on Each Other and the Definition of the Ampere / Gauss''s Law for the Magnetic Field / Magnetic Poles and Current Loops / Ampere''s Law / The Displacement Current and the Ampere-Maxwell Law / Magnetic Materials / The Magnetic Field of the Earth / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

21. FARADAY''S LAW OF ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Faraday''s Law of Electromagnetic Induction / Lenz''s Law / An AC Generator / Summary of Maxwell''s Equations of Electromagnetism / Electromagnetic Waves / Self-Inductance / Series and Parallel Combinations of Inductors / A Series LR Circuit / Energy Stored in a Magnetic Field / A Parallel LC Circuit / Mutual Inductance / An Ideal Transformer / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

22. SINUSOIDAL AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Representations of a Complex Variable / Arithmetic Operations with Complex Variables / Complex Potential Differences and Currents: Phasors / The Potential Difference and Current Phasors for Resistors, Inductors, and Capacitors / Series and Parallel Combinations of Impedances / Complex Independent ac Voltage Sources / Power Absorbed by Circuit Elements in ac Circuits / A Filter Circuit / A Series RLC Circuit / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

23. GEOMETRIC OPTICS

The Domains of Optics / The Inverse Square Law for Light / The Law of Reflection / The Law of Refraction / Total Internal Reflection / Dispersion / Rainbows / Objects and Images / The Cartesian Sign Convention / Image Formation by Spherical and Plane Mirrors / Ray Diagrams for Mirrors / Refraction at a Single Spherical Surface / Thin Lenses / Ray Diagrams for Thin Lenses / Optical Instruments / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

24. PHYSICAL OPTICS

Existence of Light Waves / Interference / Young''s Double Slit Experiment / Single Slit Diffraction / Diffraction by a Circular Aperture / Resolution / The Double Slit Revisited / Multiple Slits: The Diffraction Grating / Resolution and Angular Dispersion of a Diffraction Grating / The Index of Refraction and the Speed of Light / Thin-Film Interference / Polarized Light / Polarization by Absorption / Malus''s Law / Polarization by Reflection: Brewster''s Law / Polarization by Double Refraction / Polarization by Scattering / Rayleigh and Mie Scattering / Optical Activity / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

25. THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Reference Frames / Classical Galilean Relativity / The Need for Change and the Postulates of the Special Theory / Time Dilation / Lengths Perpendicular to the Direction of Motion / Lengths Oriented Along the Direction of Motion: Length Contraction / The Lorentz Transformation Equations / The Relativity of Simultaneity / A Relativistic Centipede / A Relativistic Paradox and Its Resolution / Relativistic Velocity Addition / Cosmic Jets and the Optical Illusion of Superluminal Speeds / The Longitudinal Doppler Effect / The Transverse Doppler Effect / A General Equation for the Relativistic Doppler Effect / Relativistic Momentum / The CWE Theorem Revisited / Implications of the Equivalence Between Mass and Energy / Space-Time Diagrams / Electromagnetic Implications of the Special Theory / The General Theory of Relativity / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

26. AN APERITIF: MODERN PHYSICS

The Discovery of the Electron / The Discovery of X-Rays / The Discovery of Radioactivity / The Appearance of Planck''s Constant h / The Photoelectric Effect / The Quest for an Atomic Model: Plum Pudding / The Bohr Model of a Hydrogenic Atom / The Bohr Correspondence Principle / A Bohr Model of the Solar System? / Problems with the Bohr Model / Radioactivity Revisited / Carbon Dating / Radiation Units, Dose, and Exposure / The Momentum of a Photon / The de Broglie Hypothesis / Chapter Summary / Summary of Problem-Solving Tactics / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects

27. AN INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM MECHANICS

The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principles / Implications of the Position-Momentum Uncertainty Principle / Implications of the Energy-Time Uncertainty Principle / Observation and Measurement / Particle-Waves and the Wavefunction / Operators / The Schrödinger Equation / Chapter Summary / Questions / Problems / Investigative Projects / EPILOGUE / APPENDIX A: PROOFS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL SHELL THEOREMS / A Mass Within A Uniform Spherical Shell / A Mass Outside a Uniform Spherical Shell / ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS / QUOTATIONS INDEX / REFERENCE INDEX / GENERAL INDEX / CREDITS