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The American Spirit: United States History as Seen by Contemporaries, Volume I 12th Edition

David M. Kennedy, Thomas A. Bailey

  • Published
  • Previous Editions 2006, 2002, 1998
  • 624 Pages


This detailed primary source reader focuses on political, diplomatic, and social history, presenting documents that include travel literature, religious sermons, newspaper articles, court testimony, and diary entries. An ideal companion for THE AMERICAN PAGEANT, the text can be used with any U.S. history survey text.

David M. Kennedy, Stanford University

David M. Kennedy received his Ph.D. from Yale University. He is the Donald J. McLachlan Professor of History Emeritus and co-director of The Bill Lane Center for the Study of the North American West at Stanford University. His first book, BIRTH CONTROL IN AMERICA: THE CAREER OF MARGARET SANGER, was honored with both the Bancroft Prize and the John Gilmary Shea Prize. He has won numerous teaching awards at Stanford, where he teaches both undergraduate and graduate courses in American political, diplomatic, intellectual, and social history, and in American literature. Dr. Kennedy published a volume in the OXFORD HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES, FREEDOM FROM FEAR: THE AMERICAN PEOPLE IN DEPRESSION AND WAR, 1929—1945, for which he was honored with the 2000 Pulitzer Prize. He is an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the American Philosophical Society, and he served from 2002—2011 on the board of the Pulitzer Prizes.

Thomas A. Bailey,

Thomas A. Bailey (1903-1983) taught history at his alma mater, Stanford University, for nearly forty years. Long regarded as one of the nation's premier historians of American diplomacy, he was honored by his colleagues in 1968 with election to the presidencies of both the Organization of American Historians and the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations. He was the author, editor, or co-editor of some twenty-books, but the work in which he took the most pride was The American Pageant through which, he liked to say, he had taught American history to several million students.
  • The Twelfth Edition includes new materials that match the increased global focus of The American Pageant, 14e, including new sources on America in the world economy, the United States’ emergence as an industrial giant, tensions with Asia, the Treaty of Versailles in global perspective, a world in depression, and America and the Holocaust.
  • Revised content includes over twenty new primary sources and additional visual sources.
  • Chapters of THE AMERICAN SPIRIT correlate to the chapters of The American Pageant, 14th and 15th editions.
  • THE AMERICAN SPIRIT is a full-service primary source reader, offering numerous types of documents and images (including letters, religious sermons, travel literature, court testimony, and diary entries).
  • Chapters of THE AMERICAN SPIRIT correlate to the chapters of The American Pageant, 14th and 15th editions.
1: NEW WORLD BEGINNINGS, 33,000 B.C.–A.D. 1769.
A. The Native Americans: Visualizing the New World (1506–1510). Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda Belittles the Indians (1547). Bartolemé de Las Casas Defends the Indians (1552). Hernando de Soto Encounters t he Indians of the Southeast (1539–1542).
B. The Spanish in America: Hernán Cortés Conquers Mexico (1519–1526). Aztec Chroniclers Describe the Spanish Conquest of Mexico (1519). Francisco Coronado Explores the American Southwest (1541). Don Juan de Oñate Conquers New Mexico (1599).
C. The African Slave Trade: The Conscience of a Slave Trader (1694). Mungo Park Describes Slavers in the African Interior (c. 1790). A Slave is Taken to Barbados (c. 1750).
D. New Worlds for the Taking: John Cabot Voyages for England (1497). Richard Hakluyt Calls for an Empire (1582). An English Landlord Describes a Troubled England (1623). Hakluyt Sees England’s Salvation in America (1584).
A. England on the Eve of Empire: A Commission Investigates Enclosures (1517). Thomas More Deplores the All-Consuming Sheep (1516). Midland Peasants Revolt (1607–1608). The Puritans Set Sail (1629).
B. Precarious Beginnings in Virginia: The Starving Time (1609). Governor William Berkeley Reports (1671).
C. The Mix of Cultures in English America. The Great Indian Uprising (1622). A West Indian Planter Reflects on Slavery in Barbados (1673). A Missionary Denounces the Treatment of the Indians in South Carolina (1708).
A. The Planting of Plymouth: The Pilgrims Leave Holland (1620). Framing the Mayflower Compact (1620). Abandoning Communism at Plymouth (1623).
B. Conformity in the Bay Colony: John Cotton Describes New England’s “Theocracy” (1636). Anne Hutchinson Is Banished (1637). John Winthrop’s Concept of Liberty (1645). Puritan Mistreatment of Quakers (1660).
C. The Rule of Biblical Law: The Blue Laws of Connecticut (1672). A Defense of Buying Indian Land (1722).
D. Indian-White Relations in Colonial New England: Three Views of King Philip’s War: Mary Rowlandson Is Captured by Indians (1675). Plymouth Officials Justify the War (1675). A Rhode Island Quaker Sympathizes with the Indians (1675).
E. The Polyglot Middle Colonies: Dutch Travelers View New York (1679). Early Settlers in Pennsylvania (1682).
A. Indentured Servants in the Chesapeake Region: A Contract for Indentured Service (1635). A Londoner Agrees to Provide a Servant (1654). A Servant Describes His Fate (c. 1680). A Servant Girl Pays the Wages of Sin (1656). An Unruly Servant is Punished (1679).
B. Bacon’s Rebellion and Its Aftermath: Nathaniel Bacon Proclaims His Principles (1676). The Governor Upholds the Law (1676). Slavery is Justified (1757).
C. Slavery in the Colonial Era: A Young African Boy is Taken into Slavery (c. 1735). A Jesuit Priest Instructs on the Treatment of Slaves (1711). A Minister Describes Plantation Labor in Jamaica (1823). An Englishman Reflects on the Prospect of Insurrection in the Caribbean (1657). The Stono River Rebellion in South Carolina (1739).
D. Life Among New England’s Puritans: Cotton Mather on the Education of His Children (1706). The Salem Witchcraft Hysteria (1692).
A. The Colonial Melting Pot: An Anglican Bishop Explains the Ulster Scots Migration (1728). Benjamin Franklin Analyzes the Population (1751). Gottlieb Mittelberger Voyages to Pennsylvania (c. 1750). Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crévecoeur Discovers a New Man (c. 1770). The Growth of the Colonial Population (1740–1780).
B. The Great Awakening: George Whitefield Fascinates Franklin (1739). Jonathan Edwards Paints the Horrors of Hell (1741).
C. The Colonial Economy: Colonial Trade and the British Empire (1701–1770). British Colonial Exports (1768–1772). A Traveler Views the Mistakes of New England Farmers (1775).
D. The Shoots of Democracy: The Epochal Zenger Trial (1735). Crévecoeur Finds a Perfect Society (c. 1770).
A. The Development of New France: Father Isaac Jogues Endures Tortures (1642). A Swede Depicts the Indian Trade (1749).
B. The French and Indian War: Benjamin Franklin Characterizes General Edward Braddock (1755). A Frenchman Reports Braddock’s Defeat (1755). Francis Parkman Analyzes the Conflict (1884).
C. Pontiac’s Rebellion and Its Aftermath: Sir William Johnson Describes the Indians’ Grievances (1763). Pontiac Rallies His Warriors (1763). The Proclamation of 1763. Johnson Sketches a Possible Peace (1764).
D. A New Restlessness: William Burke Makes a Fateful Prediction (1760). Benjamin Franklin Dismisses Burke’s Fears (1760). Andrew Burnaby Scoffs at Colonial Unity (1760). A Lawyer Denounces Search Warrants (1761).
A. The Burden of Mercantilism: Virginia Resents Restrictions (1671). Adam Smith’s Balance Sheet (1776).
B. The Tempest over Taxation: Benjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act (1766). Philadelphia Threatens Tea Men (1773). Connecticut Decries the Boston Port Act (1774).
C. Britain at the Crossroads: Edmund Burke Urges Conciliation (1775). Adam Smith Criticizes Empire (1776). Samuel Johnson Urges the Iron Fist (1775). Two Views of the British Empire (1767, 1775).
D. Loyalists Versus Patriots: Daniel Leonard Deplores Rebellion (1775). Patrick Henry Demands Boldness (1775). New Yorkers Abuse Tories (1775).
E. The Clash of Arms: Conflicting Versions of the Outbreak (1775). Pennsylvania Prepares for War (1775). Why an Old Soldier Fought (1898).
A. General Washington in Command: Washington Scorns Independence (1775). The Unreliable Militia (1776). Washington Retreats from New York (1776). William Barton Describes Frontier Warfare (1779). Cornwallis Surrenders (1781).
B. The Formal Break with Britain: Thomas Paine Talks Common Sense (1776). Richard Henry Lee’s Resolution of Independence (1776). Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence (1776). The Abortive Slave Trade Indictment (1776).
C. Voices of Dissent: Lord Chatham Assails the War (1777). Tories Fear French Catholics (1779).
D. African-Americans in the Revolutionary War: Dunmore Promises to Free the Slaves (1775). John Page Appeals to Slaves (1775). An American Officer Reports on Gwynne’s Island (1776). A Hessian Describes Army “Baggage” (1781). Boston King Recalls His Service (1798). Jehu Grant Petitions for a Pension (1836).
E. A Civil War Within a Civil War: Vengeance on the Tories (1779). The Hanging of a Loyalist (c. 1778).
F. Revolutionary Diplomacy: John Adams Contemplates a Model Treaty (1776). Silas Deane Works to Convince France (1776). Ségur Recalls the Arrival of Franklin and the Departure of Lafayette (1824).
A. The Shock of Shays’s Rebellion: Daniel Gray Explains the Shaysites’ Grievances (1786). George Washington Expresses Alarm (1786). Thomas Jefferson Favors Rebellion (1787).
B. Clashes in the Philadelphia Convention: The Debate on Representation in Congress (1787). The Argument over Slave Importations (1787).
C. First Reactions to the Constitution: A Philadelphia Editor Is Expectant (1787). Alexander Hamilton Scans the Future (1787). George Mason Is Critical (1787). Jefferson Is Unenthusiastic (1787).
D. The Ratification Debate in Massachusetts: A Delegate Fears for the Little People (1788). A Storekeeper Blasts Standing Armies (1788). A Farmer Favors the Constitution (1788).
E. The Ratification Debate in New York: An Anti-Federalist Demands Deliberation (1787). James Madison Defends the New Constitution (1787).
F. Two Revolutions: Sieyés Champions the Third Estate (1789). The French Declare the Rights of Man (1789). Malouet Compares America to France (1789). Lafayette Writes to Washington (1790). The “September Massacres” (1792). Jefferson Reflects on the Path of Revolutions (1823).
A. Conflict in the Infant Republic: The Senate Snubs George Washington (1789). Alexander Hamilton Versus Thomas Jefferson on Popular Rule (1780s–1820s). The Clash over States’ Rights (1780s–1820s). The Spectrum of Disagreement (1780s–1820s).
B. State Debts and the National Bank: Jefferson Duped (?) by Hamilton (1790). Hamilton Defends Assumption (1792). Jefferson Versus Hamilton on the Bank (1791).
C. Overawing the Whiskey Boys: Hamilton Upholds Law Enforcement (1794). Jefferson Deplores Undue Force (1794).
D. The Birth of a Neutrality Policy: The French Revolution: Conflicting Views (1790s). A Jeffersonian Condemns Neutrality (1793).
E. The Controversial Jay Treaty: Virginians Oppose John Jay’s Appointment (1794). Hamilton Attacks Jay’s Attackers (1795).
F. The Retirement of Washington: A President Bids Farewell (1796). Editor Benjamin Franklin Bache Berates Washington (1797).
G. The Alien and Sedition Hysteria: Timothy Pickering Upholds the Repressive Laws (1798). The Virginia Legislature Protests (1798). Rhode Island Rebuffs Virginia’s Plea (1799).
A. The Three-Fifths Clause Gives Jefferson a Dubious Victory: A Federalist Cries Foul (1800). The Centinal Declares Adams the Victor (1800). The Connecticut Courant Rejects Jefferson as a Man “of the People” (1801).
B. John Marshall and the Supreme Court: Marshall Sanctions the Bank (1819). A Maryland Editor Dissents (1819). Marshall Asserts the Supremacy of the Constitution (1803).
C. The Louisiana Purchase: Napoleon Decides to Dispose of Louisiana (1803). Thomas Jefferson Alerts Robert Livingston (1802). Jefferson Stretches the Constitution to Buy Louisiana (1803). Representative Roger Griswold Is Unhappy (1803). Senator John Breckinridge Supports the Purchase (1803). Lewis and Clark Meet a Grizzly (1805). A Spanish Official Warns of American Expansion (1804). Louisiana Keeps Its Civil Law (1808).
D. The Issue of Sailors’ Rights: A Briton (James Stephen) Recommends Firmness (1805). A Briton (Basil Hall) Urges Discretion (1804).
E. The Resort to Economic Coercion: A Federalist (Philip Barton Key) Attacks the Embargo (1808). A Jeffersonian (W. B. Giles) Upholds the Embargo (1808).
A. The Cauldron of War: Tecumseh Challenges William Henry Harrison (1810). Representative Felix Grundy Demands War (1811). Causes of the War (1812, 1813). President James Madison’s Fateful War Message (1812). Federalist Congressmen Protest (1812). The London Times Bemoans Peace (1814).
B. Disloyalty in New England: A Boston Paper Obstructs the War (1813). The Hartford Convention Fulminates (1814). John Quincy Adams Reproaches the Hartfordites (1815).
C. The Missouri Statehood Controversy: Representative John Taylor Reviles Slavery (1819). Representative Charles Pinckney Upholds Slavery (1820). A Connecticut Antislavery Outcry (1820).
D. Launching the Monroe Doctrine: Henry Clay Champions the Latin American Revolutions (1818). John Quincy Adams Is Skeptical (1821). Thomas Jefferson Turns Pro-British (1823). John Quincy Adams Rejects a Joint Declaration (1823). James Monroe Warns the European Powers (1823). Prince Metternich Is Miffed (1824). A Columbian Newspaper Applauds Monroe’s Doctrine (1824). A Columbian Minister Requests Firmer Commitments (1824).
A. Background of the New Democracy: A Disgusting Spirit of Equality (1807). A Plea for Nonproperty Suffrage (1841). Davy Crockett Advises Politicians (1836). America Inspires a British Reformer (1820). America Appalls a British Observer (1832).
B. The New Spirit of Enterprise in Jacksonian America: Justice Joseph Story Defends the Rights of Contract (1837). Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Supports “Creative Destruction” (1837).
C. The Debate on Internal Improvements: Jackson Vetoes the Maysville Road Bill (1830). Clay Protests (1830).
D. The Nullification Crisis: Senator Robert Hayne Advocates Nullification (1830). Daniel Webster Pleads for the Union (1830). South Carolina Threatens Secession (1832). Andrew Jackson Denounces Nullification (1832). Jackson Fumes in Private (1832).
E. The War on the Bank: Jackson Vetoes the Bank Recharter (1832). A Boston Journal Attacks Jackson (1832). Cartooning the Banking Crisis (1833, 1837).
F. Transplanting the Tribes: Jackson Endorses the Indian Removal (1829). Theodore Frelinghuysen Champions Justice (1830). John Ross Protests Removal (1836).
G. The Emergence of Mass Political Parties: James Fenimore Cooper Castigates Parties (1838). Alexis de Tocqueville Defends Parties (1830s).
A. The Spread of the Factory: Wage Slavery in New England (1832). The Abuse of Female Workers (1836). A Factory Girl Describes Her Treatment (1844). “Slavers” for New England Girls (1846). Disaster in a Massachusetts Mill (1860).
B. The Flocking of the Immigrants: An English Radical Praises America (1818). The Coming of the Irish (1836). The Burning of a Convent School (1834). A Southerner Defends the Catholics (1854).
C. Mounting Labor Unrest: A One-Sided Labor Contract (c. 1832). Agitation for the Ten-Hour Day (1835). The Tailor’s Strike in New York (1836). Chattel Slavery Versus Wage Slavery (1840). Regulations at the Lowell Mills (1830s).
D. The Transportation Revolution: The First “Fire Canoe” in the West (1811). The Impact of the Erie Canal (1853). Railroads Link East and West (1849).
E. America and the World Economy: Joseph Whitworth Praises American Manufacturing (1853). United States Balance of Trade (1820–1860). Composition of United States Exports (1820–1850). Destination of United States Exports (1819–1858). Origin of United States Imports (1821–1858).
A. Religious Ferment: A Catholic Views Camp Meetings (c. 1801). An Englishwoman Attends a Revival (1832). Joseph Smith Has a Vision (1820).
B. Social and Humanitarian Reformers: William Ellery Channing Preaches Reformism (c. 1831). Dorothea Dix Succors the Insane (1843). T.S. Arthur’s Ten Nights in a Barroom (1854).
C. The Changing Role of Women: The Seneca Falls Manifesto (1848). New Yorkers Ridicule Feminists (1856). Lucy Stone Protests Traditional Marriage (1855). Orestes Brownson Explores the Woman Question (1869). The Beecher Sisters Defend the Home (1869).
D. Transcendentalism and Earthly Utopias: Ralph Waldo Emerson Chides the Reformers (1844). The “Paradise” at Brook Farm (c. 1846). Henry David Thoreau Praises Spiritual Wealth (1854). Emersonisms and Thoreauisms.
E. Three Views of the Indians: Alexis de Tocqueville Predicts the Indians’ Future (1835). George Catlin Dreams of a National Park to Preserve the Indian Way of Life (1832). John James Audubon Is Pessimistic About the Indians’ Fate (1843).
A. The Face of Slavery: A Slave Boy Learns a Lesson (c. 1827). A Former Slave Exposes Slavery (1850). Human Cattle for Sale (c. 1850). Cohabitation in the Cabins (c. 1834). From Slavery to Freedom (1835). A Slave Woman’s Tale (1930s). The Sundering of Families (1874).
B. The White Southern View of Slavery: Haiti Declares Independence (1804). Albert Gallatin Warns of a Slave Revolt (1799). The “Blessings” of the Slave (1849). Comparing Slave Labor and Wage Labor (1850). William A. Smith Expounds on the Benefits of Slavery (1856). George Fitzhugh Defends Wage Slavery (1857).
C. The Abolitionist Crusade: William Lloyd Garrison Launches The Liberator (1831). Manifesto of the Anti-Slavery Society (1833). British Abolitionists Protest Colonization (1833). Theodore Dwight Weld Pillories Slavery (1839). Slavery and the Family (1840).
D. Judgments on the Abolitionists: Daniel Webster Is Critical (1850). Abraham Lincoln Appraises Abolitionism (1854). The Abolitionists Provoke War (1882).
E. The Rising White Southern Temper: Hinton Helper’s Banned Book (1857). The South Condemns Helperites (1859). James Hammond Proclaims Cotton King (1858).
A. The Debate over Oregon: Senator George McDuffie Belittles Oregon (1843). Senator Edward Hannegan Demands 54º 40’ (1846). Two Pioneers Describe Oregon (1847). A British View of the Oregon Controversy (1846).
B. Provoking War with Mexico: Charles Sumner Assails the Texas Grab (1847). President James Polk Justifies the Texas Coup (1845). The Cabinet Debates War (1846). A Mexican Diplomat Blames America for War (1846). The President Blames Mexico (1846).
C. Opposition to the War: Massachusetts Voices Condemnation (1847). Abolitionists Libel General Zachary Taylor (1848).
D. Peace with Mexico: Polk Submits the Trist Treaty (1848). A Whig Journal Accepts the Pact (1848). Democrats Hail a Glorious Achievement (1848). A Mexican Official Decries the Treaty (1848). Mexico Remembers the Despoilers (1935).
A. The Wilmot Proviso Issue: David Wilmot Appeals for Free Soil (1847). Southerners Threaten Secession (1849).
B. The Compromise Debates of 1850: John Calhoun Demands Southern Rights (1850). Daniel Webster Urges Concessions (1850). Free-Soilers Denounce Webster (1850).
C. Reactions to the Fugitive Slave Law: Joshua Giddings Rejects Slave Catching (1850). Robert Rhett Resents a Hoax (1851). The South Threatens Retaliation (1855).
D. The Debate over the Kansas-Nebraska Bill: Stephen Douglas’s Popular-Sovereignty Plea (1854). Salmon Chase Upholds Free Soil (1854). Northwestern Support for Douglas (1854). The South Is Lukewarm (1854).
E. America Ventures Abroad in the Age of Slavery: The Ostend Manifesto (1854). Mocking the Manifesto (1854). Putnam’s Monthly Chastises William Walker (1857). Walker Defends Filibustering (1860). Daniel Webster Sends Caleb Cushing to China (1843). The Narrative of Commodore Perry’s Expedition to Japan (1856). Japanese Leaders Debate the Proper Response to Commodore Perry (1853).
A. The Impact of Uncle Tom’s Cabin: Tom Defies Simon Legree (1852). The South Scorns Mrs. Stowe (1852). Mrs. Stowe Inflames the Southern Imagination (1853). The London Times Demurs (1852).
B. Bleeding Kansas and “Bully” Brooks: Charles Sumner Assails the Slavocracy (1856). The South Justifies Yankee-Beaters (1856). The Delicate Balance (1856).
C. The Dred Scott Decision: The Pro-Southern Court Speaks (1857). A Virginia Newspaper Gloats (1857). The North Breathes Defiance (1857).
D. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Stephen Douglas Opposes Black Citizenship (1858). Abraham Lincoln Denies Black Equality (1858).
E. John Brown at Harpers Ferry: The Richmond Enquirer Is Outraged (1859). John Brown Delivers His Final Address (1859). Governor J.A. Wise Refuses Clemency (1859). Horace Greeley Hails a Martyr (1859). Lincoln Disowns Brown (1860).
F. The Presidential Campaign of 1860: Fire-Eaters Urge Secession (1860). The North Resents Threats (1860).
A. Lincoln and the Secession Crisis: A Marylander Rejects Disunion (1861). Fort Sumter Inflames the North (1861). Fort Sumter Inspirits the South (1861).
B. Framing a New Government: Alexander Hamilton Stephens’s Cornerstone Speech (1861). The New York Times Dissents (1861).
C. British Involvement: The London Times Breathes Easier (1862). Britons Hail Democracy’s Collapse (1862). Southern Resentment Against England (1862). A Northerner Lambastes Britain (1863).
D. Graft and Shortages North and South: Shoddy Wool in Yankeeland (1861–1865). Chiselers in the South (1862–1863). The Pinch of the Blockade (1861–1865).
E. Civil Liberties North and South: Clement Vallandigham Flays Despotism (1863). William Brownlow Scolds the Secessionists (1861). A North Carolinian Is Defiant (1863).
F. Abraham Lincoln Defines the Purposes of the War: The War to Preserve the Union (1863). The War to End Slavery (1865).
21. THE FURNACE OF CIVIL WAR, 1861–1865.
A. Northern War Aims: Congress Voices Its Views (1861). Abolitionists View the War (1863). Abraham Lincoln Answers Horace Greeley’s Prayer (1862). “A Colored Man” Reflects on the War (1863).
B. Lincoln and His Generals: George McClellan Snubs the President (1861). McClellan Upbraids His Superior (1862). Lincoln Warns General Joseph Hooker (1863).
C. The Proclaiming of Emancipation: Lincoln Expresses Misgivings (1862). Jefferson Davis Deplores Emancipation (1863). Border States Are Alarmed (1862). Racist Anxieties (1864). Lincoln Defends His Decision (1863).
D. The Emancipation Proclamation in England: Blackwood’s Blasts Servile War (1862). English Working Classes Cheer (1863).
E. The Uncivil War: A Report from Antietam (1862). A Union Nurse Cares for the Gettysburg Wounded (1863). The Hell of Andersonville Prison (1864). A Southern Woman Describes the Hardship of War (1862). General William T. Sherman Dooms Atlanta (1864). Georgia Damns the Yankees (1864). General Ulysses S. Grant Displays Generosity (1865).
F. Lincoln’s Reelection and Assassination: The South Bemoans Lincoln’s Election (1864). Davis Deplores Lincoln’s Murder (1881). The British Press Recants (1865). A Kentucky Editor Laments (1865).
G. African Americans in the Civil War: An Abolitionist Officer Commands Black Troops (1869). The Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Regiment Marches South (1863). Cornelia Hancock Describes a Contraband Hospital (1863). A Black Corporal Demands Equal Pay (1864). A Black Private Complains of Mistreatment (1864).
A. The Status of the South: Black Leaders Express Their View (1865). Carl Schurz Reports Southern Defiance (1865). General Ulysses S. Grant Is Optimistic (1865). The Former Slaves Confront Freedom (1901). Emancipation Violence in Texas (c. 1865).
B. The Debate on Reconstruction Policy: Southern Blacks Ask for Help (1865). The White South Asks for Unconditional Reintegration into the Union (1866). The Radical Republicans Take a Hard Line (1866). President Andrew Johnson Tries to Restrain Congress (1867). The Controversy over the Fifteenth Amendment (1866, 1870).
C. Impeaching the President: Johnson’s Cleveland Speech (1866). Senator Lyman Trumbull Defends Johnson (1868).
D. “Black Reconstruction”: Thaddeus Stevens Demands Black Suffrage (1867). Black and White Legislatures (c. 1876). W. E. B. Du Bois Justifies Black Legislators (1910). Benjamin Tillman’s Antiblack Tirade (1907).
E. The Ku Klux Klan’s Reign of Terror: Alfred Richardson Testifies about Reconstruction-Era Georgia (1871). Maria Carter Describes an Encounter with the Klan (1871). Henry Lowther Falls Victim to the Klan (1871).
F. The Legacy of Reconstruction: Editor E. L. Godkin Grieves (1871). Frederick Douglass Complains (1882). Booker T. Washington Reflects (1901).

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