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Overview

Incorporating new articles, expanded commentary, and the most current MLA and APA citation models, the fifth edition of THE WELL-CRAFTED ARGUMENT guides students through the process of writing effective arguments across the disciplines. The two-part structure of this rhetoric/reader includes a complete pedagogical apparatus--with coverage of critical reading strategies, as well as writing, researching, and documenting a topic--and an anthology of readings grouped into nine thematic clusters. In-depth instruction, combined with real student writings, engages students and helps them discover their own voices. The text's visual emphasis and the authors' practical skill-building approach are enhanced with a new full-color format. Each chapter in Part I ends with a "Summary," "Checklist," and "Writing Projects," while each cluster in Part II ends with "Connections Among the Clusters," "Writing Projects," and "Suggestions for Further Reading." These sections encourage students to apply what they've learned and go beyond the classroom if a topic is of particular interest to them. In addition to guidance on drafting and revising arguments, the authors provide a variety of composition strategies, including freewriting, outlining, and shared reading. A new chaper on "Arguing Across the Disciplines" provides strategies for arguing effectively when writing in a variety of majors. Available with InfoTrac® Student Collections http://gocengage.com/infotrac.

Fred D. White, Santa Clara University

Fred D. White received his Ph.D. in English (with a concentration in Rhetorical Theory and Composition Studies) in 1980 from The University of Iowa and began teaching at Santa Clara University that same year. He has taught expository writing and literature courses at both the community college and university level. A professor of English emeritus at Santa Clara University, White offered courses in first-year composition, argumentation, nature writing, and an introduction to poetry. In 1997 he received the Louis and Dorina Brutocao Award for Teaching Excellence. He is the author, most recently, of THE WRITER'S IDEA THESAURUS (Writer's Digest Books, 2014) and WHERE DO YOU GET YOUR IDEAS? A WRITER'S GUIDE TO TRANSFORMING NOTIONS INTO NARRATIVES (Writer's Digest Books, 2012). He is also the author of APPROACHING EMILY DICKINSON: CRITICAL CURRENTS AND CROSSCURRENTS SINCE 1960 (Camden House, 2008), THE DAILY WRITER: 366 MEDITATIONS TO CULTIVATE A PRODUCTIVE AND MEANINGFUL WRITING LIFE (Writer's Digest Books, 2008; A Quality Paperback Book Club Featured Selection), ESSENTIAL MUIR: A SELECTION OF JOHN MUIR'S BEST WRITINGS (Heyday Books, 2006), and LIFEWRITING (Quill Driver Books, 2004). His articles have been published in such journals as Arizona Quarterly, College Literature, The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Cambridge Companion to Emily Dickinson, North Dakota Quarterly, Pleiades, San Jose Studies, South Dakota Review, Walt Whitman Review, and The Writing Instructor.

Simone J. Billings, Santa Clara University

Simone J. Billings received her Ph.D. in the Division of Language, Literacy, and Culture from Stanford University in 1994. Presently a senior lecturer at Santa Clara University, where she has worked full-time since 1980, she generally teaches non-fiction writing courses: freshman composition, freshman composition for honors students, argumentation, and creative non-fiction (e.g., profiles, satires, interviews, reviews, travel writing). In Fall 2009, Dr. Billings received a grant as a Fulbright Scholar to work with the Open Campus of the University of the West Indies on developing curriculum for online and blended (both online and face-to-face) delivery of writing classes. As a Fulbright Scholar, she also ran workshops on design of writing classes, written response to student papers, and writing program design for writing instructors of the Open Campus. In Fall 2007, she received the Dr. David E. Logothetti Teaching Award. Dr. Billings has presented numerous papers at the annual conventions of College Composition and Communication. She has also served as a consultant to the writing program at The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, on Barbados. Her research interests include (1) instructor commentary on and assessment of student writing and (2) various sites and manifestations of literacy.
  • Argument is the engine the drives inquiry in all disciplines. New Chapter 8, "Argument Across the Disciplines," shows argument at work in the visual and literary arts, in the natural sciences and technology, in health and nutrition, in politics and international studies, in ethics and law, and in business.
  • New Chapter 2, "Visual Aids as Tools for Argumentative Writing," provides excellent information on how to effectively use visuals as part of one's argument.
  • InfoTrac® Student Collections are specialized databases expertly drawn from the Gale Academic One library. Each InfoTrac® Student Collection enhances the student learning experience in the specific course area related to the product. These specialized databases allow access to hundreds of scholarly and popular publications - all reliable sources - including journals, encyclopedias, and academic reports. Learn more and access at: http://gocengage.com/infotrac.
  • Added coverage of Visual Argument throughout includes special attention to the use of visuals as a heuristic device, and the uses of visuals in the context of Toulmin and Rogerian modes of argument.
  • The fifth edition features nineteen new articles, three new student essays, and one editorial cartoon, offering students fresh perspectives for their writing.
  • The text features expended commentary on key topics such as formulating an arguable thesis, common problems associated with composing an argument and ways to avoid them, how to write a summary, and using the Internet for research in Chapter 1 and throughout Part I.
  • The text provides comprehensive instruction in conducting research for the purposes of argument. Chapter 9, "Researching Your Argument," helps students to locate and use print, database, and Internet resources, to use effective search strategies, and to avoid plagiarism. Chapter 10, "Documenting Your Sources," presents MLA and APA citation styles, with examples.
  • A thorough discussion of critical reading strategies helps students to understand and evaluate arguments, perform successful peer critiquing, and draft and revise their own arguments.
  • Separate chapters are devoted to instruction in Classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian methods of constructing arguments, providing a comprehensive introduction to the three principal methods of argument.
  • Extensive use of student essays represents the full range of argumentative writing. Both Part I and Part II use student argumentative essays to illustrate different topics and strategies and form the basis for discussions, exercises, and writing projects.
  • Part I, "The Rhetoric of Argument," considers the writing process--gathering ideas, drafting, and revising--in the context of structuring and writing effective arguments.
PART I: THE RHETORIC OF ARGUMENT.
1. The Nature and Process of Argument.
Why Argue? What Is an Argument? What Is an Arguable Thesis? Using Evidence in Argument. Refuting Challenging Views. Communicating with a Purpose. The Process of Composing an Argument. Workable Topics for an Argumentative Essay. Using Appeals in Argument. Organizing the Argument. Drafting the Argument. Common Problems in Composing an Argument and Ways to Resolve Them. James Paul Gee, High Score Education. Revising the Argument: A Form of Reevaluation. Reading to Revise.
2. Visual Aids as Tools for Argumentative Writing.
Visual Aids as Tools for Argumentative Writing. Steven Waldman and John C. Green, Tribal Relations. Using Visual Aids as a Heuristic Device for Generating Content. Using Visual Aids as an Organizing Tool. Jeffrey Batholet, Inside the Meat Lab. Using Visual Aids as Evidence. Herb Block, The Cartoon.
3. Methods of Critical Reading.
Reading as a Construction of Meaning. Active versus Passive Reading. Reading with a Purpose. Reading as a Writer of Arguments. Writing a Summary. Melissa Slager, Death to the Classics!. Reading with a Pencil. Samuel Lipman, Say No to Trash. Reading with an E-Reader. Reading Visuals in Argument. Joseph J. Feeney, S.J., Philosophers, Theologians, Postmodern Students: Why They Need Each Other. Reading Visuals Critically in the Digital Age. Becoming a Highly Motivated Reader. Reading Responsibly. High Noon (editorial). Active Reading as Shared Reading. Using the Modes of Argument as a Schema for Analysis. The Importance of Open-Mindedness When Reading. Galileo Galilei, Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina.
4. Using the Classical Model in Your Arguments.
Argument in the Ancient World. The Classical Model of Argument. John Guillebaud and Pip Hayes, Population Growth and Climate Change. Reinforcing Aristotelian Appeals with Visuals Managing Your Data. Anti-Defamation League, School Vouchers: The Wrong Choice for Public Education. Kurt L. Schmoke, Why School Vouchers Can Help Inner-City Children.
5. Using the Toulmin Model in Your Arguments.
The Toulmin Model of Argument. Virginia Woolf, Professions for Women. The Toulmin Model in Action. STUDENT ESSAY: Daniel Neal, Tobacco: Ignorance Is No Longer an Excuse. Organizing Your Argument Using the Toulmin Model. Thomas Jefferson, Declaration of Independence. Reinforcing the Toulmin Model with Visuals.
6. Using the Rogerian Model in Your Arguments.
The Rogerian Model of Argument. Kimberly Shearer Palmer, Let''s Talk about Sexual Harassment in Middle School. Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail. STUDENT ESSAY: Daniela Gibson, Who Owns Our Children?
7. Reasoning: Methods and Fallacies.
Argumentative Reasoning. The Nature of Fallacies. Strategies of Reasoning. Errors in Reasoning: A Taxonomy. Jamie Whyte, From Crimes of Logic.
8. Argument Across the Disciplines.
How Argumentation Differs from Discipline to Discipline. Strategies of Argument in the Arts. Jonathan Jones, American Gothic, Grand Wood (1930). STUDENT ESSAY: Joseph Forte, Recession-Era Reflections on Percy Shelly''s Ozymandias. Strategies of Argument in the Natural Sciences. Robert Zubrin, The Case for Colonizing Mars. Berkeley Wellness Newsletter, The Raw vs. the Cooked. Strategies of Argument in the Social Sciences. STUDENT ESSAY: Lauren Silk, Aid to Africa: Proposed Solutions. Margaret R, McLean, When What We Know Outstrips What We Can Do. Strategies of Argument in Workplace-Related Contexts. W.E. Messamore, Gun Control Debate Heats Up Again. Elena Fawkner, The 10 Most Popular Myths about Running a Home-Based Business Online. STUDENT ESSAY: Melissa Conlin, Challenger Shuttle Disaster Recommendation.
9. Researching Your Argument.
The Nature of Research. Searching Before You Research: Taking a Mental Inventory. Focusing Your Research for Argumentative Essays. Focusing Your Research for Argumentative Essays. Researching Using the Internet. Useful Types of Internet Resources. Searching on the Web. Useful Websites for Writers of Arguments. Researching Using Print Resources. Gathering Information from Email, Telephone Conversations, Interviews, and Surveys. Taking Effective Research Notes. The Role of Serendipity in Research. Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism. Incorporating Outside Sources into Your Argument.
10. Documenting Your Sources: MLA and APA Styles.
Citation of Source Material: A Rationale. Which Documentation Style to Use? A Guide to MLA Documentation Style. Presenting Quoted Material. Index for Citing Sources: MLA Style. Using Author/Page In-Text Citations. Preparing the MLA List of Works Cited. SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: MLA Documentation Format. Daniela Gibson, Why We Should Punish. A Guide to APA Documentation Style.
Presenting Quoted Material. Index for Citing Sources: APA Style. Using Author/Year In-Text Citations. Preparing the APA List of References. SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: APA Documentation Format. Jarrett Green, Child Molestation: Anything but Your Typical Crime.
PART II: READING CLUSTERS.
1. Masterpieces of Argument: What Do They Teach Us About the Art of Persuasion? Two Pulitzer Prize Photographs. I Kevin Carter, Sudanese Child and Vulture (photograph). II Nick Ut, The Tragedy of Vietnam (photograph). Plato, Allegory of the Cave. Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress. Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal. Jonathan Edwards, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Keynote Address at the First Woman''s Rights Convention. Frederick Douglass, I Hear the Mournful Wail of Millions. Stanley Milgram, The Perils of Obedience. Carolyn G. Heilbrun, The Character of Hamlet''s Mother.
2. Athletics and Academics: How Do They Benefit Each Other?
Are Student Athletes Really Students? Edward Koren, Game Score, Test Scores (editorial cartoon). Bryan Flynn, College Sports vs Academics. Dave Newhouse, Brawn & Brains: Student Athletes Get a Bum Rap. Herbert D. Simons, Derek Van Rheenen, and Martin V. Covington, Academic Motivation and the Student Athlete. John R. Gerdy, Is Athletics Meeting Its Purpose? John R. Gerdy, For True Reform, Athletics Scholarships Must Go. STUDENT ESSAY: Scott Klausner, The Commercialization of College Athletics. Issues for Further Research: The Intrinsic Value of College Athletics. STUDENT VISUAL ESSAY: Kelly Ryan, The Faces of Sports. STUDENT ESSAY: Kelly Ryan, Play for Pride, Not for Pay.
3. International Relations and Global Economy: What Are the Key Issues?
What Effects Could the Patriot Act Have on Individual Liberties? Mike Luckovich, Border Control (editorial cartoon. Thomas L. Friedman, While I Was Sleeping. Issues for Further Research: Privacy vs. National Security. Darrin Bell, Candorville (cartoon). James Bamford, Big Brother Is Listening. Mary Minow, The USA PATRIOT Act and Patron Privacy on Library Internet Terminals. Erica Naone, RFID''s Security Problem. STUDENT ESSAY: Sara Vakulskas, The Patriot Act. Issues for Further Research: The Euro Crisis. Larry Elliott, Time to Unleash Financial Firepower or Face Euro Breakup. Peter Charles Choharis, Five Big Myths About the European Debt Crisis.
4. Multicultural Learning: What Are the Priorities?
Who, If Anyone, Benefits from Multicultural Education? Signe Wilkinson, Family Tree (cartoon). Staff Writers, 17 Scary Stats on Minority Education in America. Breea C. Willingham, Perspectives: Improving Race Relations One Journalism Class at a Time. Leslie Marmon Silko, Language and Literature from a Pueblo Indian Perspective. STUDENT ESSAY: Chris Garber, The Importance of Multicultural Education in Global Society. Issues for Further Research: Bilingual Education. John Darkow, English: The National Language (editorial cartoon). Monte Wolverston, Linguistic Police (editorial cartoon). Kendra Hamilton, Bilingual or Immersion? Wayne P. Thomas and Virginia P. Collier, Two Languages Are Better Than One. Richard Rodriguez, Speaking a Public Language. POINT / COUNTERPOINT: EDUCATION IN ENGLISH / ENGLISH FIRST. STUDENT ESSAY: Regina Patzelt, Education in English: The Proven Benefits of a Bilingual Academic Program. STUDENT ESSAY: Yung Le, English First.
5. Public Identity and Technology: How Is the Internet Influencing Society?
Roz Chast, The I.M.s of Romeo and Juliet (cartoon). National Council of Teachers of English, Literacy Learning for the 21st Century [NCTE Policy Brief] . Phillip Britt, Identity Thieves Hit a New Low. Issues for Further Research: Online Social Networking. Elana Premack Sandler, Facebook, Emotions, and Identity. Issues for Further Research: Internet Dating. Adam Arvidsson, "Quality Singles": Internet Dating and the Work of Fantasy. Nicole Ellison, Rebecca Heino, and Jennifer Gibbs, Managing Impressions Online: Self-Presentation Processes in the Online Dating Environment. Jonathan Zimmerman, Hooked on Facebook. STUDENT ESSAY: Jillian Lenahan, MySpace Addictions—No Need for Rehab.
6. Media Regulation: What Are the Issues?
How Should the First Amendment''s Freedom of Speech Guarantee Be Applied? Patrick Chappette, Internet and Censorship (editorial cartoon). Caspar Hewett, The Great Debate: Should We Censor the Internet? Rodney Smolla, Speech Overview. Martin Golding, Campus Speech Issues. STUDENT ESSAY: Quentin Clark, Speech Codes: An Insult to Education and a Threat to Our Future. Issues for Further Research: Book Banning. Kurt Vonnegut, A Letter to the Chairman of the Drake School Board. Point / Counterpoint: Two Student Essays on Book Censorship. STUDENT ESSAY: Kiley Strong: The Myth of Censoring Within the American Education System. STUDENT ESSAY: Gaby Caceres, Censorship of Books for Public High Schools: When Necessary, When Not. Issues for Further Research: Effects of Media Violence. Cheryl Arvidon, Statement Linking Media Violence to Violence in Kinds Draws Criticism. Mike Oppenheim, TV Isn''t Violent Enough.
7. Intellectual Property: How Should IP Rights Be Protected?
Lloyd Dangle, Troubletown (editorial cartoon). Nate Anderson, Contextualizing the Copyright Debate: Reward vs. Creativity. Janis Ian, The Internet Debacle: An Alternate View. Student Essay: Kate Guarente, The Cost of Regeneration. STUDENT ESSAY: Nathan Salha, A Language All Their Own. Deborah R. Gerhardt, The Rules of Attribution. Ryan Kennedy, Digital Plagiarism: The Role of Society and Technology.
8. Biomedical Research: What Role Should Ethics Play?
Can Biomedical Issues Be Separated from Politics? Dave Coverly, Political Science / Politicized Science (cartoon). Arthur Caplan, Bioengineering and Self-Improvement. Robert P. George, Ethics, Politics, and Genetic Knowledge. John W. Donahue, The Stem Cell Debate. Issues for Further Research: Genetic Engineering. Editors of Scientific American: The Need to Regulate "Designer Babies". Michael Crichton, Patenting Life. Kerryn Sakko, The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. Margaret Atwood, OrganInc Farms. STUDENT ESSAY: Nikolay Balbyshev, Priorities of Gene Therapy.

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"I think the book will be useful for teachers of introductory argument courses, particularly because it makes central the processes for writing arguments. That's what I am looking for when I try to build a syllabus for a college-level argument course."

"Anything that can get students to understand argument as more than yelling to make a point is useful, and this text seems to do that."

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